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'Tonsils and Adenoids' (1922)


Dec
1969

Enlarged tonsils and adenoids are the major etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Lymphatic hyperplasia is common to both OSA and celiac disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of a gluten-free diet on OSA symptoms in children with celiac disease.

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Jan
2018

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (A3) family are cytidine deaminases that play critical roles in B-cell maturation, antiviral immunity and carcinogenesis. Adenoids and palatine tonsils are secondary lymphoid immune organs, in which AID and A3s are thought to have several physiological or pathological roles. However, the expression of AID or A3s in these organs has not been investigated.

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Jan
2018

Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) asymptomatically infect the human population establishing latency in the host, and their seroprevalence can reach 90% in healthy adults. Few studies have focused on the pediatric population, and there are no reports regarding the seroprevalence of all the newly isolated HPyVs among Italian children. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of serum antibodies against 12 PyVs in 182 immunocompetent children from Northeast Italy, by means of a multiplex antibody detection system.

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Dec
2017

We aim to determine average volumes of the upper airway, adenoids and tonsils in preterm and term infants and assess for the differences according to weight, sex and ethnicity. The volumes of the upper airways, tonsils and adenoids were measured from brain MR images in 96 (49 preterm and 47 term) infants and compared using a two-tailed t-test (significant at p<0.05).

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Dec
1969

Bayraktar C, Şimşek A. Evaluation of choroidal thickness measurements in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 62-67.

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Oct
2017

This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the factors related to pediatric obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children younger than 6 years and those older than 6 years.A total of 437 children who were hospitalized due to OSAHS between January 2014 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The children were further divided into OSAHS group and OSAHS + ADHD group.

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Oct
2017

The authors studied the age-related features of the vascular organization of the adenoid tissue. A total of 46 subjects (n=46) were examined; they were divided into two groups one of which included subjects at the age from 7 to 12 years (n=25) whereas the other group was comprised of 21 subjects at the age from 18 to 42 years (n=21). 29 participants of the study were men (63%) and 17 (37%) women.

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Oct
2017

Comparison of left ventricular functions in preoperative and postoperative periods of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) who have findings of upper airway obstruction (UAO), using echocardiographic parameters.
Thirty children who were diagnosed with UAO due to ATH, and who have undergone adenoidectomy/adenotonsillectomy and 30 healthy children, between 2 and 11 years of age, were included in the study. Patient group was evaluated by the pulsed wave tissue Doppler echocardiography, as well as with conventional echocardiography, before and 6 months after the operation.

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Oct
2017

The oral cavity is a site of pivotal importance in the immune response to foreign antigens, ensuring tolerance induction to harmless agents but reactivity to potentially noxious antigens. Tolerance or reactivity are driven by a number of secondary lymphoid organs, all belonging to the Waldeyer ring, that include adenoids, tubal, palatine and lingual tonsils. Waldeyer’s ring tissues were acknowledged as implicated not only in the adaptive immune system but also in the innate immune system modulation, involving the toll-like receptors.

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Aug
2017

When adenoids (Ad) and tonsils (Tn) become hypertrophied, craniofacial and general body growth is affected. However, there are no objective explicit criteria for evaluating the size of the Ad and Tn, and their respective growth patterns remain unclear. This study determined the average proportions of the Ad and Tn sizes to the upper airway area at various developmental stages in Japanese individuals.

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Sep
2017

The aim of the study was to propose "the risk formula" for obstructive sleep apnea in children according to the general and local clinical parameters and findings relevant for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity. The unmet need for this formula arises from the economic burden of polysomnography (device, staff, training, special sleep centers, etc) as the golden standard for the diagnostics.
The study was performed from January 2013 until January 2016 in the Sleep Center, Department for Neuroscience, School of Medicine of the University of Split, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Croatia and ENT Dept.

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Apr
2017

Pycnodysostosis is a rare autosomal, recessive, skeletal dysplasia caused by a mutation in the cathepsin k gene. Pycnodysostosis is characterized by short stature, characteristic facial appearance (delayed closure of fontanelles and cranial sutures, mandibular hypoplasia and angle disorder, blue sclera), and acroosteolysis of the distal phalanges. Our aim was to describe the otorhinolaryngologic findings, differential diagnoses, various treatment options, and followup in eight cases of pycnodysostosis.

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Apr
2017

Refractory sleep apnea caused by tubal tonsillar hypertrophy.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Apr 11;95:84-86. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
Seok Chan Hong, Hyun Jin Min, Kyung Soo Kim
Snoring/sleep apnea are usual symptoms of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and adenotonsillectomy is usually recommended. In rare cases, symptoms remain after surgery, and tubal tonsil hypertrophy could be the cause. We experienced a pediatric patient whose symptoms were refratory snoring/sleep apnea although he previously underwent three times of adenotonsillectomy.

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Sep
2017

To investigate choroidal thickness using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography in paediatric patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, with comparison to healthy children, three months after adenotonsillectomy.
The patients were assigned to three groups: an adenotonsillar hypertrophy group, an adenotonsillectomy group and a healthy control group. In all groups, subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness measurements were taken.

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May
2017

The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between upper airway factors (nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture) and maxillofacial forms in Class II and III children.
Sixty-four subjects (mean age, 9.3 years) with malocclusion were divided into Class II and Class III groups by ANB angles.

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Apr
2017

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of minimally invasive tonsil surgery for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children. Tonsil ablation or turbinate reduction was performed on 49 pediatric patients with OSAHS by minimally invasive tonsil surgery. In order to evaluate the efficacy of surgery, a comparison was conducted between pre-operation and post-operation data in terms of the symptoms, signs and polysomnography test.

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Apr
2017

The surgical excision of anatomic obstructions such as adenoids, palatine or lingual tonsils are commonly performed in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Imaging studies measuring airway changes post-surgery in the SDB pediatric population are scarce, rarely addresses the nasal cavity, and are based on global measures (e.g.

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Mar
2017

[Causes and management of pediatric spontaneous tonsillar haemorrhage].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2017 Mar;52(3):225-227
Z B Wu, H G Pan, Y S Teng, D L Zhang, X Y Ma, S H Han, L Li
To analyze the causes and management plan of pediatric spontaneous tonsillar haemorrhage(STH).According to the criteria of STH difined by Griffies, patients with STH from December 2013 to January 2016 were included in this retrospective study.A total of 11 patients were reviewed.

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May
2017

Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is the primary surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy (TAH). We present the case of a 5-month old male with congenital neutropenia who developed severe TAH during treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). He had severe OSA, decreased oral intake, and failure to thrive (FTT) which all improved after undergoing a successful intracapsular T&A.

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Oct
2017

Dentofacial deformities frequently require orthodontic treatment. Understanding of preventable risk factors is essential for reducing treatment need. Upper airway obstruction (for example due to hypertrophic adenoids and/or tonsils) has been hypothesized to be a risk factor.

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Jul
2017

The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of a second surgery of the adenoids or tonsils for hypertrophy in children who have already undergone surgery for the same condition. This is a retrospective study (2004-2013) based on data from the National patient registry in Sweden. A total of 41,401 children underwent a first surgery of the adenoids or tonsils during the studied period.

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Dec
1969

Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in association with chronic tonsillar hypertrophy in the absence of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI). The present analysis was done in follow-up to a previous clinical study done by this same group. Nasopharyngeal washes (NPWs) were obtained from 83 of 120 individuals at variable times post adenotonsillectomy, in the absence of ARI symptoms.

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Jun
2017

The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional respiratory imaging (FRI) or clinical examination could predict treatment outcome for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in normal-weight, non-syndromic children.
Normal weight children diagnosed with OSA by polysomnography were prospectively included. All children got a thorough evaluation and an ultra-low dose computed tomography scan of the upper airway (UA).

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Apr
2017

This study aimed to develop a simple and accurate method to diagnose paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnea syndrome.
A total of 311 children with suspected paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnea syndrome were included in the study. Multiple clinical parameters, including sex, age, body mass index, history of snoring or gasping, history of nasal obstruction, history of running nose, palatine tonsil size, adenoid to nasopharynx ratio, and tympanogram type, were compared with polysomnography results using relevant correlation and regression analyses.

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May
2017

This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases.
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media.

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Dec
2017

Intracapsular tonsillectomy (tonsillotomy) has been used internationally, mainly in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea, rather than recurrent tonsillitis, with few published data evaluating its use for this latter indication. We present long-term prospective data from 500 paediatric cases undergoing Coblationintracapsular tonsillectomy, for both obstructive and infective indications.
Prospective case series, March 2013-January 2016, all with completed follow-up.

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Aug
2016

We aimed to investigate the potentially pathogenic bacteria of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their susceptibilities to different antibiotics.
Two-hundred adenoid and tonsil specimens from 100 patients who had undergone adenotonsillectomy were obtained and analyzed bacteriologically. Identification of the pathogens was made by conventional or commercial identification systems and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out by disk diffusion method.

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Dec
1969

Specified data for tonsil surgery in Germany.

GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016 15;15:Doc08. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
Jochen P Windfuhr
Tonsillectomy rates vary considerably among different states, regions, and times. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of "chronic" tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, hypertrophy of the tonsils with and without adenoids in absolute and relative numbers in an 80 million people nation. Moreover, the number and rates of different surgical procedures to resolve either "chronic" tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, or upper airway obstruction due to (adeno)tonsillar hypertrophy over several years was evaluated in this study (tonsillectomy, adenotonsillectomy, tonsillotomy, abscess tonsillectomy, transoral incision and drainage).

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Jan
2017

To assess the improvement or otherwise, in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) among children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) after adenotonsillectomy (AT), and to examine the impact of timing of surgery as well as the patients' characteristics on the mPAP changes.
We included 39 children with ATH in this study. The adenoidal enlargement was evaluated radiologically with adenoid nasopharyngeal ratio (ANR) parameter from lateral neck radiograph, whereas the clinical assessment of adeno-tonsillar obstruction was conducted with the 'symptom score'.

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Aug
2017

To determine whether the degree of lateral pharyngeal wall (LPW) obstruction on pediatric drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) correlates with preprocedure tonsillar hypertrophy score on physical examination, and to determine if clinically small tonsils are obstructive.
Retrospective review of 154 patients who underwent DISE at a single pediatric tertiary care center over a 4-year period. Inclusion criteria were documentation of Brodsky tonsil score on preoperative physical examination.

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Nov
2016

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is a type of sleep-disordered breathing that affects 1 to 5% of all children. Pharyngeal and palatine tonsil hypertrophy is the main predisposing factor. Various abnormalities are predisposing factors for obstructive sleep apnoea, such as decreased mandibular and maxillary lengths, skeletal retrusion, increased lower facial height and, consequently, increased total anterior facial height, a larger cranio-cervical angle, small posterior airway space and an inferiorly positioned hyoid bone.

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Jan
2017

Tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy is the most common surgical procedure in ENT practice and the malignancy rate of tonsillar tissue is very rare. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the necessity of routine histopathologic examinations following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy surgeries. A total of 385 patients between the age of 5 and 16 years who were admitted to our ENT clinic and underwent adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy between October 2008 and July 2015 participated in the study.

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Mar
2017

In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), operative risks depend on the severity of the underlying OSA and the invasiveness of the surgical procedure.
To investigate the nature of the associations between the severity of OSA and the number and anatomical sites of upper airway operations with operative complications.
This retrospective study included adult patients diagnosed with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], >5) who underwent upper airway surgery at a single tertiary referral hospital between October 1, 2008, and October 1, 2015.

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Mar
2017

The available literature data give evidence that viral infection is the main cause underlying the development of inflammatory nasopharyngeal pathology in the children. According to ICD-10, nether acute nor chronic adenoiditis should be considered as a self-consistent nosological entity. Acute adenoiditis is usually regarded as a form of acute nasopharyngitis (J02) or acute respiratory viral infection (J06.

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Dec
2016

Lingual tonsils are lymphatic tissues located at the base of the tongue that may hypertrophy causing difficulty and sometimes inability to ventilate or intubate during anesthesia. Routine airway assessment fails to diagnose lingual tonsil hypertrophy. There is limited experience with use of videolaryngoscopy in cases of lingual tonsil hypertrophy.

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Feb
2017

Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing includes a spectrum of clinical entities with variable severity ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The clinical suspicion for OSAS is most often raised by parental report of specific symptoms and/or abnormalities identified by the physical examination which predispose to upper airway obstruction (e.g.

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Jun
2017

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases in both adults and children. However, there have been no reports on the prevalence and amount of EBV in the adenoids of adults; thus, it is important to investigate these in the adenoids and tonsils of adults and children. In this study, 67 patients who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were included and divided into two groups: adults aged ≥ 16 years (n = 35) and children aged <16 years (n = 32).

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Dec
2016

Adenotonsillectomy remains the accepted first-line treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. Tonsillar size may be especially relevant in risk stratification as it may impact symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). This study assesses correlations among subjective tonsillar grading, measured tonsillar size, and degree of adenoid obstruction in patients age 3-6 years with caregiver-reported symptoms.

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Dec
1969

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 and 2 (CysLTR1 and CysLTR2) are involved in allergic processes and play a role in adenotonsillar hyperplasia (AH). Clinically, only CysLTR1 may be blocked by montelukast. Our objective was to compare the expression of CysLTR1 and CysLTR2 in the B and T cells of hyperplasic tonsils of sensitized (SE) and control (NS) snoring children.

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Dec
2016

To assess cardiac functions in adenotonsillar or tonsillar hypertrophy.
A prospective, interventional, academic centre based study was conducted on 25 children with adenotonsillar or tonsillar hypertrophy. All patients underwent pulsed 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiography, pulse oximetry and 12-lead electrocardiography.

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Feb
2017

Obesity, along with hypertrophy of the adenoids and the tonsils, represents one of the major risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and the severity of OSA and is a major factor in the persistence and aggravation of OSA over time. Neurocognitive dysfunction and abnormal behavior are the most important and frequent end-organ morbidities associated with OSA in children.

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Sep
2016

Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) may present with growth retardation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mediates the anabolic effects of growth hormone (GH) on tissues. Most of the circulating IGF-1 molecules are bound to insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3).

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Nov
2016

Airway obstruction due to enlargement of tonsils and adenoids is a common pediatric problem resulting in sleep disordered breathing. The cause for the relatively abnormal growth of tonsils and adenoids is poorly understood.
Non-acutely ill children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for various reasons were enrolled prospectively in a study to determine the frequency of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in each lymphoid tissue and to relate the number and types of virus to the degree of airway obstruction.

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Oct
2016

To evaluate the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy (AT) on oxidative stress for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children using a new method; thiol/disulfide homeostasis.
The study is consisted of 45 children with OSA and 38 healthy control subjects with similar age and sex. Children 3-12 years of age with OSA, defined as having an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of 5 or more in an overnight polysomnography, underwent adenotonsillectomy.

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Dec
1969

Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most important anatomical factor associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends adenotonsillectomy as the first line of treatment. AT can reduce the apnoea hypopnoea index; however, its effect on long-term outcomes remains unclear.

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Sep
2016

There are many consequences of mold exposure related to respiratory system health of children This retrospective cohort study aims to find the association between adenoid hypertrophy and mold exposure in children living in damp environments.
Children with history of recurrent respiratory tract infections were enrolled in the study between June 2012 and June 2013 and were followed up for adenoid hypertrophy from June 2013 to June 2016. One hundred and forty two children were residents of moldy houses and 242 were living in normal houses.

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Jan
2017

The objective of this study is the total evaluation of most common clinical factors influencing the successful rate of adenotonsillectomy for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Retrospectively, 63 pediatric patients ranged from 2 to 16 years old were included. Syndromics and patients who had received orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery were excluded.

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Jan
2017

A systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of MRI in evaluating upper airway structures in children affected by obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS).
A literature search was performed in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed databases from their inception to 31/03/2016, including available randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials published in English assessing the use of MRI integrated with traditional polysomnography (PSG) among children up to 15 years of age affected by OSAS. The primary outcome to be evaluated was the efficacy of MRI in analyzing the upper airway total volume among healthy children compared with children affected by OSAS.

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