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'Toxicity Shellfish' (1340)


Feb
2018

Okadaic Acid (OA) is a marine toxin responsible for DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) in humans produced by dinoflagellate. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA have been well reported in mammalian experimental animals and in vitro cultured cells. However, there are no available investigations regarding the involvement of the oxidative stress pathways in OA toxicity, especially on aquatic animals such as fish.

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Jan
2018

Lipophilic phycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by phytoplanktonic species. They accumulate in filter-feeding shellfish and can cause human intoxication. Regulatory limits have been set for individual toxins, and the toxicological features are well characterized for some of them.

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Feb
2018

A simple, rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and optimised for the quantitation of microcystins and nodularin in wide variety of sample matrices. Microcystin analogues targeted were MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LA, MC-LY, MC-LF, LC-LW, MC-YR, MC-WR, [Asp3] MC-LR, [Dha7] MC-LR, MC-HilR and MC-HtyR. Optimisation studies were conducted to develop a simple, quick and efficient extraction protocol without the need for complex pre-analysis concentration procedures, together with a rapid sub 5min chromatographic separation of toxins in shellfish and algal supplement tablet powders, as well as water and cyanobacterial bloom samples.

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Jan
2018

Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producingandblooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP), respectively.

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Mar
2018

In October 2012, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) were detected in the hepatopancreas of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) collected from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. This resulted in the first commercial closure in Australia for this species. Questions were raised on how the toxins were transferred to the lobsters, how long the toxins would persist, whether PST-contaminated hepatopancreas posed a risk to human health, and what management strategies could be applied.

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Jan
2018

Although pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) mainly in the liver, some species of pufferfish, boxfish of the family Ostraciidae, and porcupinefish of the family Diodontidae do not. To clarify the mechanisms, uptake of TTX and saxitoxins (STXs) into liver tissue slices of pufferfish, boxfish and porcupinefish was examined. Liver tissue slices of the pufferfish (toxic speciesand non-toxic species,and) incubated with 50 µM TTX accumulated TTX (0.

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Jan
2018

The non-protein amino acid β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been linked to neurodegenerative disease and reported throughout the environment. Proposed mechanisms of bioaccumulation, trophic transfer and chronic toxicity of BMAA rely on the hypothesis of protein misincorporation. Poorly selective methods for BMAA analysis have led to controversy.

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Dec
1969

Amnesic shellfish poison (ASP) is regarded as one of the shellfish poison groups in the EU, though it is not subject to regulation in Japan. We have developed an analytical method of ASP based on the report by Hatfield et al. and other methods.

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Dec
2017

In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens and even causing high mortality. We have revealed that the survival time under acute ammonia stress varied substantially among different families and obtained ammonia-tolerant (LV_T) and ammonia-sensitive (LV_S) families. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of defense against ammonia toxicity in shrimp, we performed iTRAQ LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis between LV_T and LV_S groups of L.

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Dec
2017

The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton causes paralytic shellfish poisoning syndrome. The toxicity and mode of action of the acute exposure of high-dose saxitoxin have been intensively studied for decades; however, the potential risk of exposure of low-dose saxitoxin remained to be uncovered. Here we present a proteomics study of murine neuroblastoma N2A cell with low-dose saxitoxin exposure (1 nM and 10 nM, 24-h intoxication).

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Feb
2018

Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that causes degenerative damage to brain cells and induces permanent short-term memory loss in mammals. In cephalopod mollusks, although DA is known to accumulate primarily in the digestive gland, there is no knowledge whether DA reaches their central nervous system. Here we report, for the first time, the presence of DA in brain tissue of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), and its absence in the brains of several squid species (Loligo vulgaris, L.

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Feb
2018

The high concentration of ammonia from deteriorated aquaculture environments and the intensive culture system could increase the susceptibility to pathogens and even cause high mortality in Litopenaeus vannamei. In addition, we have revealed that the ammonia-tolerant shrimp also have high disease resistance in L. vannamei.

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Dec
2017

Cyanobacteria blooms are frequent in freshwaters and are responsible for water quality deterioration and human intoxication. Although, not a new phenomenon, concern exists on the increasing persistence, scale, and toxicity of these blooms. There is evidence, in recent years, of the transfer of these toxins from inland to marine waters through freshwater outflow.

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Nov
2017

Bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) plant plays a significant role in traditional Asian medicine and it can be used as an alternative to various chemo-therapeutics or prophylactic agents used in aquaculture. In the present study, the 1experiment was done for the preparation of extracts from bamboo leaves by using 90% alcohol as a solvent. In the 2experiment, toxicity study was carried on Labeo rohita fingerlings (average length of 10.

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Nov
2017

Bivalve molluscs are descendants of an early-Cambrian lineage superbly adapted to benthic filter feeding. Adaptations in form and behavior are well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigate the genome, various transcriptomes, and proteomes of the scallop Chlamys farreri, a semi-sessile bivalve with well-developed adductor muscle, sophisticated eyes, and remarkable neurotoxin resistance.

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Jan
2018

Yellow head virus (YHV) is classified as one of the most serious pathogens causing a harmful disease in many penaeids, especially black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), with high economic loss. To determine a potent and practical prophylactic strategy for controlling this disease, the toxicity of the by-product kraft lignin and its ability to control severe YHV infection were investigated in juvenile black tiger shrimp (15.9 ± 1.

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Nov
2017

Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s.

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Nov
2017

Pseudo-nitzschia is a diatom genus capable of producing the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), which has been related to mortalities of marine vertebrates, and the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in human consumers of contaminated bivalves. This study reports DA production among Pseudo-nitzschia strains isolated from shellfish farming areas in southern Brazil. Twenty-seven cultures of potentially toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia species were established.

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Nov
2017

Toxic species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, observed worldwide from coastal waters to the open ocean, produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA). DA is an important environmental and economic hazard due to shellfish contamination with subsequent effects on higher trophic levels. Previous research has demonstrated that, among other environmental factors, salinity influences the abundance and toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia.

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Nov
2017

Fjordic coastlines provide an ideal protected environment for both finfish and shellfish aquaculture operations. This study reports the results of a cruise to the Scottish Clyde Sea, and associated fjordic sea lochs, that coincided with blooms of the diarrhetic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta and the diatom genus Chaetoceros, that can generate finfish mortalities. Unusually, D.

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Jan
2018

The present work aims to explore the time-response (from 24 h to 96 h) characteristic and identify early potential sensitive biomarkers of copper (Cu) (as copper chloride dihydrate), cadmium (Cd) (as cadmium acetate), lead (Pb) (as lead nitrate) and chromium (Cr) (as potassium dichromate) exposure in adult zebrafish, focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS), SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and gene expression related to oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Furthermore, the survival rate decreased apparently by a concentration-dependent manner after Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb exposure, and we selected non-lethal concentrations 0.05 mg/L for Cu, 15 mg/L for Cr, 3 mg/L for Cd and 93.

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Jan
2018

The present study characterizes for the first time an antimicrobial peptide in lionfish (Pterois volitans), a venomous fish. Using a peptidomic approach, we identified a mature piscidin in lionfish and called it pteroicidin-α. We detected an amidated form (pteroicidin-α- CONH) and a non-amidated form (pteroicidin-α-COOH), and then performed their functional and structural study.

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Jan
2018

The inhibition efficacy of an extract from Ecklonia cava (E. cava) was studied to determine whether the extract and compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against VHSV in the fathead minnow (FHM) cell line and following oral administration to the olive flounder. Based on its low toxicity and effective concentration, the E.

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Jan
2018

Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine algal toxins that can be accumulated by edible shellfish to cause a foodborne gastrointestinal poisoning in humans. In the European Union, only AZA1, -2 and -3 are currently regulated and their concentration in shellfish is determined through their toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) derived from the intraperitoneal lethal potency in mice. Nevertheless, considering the potential human exposure by oral route, AZAs TEFs should be calculated by comparative oral toxicity data.

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Feb
2018

Contamination of economic bivalves with paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) occurs frequently in many parts of the world, which potentially threatens consumer health and the marine aquaculture economy. It is the objective of this study to develop a suitable technology for accelerating detoxification of PST from shellfish using activated carbon (AC). The adsorption efficiency of PST by eight different AC materials and by different particle sizes of wood-based AC (WAC) were tested and compared.

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Feb
2018

Saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) produced from toxic bloom-forming dinoflagellates, was selected to comparatively investigate the induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis and a possible mechanism based on changes in the antioxidant defence system of two cellular strains: the mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a and the rainbow trout fish cell line RTG-2. Increasing concentrations of STX (0-256 nM) presented little cytotoxic or apoptotic effects on the two cell lines. Measurements of cellular viability, lethal ratio and LDH leakage showed slight changes in Neuro-2a and RTG-2 cells (p > 0.

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Jan
2018

This constitutes the first study to report on the reduction in toxicity of the dinoflagellate algal toxin okadaic acid after novel pulsed light (PL) treatments where ecotoxicological assessment was performed using a miniaturised format of the conventional in vivo freshwater crustacean Daphnia sp. acute toxicity test. Bivalves accumulate this toxin, which can then enter the human food chain causing deleterious health effects such as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.

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Sep
2017

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) caused the deaths of four people in coastal area of Korea, mainly Jinhae-Masan Bay and adjacent areas, in April 1986 and in 1996. The PSP outbreaks were caused by the consumption of mussels, Mytilus edulis. The organism that caused PSP was identified, from morphological data only, as Alexandrium tamarense which is recently renamed as A.

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Sep
2017

In recent decades, the frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs), as well as a profusion of toxic phytoplankton species, have significantly increased in coastal regions of China. Researchers attribute this to environmental changes such as rising atmospheric COlevels. Such addition of carbon into the ocean ecosystem can lead to increased growth, enhanced metabolism, and altered toxicity of toxic phytoplankton communities resulting in serious human health concerns.

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Sep
2017

The population dynamics of different Pseudo-nitzschia species, along with particulate domoic acid (pDA) concentrations, were studied from May 2012 to December 2013 in the Bay of Seine (English Channel, Normandy). While Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms occurred during the two years of study, Pseudo-nitzschia species diversity and particulate domoic acid concentrations varied greatly.

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Oct
2017

Triazophos, as a lipophilic organophosphate pesticide, displays higher bioaccumulation in the gonads of shellfish. To study the reproductive toxicity of triazophos, we applied metabolomics to characterize the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel Perna viridis exposed to triazophos. Metabolites were differently altered by triazophos in ovaries of mussel at different concentrations and time intervals, while basically similar metabolic response patterns were observed in male mussels at the two tested concentrations after exposure for 24 and 48h.

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Dec
1969

Two new compounds heliotropiumides A (1) and B (2), phenolamides each with an uncommon carbamoyl putrescine moiety, were isolated from the seeds of a naturalized Hawaiian higher plant, Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger in the borage family, which is widely used for the treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were characterized based on MS spectroscopic and NMR analysis, and DP4+ calculations. The absolute configuration (AC) of compound 1 was determined by comparison of its optical rotation with those reported in literature.

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Nov
2017

ABC transporters activity and expression have been associated with the multixenobiotic resistance phenotype (MXR). The activity of these proteins leads to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of several xenobiotics, thus reducing their toxicity. However, little attention has been given to the expression of ABC transporters in marine invertebrates and few studies have investigated their role in immune system cells of sea urchins and shellfish bivalves.

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Nov
2017

The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioavailability of trace metals (Chromium, Copper, Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Arsenic, and Mercury) in the commercially consumed Crassostrea gigas oysters collected over a 12-month growth period (2011-12) from an experimental cultivation farm in La Pitahaya, Sinaloa State, Mexico. Sediment and water samples were also collected from four different zones adjacent to the cultivation area to identify the concentration patterns of metals. The results revealed that sewage disposals, fertilizers used for agricultural practices and shrimp culture are the major sources for the enrichment of certain toxic metals.

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Nov
2017

The Pacific oyster is one of the world's most widespread bivalves and a suitable species for biomonitoring trace elements in marine environments thanks to its bioaccumulation ability. As it is also an edible mollusc, concentrations of harmful elements in its tissues must be monitored. For these purposes, 464 wild individuals were collected from 12 sites along the Italian coasts.

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Jan
2018

The combined effects of different salinity and temperature levels on the toxicity of Arsenic (As) were studied on the embryonic development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas. A standardized embryotoxicity test was performed to assess the interactive effects of these stressors, in a full factorial design experiment including a range of salinities (15, 19, 24, 28 and 32), temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32°C) and As concentrations (100, 300, 600, 1200, 2400µgL). The embryotoxicity endpoint was about the determination of normal larvae development rates at various conditions, and median effect concentration (EC) determination for each As exposure condition.

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Nov
2017

Heavy metals are frequently encountered as mixtures of essential and non-essential elements. Therefore, evaluation of their toxic effects individually does not offer a realistic estimate of their impact on biological processes. We studied effects of exposure to mixtures of essential and toxic metals (Cr, Cd and Pb) on biochemical, immunotoxicity level and morphological characteristics of the various tissues of a biomarker freshwater fish common carp using environmentally relevant concentrations.

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Jan
2018

The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins was evaluated for its overall performance in comparison with the mouse bioassay (MBA). An initial study to evaluate the effects of filtering shellfish extracts prior to running the RBA indicated no significant difference between filtered and unfiltered extracts on the determined saxitoxin (STX) concentrations. Next, we tested the RBA assay on 295 naturally contaminated mussel tissue samples, ranging in concentrations from 320 µg STX equiv.

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Nov
2017

The cyanobacterium Dolichospermum circinale (formerly Anabaena circinalis) is responsible for neurotoxic saxitoxin-producing blooms in Australia. Previous studies have reported distinct isolates of toxic D. circinale producing different saxitoxin analogues at varying amounts, but the mechanisms responsible remain poorly understood.

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Sep
2017

The spatial patterns of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs abundances were investigated, for the first time, in the Adriatic Sea. Also, the spatial patterns of the whole picoplankton community as well as the environmental factors that potentially influence these patterns were highlighted. AAP abundances was in average 66.

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Jul
2017

Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In this review, we bring to the forefront the presence of cyanotoxins in extreme environments.

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Sep
2017

Alteration of immunological function of an aquatic organism can be used as an indicator for evaluating the direct effect of exposure to pollutants. The aim of this work is to assess the impact of complex water pollution with special reference to Pyrethroid pesticides and heavy metals on mRNA transcript levels of Metallothionine and some immune related genes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromas Niloticus). Residues of six heavy metals and six Pyrethroid were assessed in water as well as fish tissues at three different sites of Lake Burullus, located at Northern Egypt.

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Sep
2017

Exposure of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (A. catenella) was previously demonstrated to cause apoptosis of hemocytes in the oyster species Crassostrea gigas. In this work, a coumarin-labeled saxitoxin appeared to spread throughout the cytoplasm of the hemocytes.

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Sep
2017

The present study investigates the role of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase (PI3-kinase) and respiratory burst enzymes, NADPH oxidase and NO synthase, in the 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([omim][BF])-mediated toxic mode of action in mussel hemocytes. Specifically, cell viability (using the neutral red uptake assay) was primarily tested in hemocytes treated with different concentrations of [omim][BF] (0.1-10 mg L) and thereafter [omim][BF]-mediated oxidative (in terms of superoxide anions/Oand nitric oxide/NO generation, as well as the enhancement of lipid peroxidation by-products, in terms of malondialdehyde/MDA) and genotoxic (in terms of DNA damage) effects were determined in hemocytes treated with 1 mg L[omim][BF].

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Aug
2017

The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins have been widely investigated in bivalve molluscs, representing the main vectors of these compounds in the Atlantic coast of Europe. DSP toxins are produced by Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates, being subsequently accumulated by marine organisms and biomagnified throughout trophic webs. Yet, bivalves display increased resistance to the harmful effects of these toxins during HAB episodes.

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Dec
2017

In response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, over 1 million gallons of dispersant were applied in Gulf of Mexico offshore waters; Corexit 9500 was the most applied dispersant. The impact on organisms in nearshore and freshwaters has received little scrutiny. Acute 48 h toxicity of Corexit 9500 and a new hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) dispersant-like compound were evaluated for the freshwater indicator organism, Daphnia magna and for larval and early spat stages of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

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Aug
2017

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an environmental pollutant with increasing importance due to its high toxicity to fish and aquatic animals. To understand how CPF impacts immune response and oxidative stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of the head kidneys from common carp exposed to CPF for 15days.

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Aug
2017

This study evaluated the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) on n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs)-induced lipid peroxidation in grass carp. The result indicated that diets with n-3 HUFAs increased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05), thereby inducing lipid peroxidation in liver and muscle of grass carp.

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