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'Vagus Nerve' (29947)


Feb
2018

Parkinson's disease is caused by complex interactions between environmental factors and a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors include exposure to pesticides and toxins, heavy metals and accumulation of iron and/or manganese in the brain. However, accumulating evidence indicates that gut-brain health and function is impaired in Parkinson's disease, often a decade before motor symptoms are diagnosed.

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Dec
1969

This video aimed to describe the role of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) during transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) with emphasis given to IONM technical and technological notes, the identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Standardized technique of IONM consist in identifying and monitoring both the vagus nerve and the RLNs before and after resection (V1, V2, R1, R2). According to this report, IONM during TOETVA is feasible and safe in providing identification and function of laryngeal nerves.

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Oct
2016

Epilepsy: Five new things.

Neurol Clin Pract 2016 Oct;6(5):444-451
Chutima Saipetch, Ezekiel Sachs, Zulfi Haneef
Technological advance has revolutionized epilepsy management recently. Herein, we review some recent developments.
Responsive neurostimulation (Food and Drug Administration [FDA]-approved 2013) works by continuous analysis of brain rhythms and direct brain stimulation on detecting patterns thought to be epileptogenic, thereby aborting seizures.

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Feb
2018

As the left vagus nerve (LVN) mediates a baroreflex blood pressure (BP) decrease, LVN stimulation (LVNS) could be a therapy for hypertension. Moreover, LVNS could elegantly be adjusted to the patient's actual BP and physical activity by using the neural information about BP and respiration extractable from LVN. However, unselective LVNS will trigger undesirable side-effects and therefore we here investigated the feasibility of using an intraneural electrode for extracting BP and respiration markers from the LVN and for selective LVNS.

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Feb
2018

Acupuncture has been widely used for the treatment of motion sickness (MS), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this research was to study the mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of MS.
To observe the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of MS, 80 rats were randomised into five groups that were subjected to acceleration and either remained untreated (CTRL), or received restraint (REST), scopolamine (SCOP) or acupuncture at SP4 (sham) or PC6+ST36 (verum) acupuncture points.

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Feb
2018

The action potential (AP) initiation in the nerve terminals and AP conduction along the axons do not necessarily depend on the same subtypes of Na1s. We evaluated the role of tetrodotoxin(TTX)-sensitive and TTX-resistant Na1s in vagal afferent nociceptor nerves derived from jugular and nodose ganglia innervating the respiratory system. Single cell RT-PCR was performed on vagal afferent neurons retrogradely labelled from the guinea pig trachea.

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Feb
2018

Vagus nerve injury during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) can significantly impact quality of life and result in lingering gastrointestinal symptoms. This study was designed to define risk factors of vagal nerve injury, symptom prevalence and temporal resolution.
A total of 100 patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) were enrolled and consented to participate in the study.

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Feb
2018

Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization in the USA. Despite advances in pharmacologic management, the incidence of HF is on the rise and survivability is persistently reduced. Sympathetic overdrive is implicated in the pathophysiology of HF, particularly HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

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Feb
2018

This article reflects the report by the British Branch of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Working Group on services for adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID). Its terms of reference was to explore the current status of aspects of the care of people with an ID and epilepsy.
Survey content was developed from key themes identified by consensus of the working group.

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Feb
2018

Inflammatory skin diseases are difficult to treat because of a lack of available treatment options for severe disease. However, recent advances have shown that vagus nerve stimulation can be used to decrease inflammation and reduce disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Changes in cytokine profiles observed in these studies are similar to those seen with use of biologics in inflammatory skin disease, suggesting that they act along similar pathways to disrupt chronic inflammation and treat inflammatory disease.

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Feb
2018

Accumulating evidence suggests that certain gut microbiota have antidepressant-like behavioural effects and that the microbiota can regulate neurogenesis and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. The precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not yet clear. However, the vagus nerve is one of the primary bidirectional routes of communication between the gut and the brain and thus may represent a candidate mechanism.

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Feb
2018

Implanted vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for obesity was recently approved by the FDA. However, its efficacy and mechanisms of action remain unclear. Herein, we synthesize clinical and preclinical effects of VNS on feeding behavior and energy balance and discuss engineering considerations for understanding and improving the therapy.

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Feb
2018

Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) carries a major burden on those affected by this disease and significantly impacts their quality of life (QOL). Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has showed promising results on symptoms, but its impact on QOL remains underresearched. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of VNS on both QOL and clinical symptoms for TRD patients, through a naturalistic 6-year follow-up.

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Jan
2018

Perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) and epilepsy surgery in subjective and objective sleep parameters.
We performed a literature search in the main medical databases: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, DARE and LILACS, looking for studies that evaluated the effects of VNS, DBS or epilepsy surgery on sleep parameters. In all, 36 studies, coming from 11 countries, including reviews, cohort studies, case series and case reports were included.

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Jan
2018

This study explores the effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS) on Status Epilepticus (SE) in children with medically intractable epilepsy.
Retrospective review was conducted in children with a history of at least two SE, who had VNS implantation and had at least one year follow up after the procedure.
Sixteen patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria.

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Feb
2018

Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain state that includes widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, psychiatric symptoms, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and multiple somatic symptoms. Current therapies are often insufficient or come with significant risks, and while there is an increasing demand for non-pharmacologic and especially non-opioid pain management such as that offered through complementary and alternative medicine therapies, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend these therapies. Percutaneous electrical neural stimulation (PENS) is an evidence-based treatment option for pain conditions that involves electrical current stimulation through needles inserted into the skin.

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Feb
2018

This study tested the hypothesis that concomitant sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation ("autonomic conflict") may act as a trigger for arrhythmia in long QT syndrome (LQTS). Studies were performed in isolated innervated rabbit hearts treated with clofilium (100 nmol/L); a potassium channel blocker. The influence of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on spontaneous ventricular arrhythmia was assessed in the absence/presence of sustained noradrenaline perfusion (100 nmol/L) and with sudden adrenergic stress (injections of noradrenaline into the perfusion line).

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Feb
2018

The exact mechanism of gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and, conversely, the role of gut pathology in brain dopaminergic degeneration are controversial. We investigated the effects of nigral lesions on the colonic neurotransmission, the effect of gut inflammation on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function, and the possible involvement of the vagus nerve and the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion was performed by bilateral injection 6-hydroxydopamine, and gut inflammation was induced by dextran sulfate sodium salt treatment in rats and mice, respectively, with or without vagal disruption.

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Jan
2018

Lateral medullary syndrome (LMS), also known as Wallenberg's syndrome, PICA syndrome, results from occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, with associated infarction of parts of medulla oblongata, and cerebellum on the ipsilateral side. It often manifests as various patterns of sensory, motor, and autonomic deficits. While sensorimotor dysfunction presents as a predicted pattern of clinical signs and symptoms, autonomic dysfunction is usually less clinically apparent, and can be easily mistaken as a concomitant pathology in the end organ it affects.

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Feb
2018

Idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis in the adult.

Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
F Rubin, A Villeneuve, L Alciato, L Slaïm, P Bonfils, O Laccourreye
To analyze the characteristics of adult idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis.
Retrospective study of diagnostic problems, clinical data and recovery in an inception cohort of 100 adult patients with idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group A) and comparison with a cohort of 211 patients with isolated non-idiopathic non-traumatic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group B).
Diagnostic problems were noted in 24% of cases in Group A: eight patients with concomitant common upper aerodigestive tract infection, five patients with a concomitant condition liable to induce immunodepression and 11 patients in whom a malignant tumor occurred along the path of the ipsilateral vagus and inferior laryngeal nerves or in the ipsilateral paralyzed larynx.

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Dec
2017

Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway and the Liver.

Adv Pharm Bull 2017 Dec 31;7(4):507-513. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Behzad Baradaran
The hepatic vagus branches innervate the liver and serve an important role in liver-brain connection. It appears that brain modulates inflammatory responses by activation of vagal efferent fibers. This activation and subsequent acetylcholine releases from vagus nerve terminals leads to inhibition of inflammatory cytokines through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) which located on the surface of different cell types such as liver Kupffer cells.

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Jan
2018

Major depression is the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide and poses a socioeconomic burden worldwide. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a promising noninvasive clinical device that may reduce the severity of major depression. However, the neural mechanism underlying continuous tVNS has not yet been elucidated.

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Jan
2018

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder with significant socioeconomic burden. Although current pharmacological treatments are effective for treating positive symptoms, medications have little-to-no effect in the treatment of negative symptoms.
To assess the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) for negative symptoms in schizophrenia in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

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Feb
2018

The responsive neurostimulation (RNS) system, an adjunctive treatment for pharmacoresistant partial-onset seizures with 1 or 2 foci, has been available to patients aged 18 years or older since the device's FDA approval in 2013. Herein, the authors describe their off-label application of this technology in 2 pediatric patients and the consequent therapeutic benefit without surgical complications or treatment side effects. A 14-year-old nonambulatory, nonverbal male with severe developmental delay was considered for RNS therapy for medically and surgically refractory epilepsy with bilateral seizure onsets in the setting of a normal radiological examination and a known neuropathological diagnosis of type I cortical dysplasia.

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Feb
2018

Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, is secreted from endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. Circulating levels rise in the preprandial phase, suggesting an anticipatory or cephalic phase of release, and decline in the postprandial phase, suggesting either the loss of a stimulatory factor or inhibition by factors released when nutrients enter the intestine. We hypothesized that vagal signals are not required for the (i) preprandial increase or (ii) postprandial suppression of ghrelin levels.

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Nov
2017

Although neck muscle tension is considered a risk factor for migraine, pungent odors can act as a trigger to initiate an attack in sensitized individuals. Although noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) is now an approved treatment for chronic migraine, how it functions to inhibit trigeminal nociception in an episodic migraine model is not known.
The objectives of this study were to determine if nVNS could inhibit trigeminal nociception in a novel model of episodic migraine and investigate changes in the expression of proteins implicated in peripheral and central sensitization.

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Feb
2018

Acetylcholine is the main transmitter of the parasympathetic vagus nerve. According to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) concept, acetylcholine has been shown to be important for signal transmission within the immune system and also for a variety of other functions throughout the organism. The spleen is thought to play an important role in regulating the CAP.

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Feb
2018

Trigeminal schwannoma.

Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2017 Jul-Dec;8(2):149-152
Aviral Agrawal, Virendra Singh, Seema Rohilla, Bindu Sharma
Schwannoma is a benign tumor of the nerve sheath arising from the perineural schwann cells. The nerves most commonly involved in schwannomas of the head and neck are the vagus and the cervical sympathetic chain. Trigeminal schwannomas are rare tumours.

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Jan
2018

The etiologies of intraoperative cardiac arrest within otolaryngology are not well understood as they are rare events.
A comprehensive review of the etiologies and corresponding pathophysiologic neural mechanisms of intraoperative cardiac arrest in otolaryngologic surgery are examined.
The occurrence of this rare complication has been described in a range of head and neck procedures, including but not limited to suspension laryngoscopy and oncologic resections in the neck, maxilla and thyroid.

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Jan
2018

Increased expression of α-synuclein can initiate its long-distance brain transfer, representing a potential mechanism for pathology spreading in age-related synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease. In this study, the effects of overexpression-induced α-synuclein transfer were assessed over a 1-year period after injection of viral vectors carrying human α-synuclein DNA into the rat vagus nerve. This treatment causes targeted overexpression within neurons in the dorsal medulla oblongata and subsequent diffusion of the exogenous protein toward more rostral brain regions.

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Dec
2017

Epilepsy surgery has been performed by a few centres in Malaysia, including Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). To date, a total of 15 patients have undergone epilepsy surgery in HUSM. The epilepsy surgery included anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) with amygdalohippocampectomy (AH) and Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS).

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Dec
1969

The efficacy of standard rehabilitative therapy for improving upper limb functions after stroke is limited; thus, alternative strategies are needed. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitation is a promising approach, but the invasiveness of this technique limits its clinical application. Recently, a noninvasive method to stimulate vagus nerve has been developed.

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Jan
2018

Chronic impairment of the arm and hand is a common consequence of stroke. Animal and human studies indicate that brief bursts of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in conjunction with rehabilitative training improve recovery of motor function after stroke. In this study, we tested whether VNS could promote generalization, long-lasting recovery, and structural plasticity in motor networks.

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Jan
2018

Inhaled cigarette smoke stimulated vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers via an action of nicotine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Recent studies have reported that nicotine at high concentrations can also activate the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor (TRPA1) expressed in these sensory nerves. This study was carried out to characterize the airway response to inhaled nicotine aerosol and to investigate the relative roles of nAChR and TRPA1 in this response.

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Jan
2018

BACKGROUND Primary pericardial tumors have a prevalence of between 6.7% and 12.8% of all tumors arising in the cardiac region.

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Jan
2018

Neuromodulation, thanks to intrinsic and extrinsic brain feedback loops, seems to be the best way to exploit brain plasticity for therapeutic purposes. In the past years, there has been tremendous advances in the field of non-pharmacological modulation of brain activity. This review of different neurostimulation techniques will focus on sites and mechanisms of both transcutaneous vagus and trigeminal nerve stimulation.

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Dec
2017

Electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) via transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) may influence afferent vagal networks. There have been 5 prior taVNS/fMRI studies, with inconsistent findings due to variability in stimulation targets and parameters.
We developed a taVNS/fMRI system to enable concurrent electrical stimulation and fMRI acquisition to compare the effects of taVNS in relation to control stimulation.

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Jan
2018

The laryngeal monitoring of the inferior and superior laryngeal nerves, and the vagus nerve, has advanced for last years, in practice of thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Different methods are used, using direct or indirect laryngeal stimulation and also intermittent or continuous nerve registration. At present time, various recommendations of it in the world use are reported, and availability of the tool used remains a limit in some countries.

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Jan
2018

Parkinson's disease from the gut.

Brain Res 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
Rodger A Liddle
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition associated with tremor, rigidity, dementia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, nausea and vomiting. The pathological hallmarks of PD are Lewy bodies and neurites in the brain and peripheral nerves. The major constituent of Lewy bodies is the neuronal protein α-synuclein.

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Dec
1969

Vagus nerve stimulation through alpha7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (7-nAChR) signaling had been demonstrated attenuation of inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether PNU-282987, a selective7-nAChR agonist, affected activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and inflammatory cytokines in nicotine-treatment RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms.

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Jan
2018

This article reviews an improved methodology and technology for crafting a multi-electrode spiral cuff for the selective activation of nerve fibres in particular superficial regions of a peripheral nerve. The analysis, structural and mechanical properties of the spot welds used for the interconnections between the stimulating electrodes and stainless-steel lead wires are presented. The cuff consisted of 33 platinum electrodes embedded within a self-curling 17-mm-long silicone spiral sheet with a nominal internal diameter of 2.

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Jan
2018

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (TVNS) is a promising treatment for acute and chronic pain. However, experimental studies yielded controversial results. We examined if TVNS reduces the perceived intensity of repetitive painful heat stimulation and temporal summation of pain (TSP) in healthy volunteers in comparison with placebo and sham stimulation, as well as no intervention.

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Jan
2018

Limited data are available regarding the evolution over time of the rate of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP) in drug-resistant epilepsy. The objective is to analyze a database of 40 443 patients with epilepsy implanted with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy in the United States (from 1988 to 2012) and assess whether SUDEP rates decrease during the postimplantation follow-up period.
Patient vital status was ascertained using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Death Index (NDI).

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Jan
2018

Attenuated cardiac vagal activity is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis and related mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Our recent study has shown that expression of N-type Cachannel α-subunits (Ca2.2-α) and N-type Cacurrents are reduced in intracardiac ganglion neurons from rats with chronic heart failure.

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Jan
2018

During monitored thyroidectomy, displacement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) or vagus nerve (VN) in some complicated cases can increase the risk of injury. Although increasing the stimulus current can facilitate nerve mapping and localization, the safety of a high-current stimulus remains unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety of a high-current stimulus in a porcine model.

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Jan
2018

Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity.

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