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'Venous Air Embolism' (2536)


Dec
2017

Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a very rare radiological finding that occurs when gas enters the portal venous system. HGVG can be caused by various diseases, with the most common being intestinal ischemia or necrosis. While there are few reports of HPVG associated with colon cancer, we report a case of HPVG associated with advanced colon cancer.

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Jan
2018

An abrupt increase in end-tidal CO(EtCO; from 35 to 58 mm Hg) followed by a sudden fall (to 18 mm Hg) was noted during retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy under general anaesthesia in a 23-year-old patient with adrenal hyperplasia. This was accompanied by hypotension (systolic blood pressure of 60 mm Hg), desaturation (88% SpO2) and ST depression (3.5 mm).

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Jan
2018

Sitting position is preferred during posterior fossa surgeries as it provides better anatomical orientation and a clear surgical field. However, its use has been declining due to its propensity to cause life-threatening complications. This study was carried out to analyze the perioperative complications and postoperative course of children who underwent neurosurgery in sitting position.

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Jan
2018

Primary medullary hemorrhage is a rare event that may result in ataxic respiration. Although it remains controversial whether primary medullary hemorrhage should be managed conservatively or surgically, recent advancements in neuroimaging and microsurgical techniques have shown promise for improving outcomes and prognosis following surgery. The present report discusses the case of a 70-year-old woman admitted to our institution due to sudden-onset nausea and vomiting.

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Dec
1969

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) refers to a clinical syndrome resulting from injury of the alveolar capillaries, arterioles and venules leading to red blood cel accumulation in the distal air spaces. The conditions associated with DAH and underlying disease determine the prognosis and the treatment regimen. The coexistence of DAH with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a seroius problem for clinicians and poses a challenge in the therapeutic management.

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Nov
2017

Cerebral air embolism is a rare clinical entity in day-to-day practice. The introduction of air into the venous or the arterial system can cause cerebral air embolism leading to severe neurological deficits. The common causes reported in the literature are iatrogenic; it can be caused by positive pressure maneuvers performed during cardiac resuscitation, lung biopsy, and the placement of venous catheters in the presence of a patent foramen ovale.

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Mar
2018

Cerebral air embolism is caused by gas bubbles in the vascular system. These bubbles can cause cerebral ischemia by obstructing encephalic blood vessels. It is frequently associated with blunt and penetrating chest trauma as well as iatrogenic interventions.

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Dec
2017

Thromboelastography (TEG) in venous air embolism (VAE) has been poorly studied. We induced coagulation abnormalities by VAE in a rat model, assessed by TEG with and without mexiletine, a lidocaine analogue local anesthetic.
Twenty-three Sprague Dawley rats instrumented under isoflurane anesthesia and allowed to recover five days prior to the experiments were randomized into three experimental groups: 1) VAE (n = 6); 2) VAE and mexiletine (n = 9); and 3) normal saline (NS) alone (control group, n = 8).

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Dec
2017

Venous air embolism is a dreaded condition particularly relevant to the field of nephrology. In the face of a favourable, air-to-blood pressure gradient and an abnormal communication between the atmosphere and the veins, air entrance into the circulation is common and can bring about venous air embolism. These air emboli can migrate to different areas through three major routes: pulmonary circulation, paradoxical embolism and retrograde ascension to the cerebral venous system.

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Dec
1969

We here report the case of a 52-year old hypertensive, obese woman (BMI 32,46 kg/m) with a past history of smoking and without evidence-based risk factors of venous thromboembolism, hospitalized for left chest pain radiating to the dorsolumbar region associated with dyspnoea. Clinical examination on hopitalization showed left blood pressure 100/60 mmHg, tachycardia 100/min, oxygen desaturation index at 88% with the patient breathing ambient air, normal cardiopulmonary auscultation, peripheral pulses palpable and no symptoms of phlebitis of the lower limbs. The ECG showed right axis deviation, SQpattern, right ventricular hypertrophy and right bundle branch block (A, B, C).

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Oct
2017

A 54-year-old woman was found deceased with incised wounds of both sides of her neck and both wrists. Postmortem CT scanning revealed air in the heart and in the dural veins in continuity with air in the right jugular vein. Death was due to incised wounds of the wrist and neck with blood loss and air embolism.

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Oct
2017

Outflow control during laparoscopic liver resection necessitates the use of technically demanding procedures since the hepatic veins are fragile and vulnerable to damage during parenchymal transection. The liver hanging maneuver reduces venous backflow bleeding during deep parenchymal transection. The present report describes surgical outcomes and a technique to achieve outflow control during application of the modified liver hanging maneuver in patients undergoing laparoscopic left-sided hepatectomy.

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Nov
2017

Oxygenator failure during cardiopulmonary bypass constitutes a life-threatening event, especially when perfusion is conducted under normothermia. An alternative solution to emergency oxygenator changeover is described.
A supplementary oxygenator is added in the venous line without interrupting perfusion.

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Oct
2017

Decompression Sickness.

N Engl J Med 2017 Oct;377(16):1568
Qing Sun, Guangkai Gao

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Sep
2017

Complications of intravenous catheterization in horses.

Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2017 Sep;159(9):477-485
A Schoster
Intravenous catheterization is a necessity for continuous administration of intravenous fluids and for intermittent intravenous access to avoid discomfort and potential complications of repeated needle insertions into the vein. Intravenous catheterization is commonly performed and well tolerated in horses, but catheter associated complications have been reported. The most commonly reported complication is thrombophlebitis, but others such as venous air embolism, exsanguination and catheter fragmentation may also occur.

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Sep
2017

The North American Pediatric Craniofacial Collaborative Group (PCCG) established the Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Perioperative Registry to evaluate outcomes in infants and children undergoing craniosynostosis repair. The goal of this multicenter study was to utilize this registry to assess differences in blood utilization, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, duration of hospitalization, and perioperative complications between endoscopic-assisted (ESC) and open repair in infants with craniosynostosis. We hypothesized that advantages of ESC from single-center studies would be validated based on combined data from a large multicenter registry.

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Sep
2017

Cerebral air embolism (CAE) is a potentially fatal iatrogenic complication related to common procedures including central venous catheter (CVC) removal. We report an interesting case of CAE related to CVC removal that was further complicated with status epilepticus. Neuroimaging of CAE and status epilepticus could pose diagnostic dilemmas and require consideration of wide diagnostic differentials.

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Sep
2017

Etiologic diagnosis of an eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) presents a diagnostic challenge when intrapleural air and blood have been ruled out as its proximate causes. Among the causes of EPE, those that require immunosuppression for the underlying disease include connective tissue diseases, sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and eosinophilic pneumonia. We present a case of clinically suspected Behcet's syndrome based on a 10-year history of recurrent multiple oral ulcers and human leukocyte antigen-B51 positivity who presented with only an EPE.

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Oct
2017

Chronobiologic Aspects of Venous Thromboembolism.

Heart Fail Clin 2017 Oct 26;13(4):691-696. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
Chiara Fantoni, Francesco Dentali, Walter Ageno
In recent years, several studies have consistently described the chronobiologic aspects of many cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have also assessed the circadian and circannual patterns of occurrence and mortality of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, but the results have been less univocal. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain these possible patterns, including oscillation of coagulation proteins, the role of meteorologic parameters, and air pollution.

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Nov
2017

Cerebral gas embolism (CGE) from the thoracic cavity is commonly associated with invasive procedures, and cases of spontaneous CGE are rare. A 78-year-old man presented with severe spontaneous CGE associated with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). To the best of our knowledge, the comorbidity of CGE in a CPFE patient has not been documented until now.

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Dec
2017

To narratively review published information on prevention, detection, pathophysiology, and appropriate treatment of vascular air embolism (VAE).
MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register and Google Scholar databases were searched for data published through October 2016. The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database was queried for "air embolism" reports (years 2011-2016).

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Dec
1969

Limited evidence for the optimal venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis regimen in orthopaedic trauma leads to variability in regimens. We sought to delineate patient preferences towards cost, complication profile, and administration route (oral tablet vs. subcutaneous injection).

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Dec
1969

A 57-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit in a state of severe hypotensive shock following a session of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy. Shock was attributed to gastric barotrauma, which resulted in a massive venous gas embolism. Gastric barotrauma was attributed to the presence of a filled gastric band/cuff during the HBO₂ therapy that prevented expanding gas from escaping on decompression.

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Dec
1969

The venous bubble load in the body after diving may be used to infer risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Retrospective analysis of post-dive bubbling and DCS was made on seven studies. Each of these investigated interventions, using an 18 meters of sea water (msw) air dive profile from Royal Navy Table 11 (Mod Air Table), equivalent to the Norwegian Air tables.

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Dec
1969

We report the case of a 54-year-old male compressed-air worker with gas bubbles detected by computed tomography (CT). He had complained of strong abdominal pain 30 minutes after decompression after working at a pressure equivalent to 17 meters of sea water for three hours. The initial CT images revealed gas bubbles in the intrahepatic portal vein, pulmonary artery and bilateral femoral vein.

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Nov
2017

We present a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) caused by a venous air embolism during a craniotomy performed in the sitting position.
A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the neurosurgical department and scheduled for elective resection of a cerebellar metastasis in the sitting position. After craniotomy and opening of the posterior fossa, a venous air embolism was detected via transesophageal echocardiography.

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Nov
2017

Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) occurs when gas enters the cerebral arterial vasculature. CAGE can occur during sitting craniotomies, cranial trauma or secondary to gas embolism from the heart. A far less common cause of CAGE is vascular entrainment of gas during endoscopic procedures.

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Jul
2017

OBJECTIVE The semisitting position of a patient confers numerous advantages in various neurosurgical procedures, but venous air embolism is one of the associated complications of this position. To date, no prospective studies of the relationship between the degree of head elevation and the rate and severity of venous air embolism for patients undergoing a procedure in this position have been performed. In this study, the authors compared changes in the severity of venous air embolism according to the degree of head elevation (30° or 45°) in patients undergoing an elective cranial neurosurgical procedure in the semisitting position.

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May
2017

A 68-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of an endobronchial mass obstructing the right middle lobe (RML) and right lower lobe (RLL) of the lung. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed a notable endobronchial lesion in the bronchus intermedius that completely obstructed the RML and the RLL. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) at 30 watts and gas flow at 0.

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Oct
2017

Injury to cerebral venous sinuses during craniotomy procedures can cause significant blood loss or venous air embolism, potentially leading to serious morbidity or mortality. When iatrogenic sinus injuries occur, it is essential to promptly obtain hemostasis and repair the sinus defect.
We report on a 43-year-old woman that sustained a transverse-sigmoid sinus injury during a retrosigmoid craniotomy for resection of a cerebellopontine angle meningioma.

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Jul
2017

Air embolism is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening event for which prompt diagnosis and management can result in significantly improved patient outcomes. Most air emboli are iatrogenic. Arterial air emboli may occur as a complication from lung biopsy, arterial catheterization or cardiopulmonary bypass.

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Jun
2017

Important developments in the diagnosis of scuba diving fatalities have been made thanks to forensic imaging tool improvements. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits reliable interpretation of the overall gaseous distribution in the cadaver. However, due to post-mortem delay, the radiological interpretation is often doubtful because the distinction between gas related to the dive and post-mortem decomposition artifactual gases becomes less obvious.

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Jun
2017

BACKGROUND Carbon dioxide (CO2) is believed to be the safest gas for laparoscopic surgery, which is a standard procedure. We experienced severe cerebral infarction caused by paradoxical CO2 embolism during laparoscopic liver resection with injury of the hepatic vessels despite the absence of a right-to-left systemic shunt. CASE REPORT A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma in the right hepatic lobe secondary to alcoholic liver disease.

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Jun
2017

The authors present an uncommon case of portal venous gas and contrast opacification that occured during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This report demonstrates that portal vein cannulation may be a source of confusion because the guided wire trajectory inside the portal vein may be similar to that of the biliary, and a contrast washout/opacified portal vein may be misinterpreted as an incompletely filled bile duct.

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Jun
2017

OBJECTIVE Surgical simulation has the potential to supplement and enhance traditional resident training. However, the high cost of equipment and limited number of available scenarios have inhibited wider integration of simulation in neurosurgical education. In this study the authors provide initial validation of a novel, low-cost simulation platform that recreates the stress of surgery using a combination of hands-on, model-based, and computer elements.

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Jun
2017

Femoral venous route is routinely used for percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs). However, a situation may arise where transfemoral approach is not feasible. We describe a successful transjugular closure of a moderate-sized ASD in a 49-year-old symptomatic man with interrupted inferior vena cava, using a novel deployment technique, which helped in overcoming difficulties such as maintaining stable sheath position and minimizing risk of air embolism.

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Apr
2017

Ambulation during extravehicular activity on Mars may increase the risk of decompression sickness through enhanced bubble formation in the lower body.
walking effort (ambulation) before an exercise-enhanced denitrogenation (prebreathe) protocol at 14.7 psia does not increase the incidence of venous gas emboli (VGE) at 4.

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Sep
2017

During a period of 1 month, 3 episodes of probable or actual venous air embolism occurred during hysteroscopic surgery. All patients developed the same symptoms of ventilatory and hemodynamic decompensation, beginning with a reduction in end-tidal carbon dioxide, arterial desaturation, and cyanosis on the upper trunk, and rapidly progressed to hypotension and 2 cardiac arrests. While entrainment of some air is common during hysteroscopy, life-threatening embolism is a rare but serious complication for which an anesthetist needs to be vigilant and prepared.

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Sep
2017

Venous air embolism (VAE) is a well-known complication of sitting position neurosurgery which most characteristically manifests as mild to severe hemodynamic alterations. Development of pulmonary edema is a known, though infrequent, manifestation of VAE. We report here the occurrence of acute pulmonary edema without accompanying hemodynamic changes in a patient undergoing retromastoid craniotomy and tumor decompression in the sitting position.

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May
2017

INTRODUCTION Central venous catheterisation (CVC) is a commonly performed procedure in a wide variety of hospital settings and is associated with appreciable morbidity. There is a paucity of literature focusing on mechanical complications specifically in the trauma setting. The aim of our study was to determine the spectrum of mechanical complications in a high-volume trauma centre in a developing world setting where ultrasound guidance was not available.

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Aug
2017

Cerebral venous air embolism is a severe clinical condition related to an unfavourable outcome in patients with neurological impairment. Cerebral venous air embolism may occur secondarily to arterial or venous interventions. A rare mechanism of cerebral venous air embolism is retrograde embolism, which is characterized by gas flow in a direction that is opposite to that of the normal blood flow.

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Apr
2017

Air embolism (AE) is considered a rare event and can be either iatrogenic or traumatic. Various post-mortem methods to detect AE exist, of which radiology is preferred. The presence of air in the heart can be demonstrated using special dissection techniques where the heart is opened under water or by needle puncture from a water-filled syringe.

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May
2017

The study objective was to determine whether air travel in the immediate postoperative period after anatomic pulmonary resection is associated with increased morbidity or mortality.
All patients undergoing anatomic pulmonary resection at the Mayo Clinic (2005-2012) were identified and sent surveys querying their mode of transportation home after hospital dismissal and any complications encountered during or shortly after this travel. This included pneumonia, hospital readmission, deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, and specific pleural complications (pneumothorax, empyema, or chest tube placement).

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Mar
2017

Vascular air embolism (VAE) is a rare, but potentially fatal complication of invasive medical or surgical procedures. It is a very rare complication of bronchoscopy and is most frequently reported with therapeutic bronchoscopy with Argon plasma coagulation (APC) or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. Despite being rare, as a result of its high chance of mortality and morbidity, it is imperative that physicians have high clinical suspicion to allow for early recognition and treatment.

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