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'Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Tap' (62)


Apr
2017

The 3-meter Timed Up and Go test (TUG) is a reliable quantitative test for assessment of gait and balance. We aimed to establish an optimal threshold of TUG at the tap test for predicting outcomes 12 months after shunt surgery in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).
The TUG was measured in a total of 151 patients with possible iNPH before and after a tap test and 12 months after shunt surgery.

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Aug
2017

In patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), the spinal tap test (STT) is commonly used to predict ventriculoperitoneal shunt responsiveness. Clinical improvement following STT usually is measured by testing gait function. In our study, we investigated the impact of cognitive impairment on gait improvement after STT.

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Sep
2017

Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a disease characterized by gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and dementia. Our objectives were to define an average value of the test for the population, check the specificity and test sensitivity as evaluation criteria and diagnostic testing, and correlate with other already used more frequently.
A study conducted at the Neurosurgery Division of the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo in which a group of 30 patients with NPH was submitted to the Mini-Mental State Test Examination, Time Up and Go (TUG), test and Japanese scale for NPH before the Tap Test 3 hours and 72 hours after the Tap Test.

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Jul
2017

Preoperative diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) remains challenging. Recently, the presence of disproportionally enlarged subarachnoid spaces and hydrocephalus (DESH) on diagnostic images has been linked to clinical improvement after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. In this study we describe a new quantitative method to assess DESH on CT scans and to evaluate its prognostic value.

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Apr
2017

The lumbar infusion test (LIT) and tap test (TT) have previously been described for the diagnosis and selection of appropriate surgical candidates in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).
We retrospectively reviewed 81 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of iNPH selected for supplementary testing. Clinical evaluation was scored with the Japanese Grading Scale for Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, the Global Deterioration Score, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

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Dec
2016

The cerebrospinal fluid tap test (CSFTT) is widely used to diagnose idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and predict the therapeutic effectiveness of shunting. However, the ability to walk cannot be quantified for patients who are unable to walk. Therefore, we examined whether the iNPH diagnostic aid is possible using dynamometry, even for patients who are unable to walk.

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Jun
2017

The management of neonatal post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus (nPHH) varies considerably between centres and even between neurosurgeons in the same centre. We performed a nationwide survey to evaluate current practice in the UK and reviewed the evidence for each intervention.
An online semi-structured questionnaire was emailed to all units registered on the British Paediatric Neurosurgery Group Mailing List.

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Jun
2017

Despite the existence of published guidelines for more than a decade, there is still a substantial variation in the management of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus due to its diagnostic and therapeutic complexity.
The diagnostic and therapeutic protocol for the management of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in use at the Department of Neurosurgery of the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla is presented. The diagnostic process includes neuropsychological testing, phase contrast cine MRI, urodynamic evaluation, continuous intracranial pressure monitoring, cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics by means of lumbar infusion testing, and intra-abdominal pressure measurement.

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Aug
2016

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement is the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus, yet shunts remain vulnerable to a variety of complications. Although fat droplet migration into the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid pathways following craniotomy has been observed, a VP shunt obstruction with fat droplets has never been reported to our knowledge. We present the first reported case of VP shunt catheter obstruction by migratory fat droplets in a 55-year-old woman who underwent suboccipital craniotomy for removal of a metastatic tumor of the left medullocerebellar region, without fat harvesting.

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Jun
2016

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) may present, besides the classic triad of symptoms, with extrapyramidal parkinsonianlike movement disorders. We present a randomized prospective study comparing adjustable ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion plus dopamine oral therapy (group A) versus VP shunt alone (group B) in patients affected by iNPH associated with parkinsonism.
A detailed screening process included neurologic, neurosurgical, and neuropsychological evaluations, followed by a cerebrospinal fluid tap test and resistance outflow measurement.

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Jun
2016

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery is probably the commonest surgical procedure in neurosurgery. Belying its technical simplicity is the myriad complications associated with it. Shunt malfunction is a common complication associated with this surgery, second only to shunt related infections, which may be associated with it.

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Jul
2015

To present an objective method to evaluate gait improvements after a tap test in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH).
Retrospective analysis of gait data.
Public tertiary care center, day hospital.

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Dec
1969

Pneumocephalus following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is an exceptionally rare occurrence. We report such an event after attempting ventricular puncture (ventriculostomy) for VP shunt insertion and then discuss the management of the same. Dry tap can lead to multiple attempts for ventriculostomy with the associated added risks of complications, as well as complicating the subsequent management.

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Oct
2014

Most CSF-diverting shunt systems have an access port that can be percutaneously tapped. Tapping the shunt can yield valuable information as to its function and whether an infection is present. The fear of causing a shunt infection by tapping may limit the physician's willingness to do so.

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Sep
2014

Small-bowel ischemia and necrosis due to knotting of the peritoneal catheter is an extremely rare complication related to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). A 3-month-old girl, with a history of Chiari II malformation and myelomeningocele (MM) after undergoing right occipital VPS insertion and MM repair at birth, presented to the emergency department with a high-grade fever. Examination of a CSF sample obtained via shunt tap raised suspicion for the presence of infection.

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Dec
1969

The consensus on most reliable supplemental test to predict the shunt responsiveness in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is lacking. The aim of this study is to discuss the utility of external lumbar drain (ELD) in evaluation of shunt responsiveness for iNPH patients.
A retrospective review of 66 patients with iNPH was conducted.

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Dec
1969

Patients frequently present to the emergency department (ED) for evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt malfunction, often requiring urgent management. A typical evaluation in the emergency room setting includes a thorough history and physical examination, noncontrasted head computed tomography (CT), shunt series, and occasionally a ventricular shunt tap.
We present the case of a 53-year-old male who initially presented to the ED in acute status epilepticus.

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May
2013

Currently, the most common treatment for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS), generally with programmable valve implantation. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is another treatment option, and it does not require prosthesis implantation.
To compare the functional neurological outcome in patients after 12 months of treatment with INPH by using 2 different techniques: ETV or VPS.

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May
2013

The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).
115 patients were included in this European multicentre study. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and signs, and MRI changes.

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Jun
2013

Normal pressure hydrocephalus is an unusual manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus and its pathogenesis is still unclear. We report the case of a 39-year-old white woman with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed magnetic gait, speech difficulties, progressive memory impairment, urinary incontinence and episodes of involuntary closure of the eyelids. Signs and symptoms, associated with ventriculomegaly and normal cerebrospinal fluid pressure, suggested normal pressure hydrocephalus, which as a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus believably develops due to the insidious inflammatory process that occurs in the meningeal tissues or to the vasculitis itself.

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Sep
2012

The ventriculoperitoneal shunt is the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus. Despite its widespread use and safety record, it often malfunctions due to complications such as obstruction, breakage, migration and infection. This necessitates a systematic approach to diagnosing the etiology of shunt failure.

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Dec
1969

The supremacy of low-pressure valves (LPV) in the therapy of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) has been proven by the Dutch NPH study. The downside of LPVs is the high rate of overdrainage complications. In the meantime gravitational units have been developed with the objective of minimising overdrainage complications.

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Jan
2012

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT) has been regarded as an important test for the prediction of shunt effectiveness in patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Although its specificity and sensitivity are reportedly high, there remains some disagreement over this point. Herein, the TT as a test for predicting shunt effectiveness was investigated in our multicenter prospective study named SINPHONI and strategies to increase its predictability were examined.

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Jun
2011

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting can improve symptoms of elderly patients' idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). However, adjunctive means for confirming the diagnosis remain unavailable. We have previously reported the specific increase of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) in iNPH CSF, and the present study investigates its potential clinical applications.

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Dec
1969

Overdrainage is a common complication observed after shunting patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), with an estimated incidence up to 25%. Gravitational units that counterbalance intracranial pressure changes were developed to overcome this problem. We will set out to investigate whether the combination of a programmable valve and a gravitational unit (proGAV, Aesculap/Miethke, Germany) is capable of reducing the incidence of overdrainage and improving patient-centered outcomes compared to a conventional programmable valve (Medos-Codman, Johnson & Johnson, Germany).

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Jul
2010

Patients requiring CSF shunts frequently have comorbidities that can influence water and electrolyte balances. The authors report on a case involving a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in a patient who underwent intravenous hyperhydration and withdrawal of vasopressin substitution prior to scheduled high-dose chemotherapy regimen for a metastatic suprasellar germinoma. After acute neurological deterioration, the patient underwent CT scanning that demonstrated ventriculomegaly.

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Jul
2010

One of the therapeutic options for chronic adult hydrocephalus that has become widely used in our service is the lumboperitoneal shunt with low-pressure Spetzler catheter and in an outpatient regimen. We report on the first 30 patients treated in this way with a follow-up of between one and five years.
Diagnosis was reached after studying the patient history and a clinical examination; Hakim and Adams' triad was found to be a primary and highly predictive factor, together with flow magnetic resonance imaging and the use of the ambulatory tap test.

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Aug
2009

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is characterized by the classic triad of symptoms including gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and dementia. Gait impairment represents the cardinal symptom. NPH is associated with a radiological verifiable ventriculomegaly in the absence of elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure.

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Aug
2009

Intra-ventricular haemorrhage (IVH) can occur spontaneously or during the surgical revision of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts.
The aim of the study was to report the safety and efficacy of an original method for treatment of IVH that may occur at the time of valve revision aimed at maintaining the function of previously implanted CSF shunts.
We reviewed the medical records of six patients who experienced an IVH in the presence of a previously placed ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt.

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Jun
2008

The clinical diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt malfunction can be challenging. In this prospective study, the authors evaluated a common method of interrogating shunts: the shunt tap; specifically, its ability to predict proximal malfunction.
The authors performed standardized shunt taps in a consecutive series of cases involving children with suspected or proven shunt malfunction, assessing flow and, when possible, opening pressure.

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Jun
2008

Tapping of a suspected malfunctioning ventriculoperitoneal shunt is usually easy, sometimes informative, but also potentially misleading. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a shunt evaluation protocol that does not involve direct shunt tapping except in rare and specific cases.
The authors adopted a protocol for shunt evaluation that involves shunt tapping only in selected cases of suspected infection or in patients with noncommunicating hydrocephalus and equivocal computed tomography (CT) findings of shunt infection.

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Jun
2008

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt tap.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2008 Jun;1(6):433; author replies 433-4
W Jerry Oakes

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Apr
2007

The authors attempted to determine whether continuous intracranial pressure monitoring via the shunt reservoir identifies ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunctions that are not identified by radionuclide shunt patency study or shunt tap in adults with hydrocephalus.
During a 2-year period, 26 adults underwent 32 in-hospital continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring evaluations via needle access of a shunt reservoir. Monitoring was performed for 26.

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Aug
2007

We studied retrospectively the effectiveness of the repeated lumbar CSF tap test (RTT), lumbar external CSF drainage (LED) and radioisotope cisternography (RIC) in predicting the outcome of shunt surgery, as well as the diagnostic and prognostic value of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) and of the classic clinical triad in normal pressure hydrocephalus. Two hundred and seventy patients were referred to the Departments of Neurosurgery, in Nancy, France and in Istanbul, Turkey. The decision to perform surgery was based on the clinical presentation (all patients had at least two symptoms of the classic clinical triad), neuroimaging examinations and the results of the RTT (taps were performed on three consecutive days and at each tap a minimum of 30 to 40 cc of CSF was removed), the LED (drainage was performed for 3 days and the volume of CSF drained daily was a minimum of 150 to 250 cc) or the RIC.

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Dec
2006

Multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) are uncommon. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman with previous diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus and who was brought to our hospital with altered mental status and urinary incontinence. Medical history of hypertension, hematological disorders or severe head trauma was absent.

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Dec
1969

The authors describe a child with a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in place for 5 years who presented with 'postural' seizures (seizures on sitting upright, which resolved on recumbency). On shunt tap, the cerebrospinal fluid was obtained freely, but required gentle aspiration with a syringe in the recumbent position, suggesting very low intracranial pressure. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging showed pachymeningeal enhancement and enlargement of the pituitary gland diagnostic of intracranial hypotension along with well-decompressed ventricles.

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Mar
2006

The authors present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele repair, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement for hydrocephalus, and shaken baby syndrome who presented in a hypernatremic state as a result of dehydration. At the time of presentation, the patient had experienced a 1-week-long history of diarrhea associated with antibiotic agents used to treat a coexisting pyelonephritis. On admission, the patient exhibited signs and symptoms of dehydration and was discovered to have profound hypernatremia with a serum sodium level of 180 mmol/L.

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Dec
2005

Infection after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts or ventriculostomies is a common complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful molecular technique that allows rapid and precise amplification of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and has proven a powerful tool in the detection of a wide variety of clinically important infectious diseases. We analyzed specimens of CSF derived from ventriculoperitoneal shunts or external ventricular drains by using both conventional cultures and PCR and report herein our preliminary results.

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Jun
2005

Ventricular tap is one of the most basic and important techniques to neurosurgeon. Brain tap itself usually does not cause symptomatic complication. The authors report an extremely rare complication case of pneumocephalus caused by failed ventricular tap.

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Mar
2004

To improve the diagnostic precision of the lumbar tap test (LTT).
Thirty one patients (mean age, 65.4 years; male to female ratio, 12:19) suspected of having idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) were used in the study.

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Dec
1969

Despite emerging knowledge of over 40 years, the postoperative results after shunt implantations in patients diagnosed for normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) have not improved significantly in the last decade. For this reason, predictors have to be identified in order to preoperatively predict the course of disease. From 1982 to 2000, we examined in a prospective study 200 patients diagnosed for NPH.

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Jan
2004

Women with cerebrospinal fluid shunts require special management during the course of pregnancy.
We describe a case of delayed postpartum ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection by Group B streptococcus in a 19-year-old who presented complaining of headache and a fever. The CSF culture from the shunt tap and the distal shunt tip both grew Group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus.

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Dec
1969

In contrast to shunt operation the indication for an endoscopic ventriculostomy in patients diagnosed for normal pressure hydrocephalus is not scientifically established. From September 1997 to October 2001 we operated on 79 patients diagnosed for normal pressure hydrocephalus. Diagnosis was established by means of the intrathecal lumbal or ventricular infusion test, the cerebrospinal fluid tap test and MRI-CSF flow studies pre- and post-operatively.

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Dec
2002

Slit ventricle syndrome, known to occur from malfunction of the shunt procedure for hydrocephalus, is reported after cyst-peritoneal shunt for temporal arachnoid cyst. Two children aged 12 and 10 years, who underwent cyst-peritoneal shunting for a large temporal arachnoid cyst at the age of 10 and 5 years, respectively, recently experienced several episodes of severe headache. Prior to admission, repeated CT scans did not reveal any morphological change in either of these two patients.

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Jul
2002

In patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and beginning brain atrophy the conventional differential pressure valve bears the disadvantage of opening abruptly when the patient moves into an upright position. In this way severe suction on the already atrophic brain could be induced. We wished to find whether this disadvantage, and especially the complication of the overdrainage, could be reduced or solved by a hydrostatic valve?
In 115 patients diagnosed with NPH we implanted 36 Cordis standard valves (CSV), 19 Cordis-Orbis-Sigma valves type I (OSV), and 60 Miethke Dual-Switch valves (M-DSV).

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Apr
2002

It has been reported that temporary external lumbar CSF drainage (ELD) is a very accurate test for predicting the outcome after ventricular shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). However, only a limited number of patients have been studied for assessing the predictive accuracy of ELD. Therefore, the value of ELD in predicting the outcome after a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in patients with presumed NPH was assessed.

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Dec
1969

In contrast to shunt operation the indication for an endoscopic ventriculostomy in patients diagnosed for normal pressure hydrocephalus is not scientifically established. From September 1997 to March 1999 we operated on 36 patients diagnosed for normal pressure hydrocephalus. Diagnosis was established by means of the intrathecal lumbar or ventricular infusion test, the cerebrospinal fluid tap test and MRI-CSF flow studies pre- and post-operatively.

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Dec
1969

Although it has been possible to reduce the percentage of premature infants suffering intraventricular hemorrhage, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus remains a serious problem without a good treatment. There is a high rate of cerebral palsy, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery makes the child permanently dependent on the valve and catheter system. Shunt surgery cannot be carried out early because of the blood in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the brain may be subjected to periods of raised pressure.

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