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'Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome' (3212)


Feb
2018

Breast tumour progression results from the advancement of the disease to a metastatic phenotype. Rac1 and Cdc42 belong to the Rho family of genes that, together with their downstream effectors, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein-family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2) and Arp2/3, assume a vital part in cytoskeletal rearrangement and the arrangement of film projections that advance malignant cell relocation and invasion. Mangiferin is a characteristic polyphenolic compound from Mangifera indica L.

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Feb
2018

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in WASp, a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics in hematopoietic cells. A high proportion of patients develop autoimmunity due to a breakdown in T and B cell tolerance. Moreover, excessive production of type-I interferon by plasmacytoid DCs contribute to autoimmune signs, however, the factors that triggers excessive innate activation have not been defined.

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Feb
2018

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, infections and susceptibility to develop autoimmunity and malignancies. Thrombocytopenia is a constant finding, but its pathogenesis remains elusive.
To dissect the basis of WAS platelet (PLT) defect we used a novel conditional mouse model (CoWas) lacking WASp only in the megakaryocytic lineage in presence of a normal immunological environment and in parallel we analysed samples obtained from WAS patients.

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Feb
2018

Mycolactone is the exotoxin produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans and is the virulence factor behind the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer. The toxin has a broad spectrum of biological effects within the host organism, stemming from its interaction with at least two molecular targets and the inhibition of protein uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum. Although it has been shown that the toxin can passively permeate into host cells, it is clearly lipophilic.

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Feb
2018

Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin filaments important for cellular motility and endocytosis. WASP family proteins are Arp2/3 complex activators that play multiple roles in branching nucleation, but little is known about the structural bases of these WASP functions, owing to an incomplete understanding of how WASP binds Arp2/3 complex. Recent data show WASP binds two sites, and biochemical and structural studies led to models in which the WASP C segment engages the barbed ends of the Arp3 and Arp2 subunits while the WASP A segment binds the back side of the complex on Arp3.

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Jan
2018

T lymphocyte cytotoxicity relies on a synaptic ring of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), which permits polarized delivery of lytic granules. How LFA-1 organization is controlled by underlying actin cytoskeleton dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we explored the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton regulator WASP to the topography of LFA-1 using a combination of microscopy modalities.

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Jan
2018

Pediatric bone marrow transplants represent a medically stressful, potentially traumatic experience for children and caregivers, and psychological support for parental caregivers is paramount to their long-term well-being. However, many medical centers do not have protocols in place to sustain caregiver well-being during these distressing experiences.
We report on a case of a 10-month-old infant with Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome who was hospitalized for bone marrow transplantation.

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Dec
2017

To screen primary immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) among children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
This was a single-center retrospective study. Eighteen children with IBD were investigated.

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Dec
1969

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a rare X-linked recessive disease resulting from variations in the WAS gene. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is sometimes difficult to differentiate from immune thrombocytopenic purpura. A 2-month-old boy was admitted to our hospital for purpura and thrombocytopenia.

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Dec
1969

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an immune pathology associated with mutations in WAS protein (WASp) or in WASp interacting protein (WIP). Together with the small GTPase Cdc42 and other effectors, these proteins participate in the remodelling of the actin network downstream of BCR engagement. Here we show that mice lacking the adaptor protein ITSN2, a G-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42 that also interacts with WASp and WIP, exhibited increased mortality during primary infection, incomplete protection after Flu vaccination, reduced germinal centre formation and impaired antibody responses to vaccination.

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Jan
2018

The WAS gene product is expressed exclusively in the cytoplasm of hematopoietic cells and constitutional genetic abrogation of WASP leads to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). Moreover, mutational activation of WASP has been associated with X-linked neutropenia. Although studies reported that patients with constitutional WAS mutations affecting functional WASP expression may present juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML)-like features, confounding differential diagnosis above all in the copresence of mutated RAS, an activating somatic mutation of WASP has not been previously described in JMML patients.

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Dec
2017

The authors report the first case involving a patient with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome who underwent single living-donor lobar lung transplantation after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed at 1 year of age; however, he developed severe pulmonary complications. Although lung transplantation is generally contraindicated in patients with immunodeficiency disease, the patient was able to undergo living-donor lobar lung transplantation because his immunodeficiency and thrombocytopenia were well controlled as a result of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

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Feb
2018

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established curative treatment for many primary immunodeficiencies. Advances in donor selection, graft manipulation, conditioning and treatment of complications, mean that survival for many conditions is now around 90%. Next generation sequencing is identifying new immunodeficiencies, many of which are treatable with HSCT.

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Dec
2017

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked neutropenia, which are caused by WAS mutations affecting Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) expression or activity, manifest in immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, genomic instability, and lymphoid and other cancers. WASp supports filamentous actin formation in the cytoplasm and gene transcription in the nucleus. Although the genetic basis for XLT/WAS has been clarified, the relationships between mutant forms of WASp and the diverse features of these disorders remain ill-defined.

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Jan
2018

Local actin filament formation powers the development of the signal-receiving arbor of neurons that underlies neuronal network formation. Yet, little is known about the molecules that drive these processes and may functionally connect them to the transient calcium pulses observed in restricted areas in the forming dendritic arbor. Here we demonstrate that Cordon-Bleu (Cobl)-like, an uncharacterized protein suggested to represent a very distantly related, evolutionary ancestor of the actin nucleator Cobl, despite having only a single G-actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein Homology 2 (WH2) domain, massively promoted the formation of F-actin-rich membrane ruffles of COS-7 cells and of dendritic branches of neurons.

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Dec
2017

A high proportion of patients with mucocutaneous bleeding diathesis and suspected inherited or acquired platelet disorder remain without diagnosis even after comprehensive laboratory testing. Since flow cytometry allows investigation of resting and activated platelets on the single cell level by requiring only minimal amounts of blood, this method has become an important assay within the diagnostic algorithm, especially in pediatrics. We therefore developed a standardized and modular flow cytometric approach that contributes to clarify impaired platelet function in a rational step-by-step manner.

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Dec
1969

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is exclusively expressed in hematopoietic cells and responsible for actin-dependent processes, including cellular activation, migration, and invasiveness. The C-terminal domain of WASp-Interacting Protein (WIP) binds to WASp and regulates its activity by shielding it from degradation in a phosphorylation dependent manner as we previously demonstrated. Mutations in the WAS-encoding gene lead to the primary immunodeficiencies Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT).

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Dec
2017

Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are a group of disorders affecting the capability to fight against infection. These include defects in T cells and B cells affecting cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively, combined humoral and cell-mediated immunodeficiency, defects in phagocytosis, complement defects, and defects in cytokine or cytokine signalling pathways which are detrimental for immune function. Depending upon the type and severity, age at onset of symptoms can vary from neonatal period to late childhood.

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Aug
2017

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is X-linked recessive disorder associated with microplatelet thrombocytopenia, eczema, infections, and an increased risk of autoimmunity and lymphoid neoplasia. The originally described features of WAS include susceptibility to infections, microthrombocytopenia, and eczema.
In this case report, we present our experience about two cases diagnosed with a new mutation.

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Nov
2017

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by a triad of immunodeficiency, eczema, and thrombocytopenia. Currently, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most reliable curative treatment with excellent results for patients with HLA-matched family or unrelated donors. However, even after fully myeloablative preparative regimens, mixed donor chimerism is a potential concern.

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Jan
2018

Through actin-binding proteins such as the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WASP-interacting protein (WIP), the Rho family GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 are major modulators of the cytoskeleton. (N-)WASP and WIP control Rho GTPase activity in various cell types, either by direct WIP/(N-)WASP/Cdc42 or potential WIP/RhoA binding, or through secondary links that regulate GTPase distribution and/or transcription levels. WIP helps to regulate filopodium generation and participates in the Rac1-mediated ruffle formation that determines cell motility.

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Jan
2018

Podocyte malfunction is central to glomerular diseases and is marked by defective podocyte intercellular junctions and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Podocytes share many morphologic features with neurons, so that similar sets of proteins appear to regulate cell process formation. One such protein is the tropomyosin-related kinase C (TrkC).

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Dec
2017

The antimicrobial defense activity of neutrophils partly depends on their ability to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), but the underlying mechanism controlling NET formation remains unclear. We demonstrate that inhibiting cytoskeletal dynamics with pharmacological agents or by genetic manipulation prevents the degranulation of neutrophils and mitochondrial DNA release required for NET formation. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-deficient neutrophils are unable to polymerize actin and exhibit a block in both degranulation and DNA release.

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Nov
2017

Dysregulation of autophagy and inflammasome activity contributes to the development of auto-inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence highlights the importance of the actin cytoskeleton in modulating inflammatory responses. Here we show that deficiency of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), which signals to the actin cytoskeleton, modulates autophagy and inflammasome function.

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Dec
1969

Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for normal development and function of the immune system, as evidenced by the severe immune abnormalities exhibited by patients bearing inactivating mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), a key regulator of actin dynamics. WASP exerts its effects on actin dynamics through a multisubunit complex termed Arp2/3. Despite the critical role played by Arp2/3 as an effector of WASP-mediated control over actin polymerization, mutations in protein components of the Arp2/3 complex had not previously been identified as a cause of immunodeficiency.

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Sep
2017

Loss of immunosurveillance is a major cause of cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that gelsolin, a constituent of ejaculate, induces apoptosis of activated lymphocytes in prostate cancer. Gelsolin was highly expressed in prostate cancer cells, and was associated with tumor progression, recurrence, metastasis, and poor prognosis.

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Jan
2018

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked disorder originally described by Dr. Alfred Wiskott in 1937 and Dr. Robert Aldrich in 1954 as a familial disease characterized by infections, bleeding tendency, and eczema.

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Oct
2017

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family of actin-nucleating factors are present in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The role of nuclear WASp for T cell development remains incompletely defined.
We performed WASp chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) in thymocytes and spleen CD4T cells.

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Dec
1969

Leiomodin proteins are vertebrate homologues of tropomodulin, having a role in the assembly and maintenance of muscle thin filaments. Leiomodin2 contains an N-terminal tropomodulin homolog fragment including tropomyosin-, and actin-binding sites, and a C-terminal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome homology 2 actin-binding domain. The cardiac leiomodin2 isoform associates to the pointed end of actin filaments, where it supports the lengthening of thin filaments and competes with tropomodulin.

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Oct
2017

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disease caused by the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase (TK). The development of TK inhibitors (TKIs) revolutionized the treatment of CML patients. However, TKIs are not effective to those at advanced phases when amplified BCR-ABL1 levels and increased genomic instability lead to secondary oncogenic modifications.

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Nov
2017

We report open surgical repair of a previously stented descending thoracic aneurysm in a patient with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and a platelet count <10 × 10·L. The same patient was described previously in a report of the first endovascular stent in this form of vasculitis. We describe the pre- and intraoperative management, and suggest a change in strategy in this setting.

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Dec
1969

Bacterial infections often cause fatal systemic infections in patients with primary immunodeficiency. To prevent unfortunate results, the selection, dose, and dosage of antibiotics are extremely important. Here, we report a case of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis because of chronic renal failure in whom methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis developed.

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Nov
2017

Defects in translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 are associated with peripheral insulin resistance, preclinical diabetes, and progression to type 2 diabetes. GLUT4 recruitment to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells requires F-actin remodeling. Insulin signaling in muscle requires p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1), whose downstream signaling triggers actin remodeling, which promotes GLUT4 vesicle translocation and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells.

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Mar
2017

Cancer cell migration and invasion involves temporal and spatial regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is regulated by the WASP family of proteins such as N-WASP (Neural- Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein). We have previously shown that expression of N-WASP was increased under hypoxic conditions. In order to characterize the regulation of N-WASP expression, we constructed an N-WASP promoter driven GFP reporter construct, N-WASP-GFP.

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Dec
1969

Invasive cancer cells develop small actin-based protrusions called invadopodia, which perform a primordial role in metastasis and extracellular matrix remodelling. Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) is a scaffold protein which can directly bind to actin monomers and Arp2/3 and is a crucial player in the formation of an invadopodium precursor. Expression modulation has pointed to an important role for N-WASp in invadopodium formation but the role of its C-terminal VCA domain in this process remains unknown.

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Sep
2017

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Defective T - cell function is a major cause for immune deficiency in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients. T cells originate in the bone marrow and develop in the thymus, and then migrate to peripheral tissues.

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Nov
2017

The conditional use of actin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells suggests that the cell controls whether and how actin is used. Using a combination of biochemical reconstitution and mammalian cell culture, we elucidate a mechanism by which the coincidence of PI(4,5)Pand PI(3)P in a curved vesicle triggers actin polymerization. At clathrin-coated pits, PI(3)P is produced by the INPP4A hydrolysis of PI(3,4)P, and this is necessary for actin-driven endocytosis.

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Oct
2017

Primary immunodeficiencies, including Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), are a main target for genome-editing strategies using specific nucleases (SNs) because a small number of corrected hematopoietic stem cells could cure patients. In this work, we have designed various WAS gene-specific CRISPR/Cas9 systems and compared their efficiency and specificity with homodimeric and heterodimeric WAS-specific zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), using K-562 cells as a cellular model and plasmid nucleofection or integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) for delivery. The various CRISPR/Cas9 and ZFN SNs showed similar efficiency when using plasmid nucleofection for delivery.

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Dec
2017

There is increasing evidence that cytoskeleton remodeling is involved in cancer progression. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family represents a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton remodeling. However, the underlying mechanism of the WASP family in cancer progression remains elusive.

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Dec
1969


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Nov
2017

Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling induces cell migration or invasion in several tumors and various stages of cancer. Interactions of mesothelin, a 40-kDa cell surface glycoprotein, with cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is associated with drug resistance, metastasis, and poor clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients. In this study, we examined the role of TLR5 and TLR7 in the metastasis of ovarian cancer through the induction of mesothelin/CA125 expression and investigated its underlying mechanism.

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Oct
2017

Gene Therapy Approaches to Immunodeficiency.

Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2017 Oct 29;31(5):823-834. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
Sujal Ghosh, H Bobby Gaspar
Transfer of gene-corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells in patients with primary immunodeficiencies has emerged as a new therapeutic approach. Patients with various conditions lacking a suitable donor have been treated with retroviral vectors and a gene-addition strategy. Initial promising results were shadowed by the occurrence of malignancies in some of these patients.

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Sep
2017

Many fundamental biological discoveries have been made inThe discovery of Orsay virus has enabled studies of host-virus interactions in this model organism. To identify host factors critical for Orsay virus infection, we designed a forward genetic screen that utilizes a virally induced green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Following chemical mutagenesis, two Viro (irusnducedeporterff) mutants that failed to express GFP were mapped to, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, and B0280.

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Aug
2017

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by various clinical phenotypes. We report the case of a 3-year-old immigrant boy presenting with persistent infant-onset thrombocytopenia treated for refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Sequence analysis confirmed the diagnosis of WAS.

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Nov
2017

There are very few reports of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) with alternate donor for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and there is no report of RIC with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in WAS. There is only 1 report of T cell receptor αβ and CD19-depleted haploidentical HSCT for WAS. Here we report successful outcome in 3 children with WAS who underwent successful RIC alternate donor HSCT of whom 2 (matched unrelated donor and T-cell replete haploidentical) received PTCy and 1 underwent T cell receptor αβ and CD19-depleted haploidentical HSCT.

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Aug
2017

Microthrombocytopenia is the clinical hallmark of WAS, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency that is characterized by eczema, autoimmunity, and cancer susceptibility. This disease is caused by mutations in thegene, which is expressed in hematopoietic cells and regulates actin cytoskeleton remodeling thereby modulating various cellular functions, including motility, immunologic synapse assembly, and signaling. Despite extensive studies that have provided great insight into the relevance of this molecule to innate and cellular immunity, the exact mechanisms of microthrombocytopenia in WAS are still unknown.

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Nov
2017

Cellular circular RNAs (circRNAs) are generated by head-to-tail splicing and are present in all multicellular organisms studied so far. Recently, circRNAs have emerged as a large class of RNA which can function as post-transcriptional regulators. It has also been shown that many circRNAs are tissue- and stage-specifically expressed.

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