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Author: Adam McKay (44)


Dec
1969

Increasing physical activity (PA) among people with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents an important long-term rehabilitation goal. To design effective interventions to promote PA, the factors associated with PA engagement post-TBI need to be understood.
A qualitative study design was employed to investigate the factors influencing PA engagement in people with severe TBI living in the community.

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Nov
2017

Patients in posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) may receive limited rehabilitation due to the risk of overstimulation and agitation. This assumption has not been tested.
To examine the relationship between agitated behavior and participation in therapy for retraining of activities of daily living (ADL) while in PTA.

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Feb
2018

To assess the efficacy of activities of daily living (ADL) retraining during posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) compared with ADL retraining commencing after emergence from PTA.
Randomized controlled trial.
Inpatient rehabilitation center.

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May
2017

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for post-stroke fatigue and sleep disturbance compared to treatment as usual (TAU). In a parallel two-group pilot randomised controlled trial of 15 participants, nine were allocated to eight weekly sessions of adapted CBT and six continued usual care rehabilitation. The primary outcome was the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-7) at two and four months from baseline.

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Apr
2017

To identify predictors of treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for sleep disturbance following acquired brain injury (ABI).
Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was conducted on individual patient data from two pilot randomized controlled trials (RCTs): one in traumatic brain injury (TBI), the other in stroke. The combined sample comprised 32 participants; 15 receiving CBT and 17 allocated to treatment as usual (TAU).

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Dec
1969

To evaluate the efficacy of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for sleep disturbance and fatigue in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Parallel 2-group randomized controlled trial.
Outpatient therapy.

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Dec
2016

Family expressed emotion (EE) is a strong predictor of outcome in a range of psychiatric and medical conditions. This study aimed to examine the relationship between family EE-criticism, patient perceived criticism and criticism sensitivity and psychiatric disorders following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 60 patients with TBI and their family members.

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Dec
2016

(1) To examine the relations between performance on cognitive tests and on-road driving assessment in a sample of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). (2) To compare cognitive predictors of the on-road assessment with demographic and injury-related predictors.
Ninety-nine people with mild-severe TBI who completed an on-road driving assessment in an Australian rehabilitation setting.

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Nov
2017

Smartphones have great potential as a convenient, multifunction tool to support cognition and independence following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there has been limited investigation of their helpful and less helpful aspects for people with TBI. We aimed to investigate patterns of smartphone use amongst individuals with TBI, identify potential barriers to use, and examine the relationships between smartphone use and daily functioning.

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Jan
2016

This study prospectively examined the relationship between preinjury, injury-related, and postinjury factors and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Two hundred and three participants were recruited during inpatient admission following moderate to severe TBI. Participants completed an initial assessment soon after injury and were reassessed at 3, 6, and 12 months, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years postinjury.

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May
2016

Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.

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Dec
1969

Family caregivers play an important role in managing challenging behaviours after TBI. The aims of this study were to understand how family caregivers of individuals with TBI perceive challenging behaviours and their impact on the TBI individual's community integration and family functioning.
A qualitative research design was employed to capture the lived experience of family caregivers of individuals with TBI.

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Dec
1969

To examine self-awareness over the first year following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the association of demographic, biological, cognitive, psychological and social-environmental factors with change in awareness.
Using a longitudinal design the progression of awareness and association of demographic and biopsychosocial factors with its trajectory were analysed using random effects regression.
Sixty individuals with mainly moderate-to-severe TBI completed assessments at 3, 6 and/or 12 months post-injury.

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Dec
1969

This study examined the relationship between the nature of feedback provided by close-others and self-awareness in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a cross-sectional design, 69 individuals with mild-to-severe TBI and their close-others completed the Awareness Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Trail Making Test-Part B and Feedback about Cognitive Difficulties Questionnaire, between 3 months and 20 years post-injury. Results showed cognitive and/or behavioural issues post-injury were identified in 97% of individuals with TBI and over 80% of these were provided with feedback by close-others at least sometimes after making errors.

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Oct
2014

To examine self-awareness and injury-related, emotional and demographic factors across acute/subacute (3-12 months), medium-term (24-60 months), and long-term (120-240 months) time periods after traumatic brain injury (TBI), because unawareness of injury-related changes can affect engagement in rehabilitation and functional outcomes.
A total of 168 individuals with mild to severe TBI and 105 of their close others.
Awareness Questionnaire (AQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

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Apr
2014

Eukaryotic TIP49a (Pontin) and TIP49b (Reptin) AAA+ ATPases play essential roles in key cellular processes. How their weak ATPase activity contributes to their important functions remains largely unknown and difficult to analyze because of the divergent properties of TIP49a and TIP49b proteins and of their homo- and hetero-oligomeric assemblies. To circumvent these complexities, we have analyzed the single ancient TIP49 ortholog found in the archaeon Methanopyrus kandleri (mkTIP49).

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Dec
1969

The aim of the study was to describe the development and predictors of psychological adjustment during community-based traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation. Forty-two adolescent and adult individuals with TBI (mean age 32 years, 88% male, median post-traumatic amnesia 11 days) participated in a single-group, longitudinal design study. The main measures used were the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory, Adjustment subscale; Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and Self-awareness of Deficits Interview.

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Apr
2014

The reduction/oxidation (redox) potential of tissue is tightly regulated in order to maintain normal physiological processes, but is disrupted in disease states. Thus, the development of new tools to map tissue redox potential may be clinically important for the diagnosis of diseases that lead to redox imbalances. One promising area of chemical research is the development of redox-activated probes for mapping tissue through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Feb
2013

Tuberculosis and other bacterial diseases represent a significant threat to human health. The DNA topoisomerases are excellent targets for chemotherapy, and DNA gyrase in particular is a well-validated target for antibacterial agents. Naphthoquinones (e.

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Aug
2012

Isolated model anion chromophores of the green and cyan fluorescent proteins were generated in an electrospray ion source, and their photodetachment spectra were recorded using photoelectron imaging. Vertical photodetachment energies of 2.85(10) and 4.

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Dec
1969

A brief preparatory programme, based on the principles of motivational interviewing (MI), was developed as a way of engaging clients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and preparing them for a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) programme for anxiety. The MI + CBT programme was delivered to a male client in his early 40s with severe TBI at four months post-injury, using a single-subject design with repeated measures pre- and post-treatment. The client received three sessions of manualised MI, followed by nine sessions of CBT.

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Dec
1969

Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for anxiety, its delivery needs to be adapted for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It also requires clients' active engagement for maximum benefit. This study was a pilot randomised controlled trial involving an anxiety treatment programme adapted for people with TBI, based on CBT and motivational interviewing (MI).

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Dec
1969

Dementia is a major problem of health in developed societies. Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia, and mixed dementia account for over 90% of the most prevalent forms of dementia. Both genetic and environmental factors are determinant for the phenotypic expression of dementia.

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Dec
1969

CBT is a potentially effective treatment for anxiety disorders following TBI; however, empirical evidence has mainly come from clients with mild TBI. This paper describes a CBT-based anxiety treatment programme adapted for clients with more severe injuries. Two case studies are provided to illustrate the implementation of the programme, as a step toward larger scale testing of the programme's feasibility.

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Dec
1969

Levels of expressed emotion (EE) within the family, particularly criticism and emotional over-involvement, are associated with a patient's psychological outcome in a range of psychiatric and medical conditions. This study aimed to examine the relationship between levels of family EE and anxiety and depression in patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). A further aim was to examine whether family members' levels of psychological distress and attributions of patient symptom controllability, were related to their levels of patient-directed EE.

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Apr
2012

CNS disorders are the third major problem of health in developed countries, with approximately 10% of direct costs associated with a pharmacological treatment of doubtful cost-effectiveness. There is an alarming abuse of psychotropic drugs worldwide and only 20-30% of patients with CNS disorders appropriately respond to conventional drugs. The pathogenesis of most CNS disorders is the result of the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors with environmental factors leading to post-transcriptional changes and proteomic and metabolomic dysfunctions.

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Dec
1969

In a pilot randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a 12-weekly anxiety treatment programme adapted for individuals with moderate-severe TBI, based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and Motivational Interviewing (MI). The current study explored the variables associated with treatment response and group differences in change expectancy and working alliance.
Twenty-seven participants recruited from a brain injury rehabilitation hospital were randomly assigned to MI + CBT, non-directive counselling (NDC) + CBT and treatment-as-usual and assessors were blinded to treatment conditions.

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Dec
1969

Native, metastable serpins inherently tend to undergo stabilizing conformational transitions in mechanisms of health (e.g., enzyme inhibition) and disease (serpinopathies).

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May
2011

Proteins often exist as ensembles of interconverting states in solution which are often difficult to quantify. In the present manuscript we show that the combination of MS under nondenaturing conditions and AUC-SV (analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity) unambiguously clarifies a distribution of states and hydrodynamic shapes of assembled oligomers for the NAP-1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1). MS established the number of associated units, which was utilized as input for the numerical analysis of AUC-SV profiles.

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May
2011

DNA topoisomerases are enzymes that control DNA topology and are vital targets for antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. Here we present a mass spectrometry study of complexes formed between the A subunit of the topoisomerase DNA gyrase and the bifunctional inhibitor simocyclinone D8 (SD8), an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces. These studies show that, in an alternative mode of interaction to that found by X-ray crystallography, each subunit binds a single bifunctional inhibitor with separate binding pockets for the two ends of SD8.

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Sep
2010

Molecular recognition between Escherichia coli enolase and ribonuclease E.

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2010 Sep 13;66(Pt 9):1036-40. Epub 2010 Aug 13.
Salima Nurmohamed, Adam R McKay, Carol V Robinson, Ben F Luisi
In Escherichia coli and many other bacterial species, the glycolytic enzyme enolase is a component of the multi-enzyme RNA degradosome, an assembly that is involved in RNA processing and degradation. Enolase is recruited into the degradosome through interactions with a small recognition motif located within the degradosome-scaffolding domain of RNase E. Here, the crystal structure of enolase bound to its cognate site from RNase E (residues 823-850) at 1.

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Aug
2010

The ribosomal stalk complex plays a crucial role in delivering translation factors to the catalytic site of the ribosome. It has a very similar architecture in all cells, although the protein components in bacteria are unrelated to those in archaea and eukaryotes. Here we used mass spectrometry to investigate ribosomal stalk complexes from bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea in situ on the ribosome.

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Jul
2010

The two closely related eukaryotic AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities), RuvBL1 (RuvB-like 1) and RuvBL2, are essential components of large multi-protein complexes involved in diverse cellular processes. Although the molecular mechanisms of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 function remain unknown, oligomerization is likely to be important for their function together or individually, and different oligomeric forms might underpin different functions. Several experimental approaches were used to investigate the molecular architecture of the RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complex and the role of the ATPase-insert domain (domain II) for its assembly and stability.

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Mar
2010

Combined deficiency of coagulation factors V and VIII (F5F8D), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by coordinate reduction in the plasma levels of factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII), is genetically linked to mutations in the transmembrane lectin ERGIC-53 and the soluble calcium-binding protein MCFD2. Growing evidence indicates that these two proteins form a complex recycling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and thereby function as a cargo receptor in the early secretory pathway of FV and FVIII. For better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional coordination of ERGIC-53 and MCFD2, we herein characterize their interaction by x-ray crystallographic analysis in conjunction with NMR and ultracentrifugation analyses.

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Dec
2009

Simocyclinones are bifunctional antibiotics that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase by preventing DNA binding to the enzyme. We report the crystal structure of the complex formed between the N-terminal domain of the Escherichia coli gyrase A subunit and simocyclinone D8, revealing two binding pockets that separately accommodate the aminocoumarin and polyketide moieties of the antibiotic. These are close to, but distinct from, the quinolone-binding site, consistent with our observations that several mutations in this region confer resistance to both agents.

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Nov
2008

The current research uses a novel methodology to examine the role of semantics in reading aloud. Participants were trained to read aloud 2 sets of novel words (i.e.

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Mar
2007

The role of semantics in reading aloud remains controversial. To explore this issue, the current study examined the impact of semantic loss on reading-aloud performance in 7 patients with semantic dementia. The results revealed a heterogenous pattern of reading difficulties.

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Feb
2008

Helicase B (RhlB) is one of the five DEAD box RNA-dependent ATPases found in Escherichia coli. Unique among these enzymes, RhlB requires an interaction with the partner protein RNase E for appreciable ATPase and RNA unwinding activities. To explore the basis for this activating effect, we have generated a di-cistronic vector that overexpresses a complex comprising RhlB and its recognition site within RNase E, corresponding to residues 696-762.

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Apr
2007

The eukaryotic ribosomal stalk, composed of the P-proteins, is a part of the GTPase-associated-center which is directly responsible for stimulation of translation-factor-dependent GTP hydrolysis. Here we report that yeast mutant strains lacking P1/P2-proteins show high propagation of the yeast L-A virus. Affinity-capture-MS analysis of a protein complex isolated from a yeast mutant strain lacking the P1A/P2B proteins using anti-P0 antibodies showed that the Gag protein, the major coat protein of the L-A capsid, is associated with the ribosomal stalk.

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Dec
2006

An influential theory of dyslexia is based on the premise that individuals with the disorder have impaired sensitivity to rapidly changing stimuli in the visual and auditory modalities, due to a dysfunction in the magnocellular channel of the visual system and its analogue in the auditory pathway. The deficit in the auditory system is thought to cause difficulties in the segmentation of speech and the formation of accurate phonological representations, leading to problems in making the grapheme-phoneme correspondences necessary for reading. In a sample of 13 adults with a history of severe reading difficulty and 18 controls, visual contrast thresholds were measured in response to an 8-Hz flickering Gaussian blob as well as a slowly modulated 8 cycles/deg Gaussian windowed grating.

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Sep
2006

It is established that noncovalent complexes can be maintained both during and after electrospray and that assemblies of increasing size and complexity often lead to broadened peaks in mass spectra. This broadening arises from the tendency of large protein assemblies to form adducts with salts and is compounded when complexes are isolated directly from cells, without the full protein complement. To investigate the origins of this broadening in mass spectral peaks and to develop the optimal method for analyzing mass spectra of large protein complexes, we have carried out a systematic investigation of a series of noncovalent complexes representing a range of different sizes and architectures.

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Jun
2005

Ribosomes are universal translators of the genetic code into protein and represent macromolecular structures that are asymmetric, often heterogeneous, and contain dynamic regions. These properties pose considerable challenges for modern-day structural biology. Despite these obstacles, high-resolution x-ray structures of the 30S and 50S subunits have revealed the RNA architecture and its interactions with proteins for ribosomes from Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Haloarcula marismortui.

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Feb
2005

The ability to maintain intact ribosomes in the mass spectrometer has enabled research into their changes in conformation and interactions. In the mass spectrometer, it is possible to induce dissociation of proteins from the intact ribosome and, in conjunction with atomic structures, to understand the factors governing their release. We have applied this knowledge to interpret the structural basis for release of proteins from ribosomes for which no high resolution structures are available, such as complexes with elongation factor G and ribosomes from yeast.

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