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Author: Adrian P Mundt (22)


Apr
2017

Cannabis and cocaine are the most common illicit drugs for which people are treated in addiction services in Latin America. Much research has suggested that the use of cannabis increases the risk of schizophrenia; there is less evidence concerning cocaine. The aim of the present study was to establish the relative prevalence of schizophrenia in people treated for cannabis use and cocaine use disorders in Chile.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, construct and criterion validity of the Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R) for prison inmates. A sample of 427 adult prisoners was assessed at admission to the penal justice system in the metropolitan region of Santiago de Chile using the SCL-90-R and the mini international neuropsychiatric interview. We tested internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha.

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Jan
2016

First longitudinal studies in prisoners point to improvements of depressive symptoms during imprisonment. The aim of the present study was to assess the course of major depressive disorder during imprisonment and to identify factors influencing remission.
Prisoners with major depressive disorder in a sample of consecutive admissions to the penal justice system in Santiago de Chile were reassessed after one year of imprisonment.

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Jul
2015

Several studies have pointed to high rates of substance use disorders among female prisoners. The present study aimed to assess comorbidities of substance use disorders with other mental disorders in female prisoners at admission to a penal justice system.
A sample of 150 female prisoners, consecutively admitted to the penal justice system of Berlin, Germany, was interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).

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Aug
2015

Whilst formal coercion in psychiatry is regulated by legislation, other interventions that are often referred to as informal coercion are less regulated. It remains unclear to what extent these interventions are, and how they are used, in mental healthcare. This paper aims to identify the attitudes and experiences of mental health professionals towards the use of informal coercion across countries with differing sociocultural contexts.

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Jan
2015

Throughout the world, high prevalence rates of mental disorders have been found in prison populations, especially in females. It has been suggested that these populations do not access psychiatric treatment. The aim of this study was to establish rates of psychiatric in- and outpatient treatments prior to imprisonment in female prisoners and to explore reasons for discontinuation of such treatments.

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Feb
2015

In 1939, English mathematician, geneticist, and psychiatrist Lionel Sharples Penrose hypothesized that the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds and the sizes of prison populations were inversely related; 75 years later, the question arises as to whether the hypothesis applies to recent developments in South America.
To explore the possible association of changes in the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds with changes in the sizes of prison populations in South America since 1990.
We searched primary sources for the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds in South American countries since 1990 (the year that the Latin American countries signed the Caracas Declaration) and compared these changes against the sizes of prison populations.

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Oct
2014

The study describes prescription patterns of psychotropic medications for patients treated for psychosis in psychiatric hospitals of Uganda. A cross-sectional quantitative survey of age, sex, diagnoses, and psychotropic medication of 682 psychiatric inpatients of the 2 national referral hospitals in Uganda was conducted on 1 day in March 2012. The percentage of patients treated with the same substance within the diagnostic categories schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, unspecified psychosis, and depressive disorder was calculated.

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Dec
1969

High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners.
A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile.

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Oct
2014

The aim of this study was to describe the association of current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress in socially disadvantaged urban areas of Germany and Kazakhstan. Random samples of people living in disadvantaged areas of Berlin, Germany, and Almaty, Kazakhstan, were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. The association of both current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress was assessed for each sample using linear regression analyses and compared between the two samples calculating t-values for the comparison of B-coefficients.

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Jan
2014

The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress.

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Dec
1969

General psychiatric and forensic psychiatric beds, supported housing and the prison population have been suggested as indicators of institutionalized mental health care. According to the Penrose hypothesis, decreasing psychiatric bed numbers may lead to increasing prison populations. The study aimed to assess indicators of institutionalized mental health care in post-communist countries during the two decades following the political change, and to explore whether the data are consistent with the Penrose hypothesis in that historical context.

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Dec
1969

The 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) is a scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire that has been used internationally to screen for mental disorders in nonpsychiatric populations. There is great need to validate international screening instruments in the Russian language for their use in post-Soviet countries.
200 persons were surveyed in a deprived area of Almaty, Kazakhstan using the Russian version of the GHQ-28 and socioeconomic measures (income level, employment situation and education).

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Dec
2012

The aim of the study was to assess the response to random sampling for a mental health survey in a deprived multi-ethnic area of Berlin, Germany, with a large Turkish-speaking population. A random list from the registration office with 1,000 persons stratified by age and gender was retrieved from the population registry and these persons were contacted using a three-stage design including written information, telephone calls and personal contact at home. A female bilingual interviewer contacted persons with Turkish names.

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Feb
2012

Little is known about psychopharmacological prescription practice in low-income countries. The present study aimed for an analysis of pharmacological treatment strategies for inpatients with schizophrenia in Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan, facing a low-income situation as compared with four German cities in a high-income Western situation.
We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative survey of age, gender, diagnoses, and psychotropic medication of 845 urban psychiatric inpatients of the Tashkent psychiatric hospital and of 922 urban psychiatric inpatients in four German cities on 1 day in October 2008.

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Dec
2011

The present study shows a comparison of diagnoses used for the treatment of urban psychiatric inpatients in Tashkent/Uzbekistan and Berlin/Germany. Differential diagnostic practices related to different traditions in psychopathology between the two settings are analysed to explain part of the difference in relative frequencies of the diagnoses.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of diagnoses used for the treatment of 845 inpatients including 17 out of 18 wards of the Tashkent psychiatric hospital and of all 2,260 psychiatric and psychotherapeutic inpatients in Berlin in October 2008.

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Jun
2009

The role of phagocytosing immune cells in Alzheimer's pathology can be studied experimentally in APP23 transgenic mice. This present study intended to label phagocytosing immune cells in the plaque periphery of APP23 mice in vivo by intraventricular injection of VSOP-C184, a phagocytosable iron oxide nanoparticle MRI contrast agent. Firstly, the dosages of 0.

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