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Author: Ake Strid (40)


Dec
2016

The asymptomatic nature of most Chlamydia trachomatis infections and the lack of appropriate effects by current prevention and management call for vaccine development. We evaluated a recombinant subunit vaccine candidate based on the major outer membrane protein variable segments 2 and 4 (MOMP VS2/4). To achieve maximal immunogenicity and ease of production and purification, MOMP VS2/4 was constructed by using highly immunogenic sequences of MOMP only, thereby minimizing the presence of hydrophobic regions, and spacing the immunogenic epitopes with a flexible amino acid sequence.

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Nov
2016

The zoonotic Rift Valley fever virus affects livestock and humans in Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula. The economic impact of this pathogen due to livestock losses, as well as its relevance to public health, underscores the importance of developing effective and easily distributed vaccines. Vaccines that can be delivered orally are of particular interest.

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Apr
2016

Although much explored, oral tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases still awaits the establishment of novel and effective vectors. We investigated whether the tolerogenic CTA1(R7K)-COL-DD fusion protein can be expressed in edible plants, to induce oral tolerance and protect against arthritis. The fusion protein was recombinantly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants, which were fed to H-2(q) -restricted DBA/1 mice to assess the preventive effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).

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Jun
2014

Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation is a developmental signal in plants but may also cause oxidative stress when combined with other environmental factors. Using computer modeling and in solution experiments we show that UV-B is capable of photosensitizing hydroxyl radical production from hydrogen peroxide. We present evidence that the oxidative effect of UV-B in leaves is at least twofold: (i) it increases cellular hydrogen peroxide concentrations, to a larger extent in pyridoxine antioxidant mutant pdx1.

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May
2015

Wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the solar spectrum, UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm), are key environmental signals modifying several aspects of plant physiology. Despite significant advances in the understanding of plant responses to UV-B and the identification of signalling components involved, there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms that control UV-B signalling in plants under natural sunlight. Here, we aimed to corroborate the previous suggested role for RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) in UV-B signalling under full spectrum sunlight.

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Apr
2014

During early infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), there is a rapid depletion of CD4(+) T-cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, immediate protection at these surfaces is of high priority for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Thus, transgenic plants expressing HIV-1 antigens, which are exposed to immune competent cells in the GALT during oral administration, can be interesting as potential vaccine candidates.

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Jan
2014

The Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) protein has been identified to specifically mediate photomorphogenic UV-B responses by acting as a UV-B photoreceptor. The dimeric structure of the UVR8 protein dissociates into signaling-active monomers upon UV-B exposure, and the monomers rapidly interact with downstream signaling components to regulate gene expression. UVR8 monomers revert to dimers in the absence of UV-B radiation, thereby reversing transcription activation.

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Jul
2013

The dimeric UVR8 protein is an ultraviolet-B radiation (280-315 nm) photoreceptor responsible for the first step in UV-B regulation of gene expression in plants. Its action comprises the actual absorption of the UV quanta by a tryptophan array at the protein-protein interface, followed by monomerization and subsequent aggregation with downstream signaling components. A crystal structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana tryptophan-rich wild type UVR8 protein dimer was recently published, showing the presence of several salt bridges involving arginines R146, R286, R338, and R354.

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Feb
2013

Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280-315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films.

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Feb
2013

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has long been perceived as a stressor. However, a conceptual U-turn has taken place, and UV-B damage is now considered rare. We question whether UV-stress and UV-B-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are still relevant concepts, and if ROS-mediated signaling contributes to UV-B acclimation.

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Oct
2012

Homology models of CYP26B1 (cytochrome P450RAI2) and CYP26B1 spliced variant were derived using the crystal structure of cyanobacterial CYP120A1 as template for the model building. The quality of the homology models generated were carefully evaluated, and the natural substrate all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), several tetralone-derived retinoic acid metabolizing blocking agents (RAMBAs), and a well-known potent inhibitor of CYP26B1 (R115866) were docked into the homology model of full-length cytochrome P450 26B1. The results show that in the model of the full-length CYP26B1, the protein is capable of distinguishing between the natural substrate (atRA), R115866, and the tetralone derivatives.

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Dec
1969

All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression, cell growth and differentiation and is also important for normal cardiovascular development but may in turn be involved in cardiovascular diseases, i.e. atherosclerosis and restenosis.

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Aug
2012

Lolium perenne (cv. AberDart) was grown at 14 locations along a latitudinal gradient across Europe (37-68°N) to study the impact of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and climate on aboveground growth and foliar UV-B absorbing compounds. At each location, plants were grown outdoors for 5 weeks in a replicated UV-B filtration experiment consisting of open, UV-B transparent (cellulose diacetate) and UV-B opaque (polyester) environments.

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Nov
2011

Theoretical study of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) photolysis.

J Phys Chem A 2011 Nov 25;115(46):13556-63. Epub 2011 Oct 25.
Min Wu, Qi Xu, Ake Strid, Jaime M Martell, Leif A Eriksson
Two different reaction types for the photolysis of pyridoxine-aromatic ring-opening and photodissociation-have been studied in the Density Functional Theory (DFT) framework. Our results show that neither photolytic ring-opening, dehydroxymethylation, demethylation nor dehydroxylation from the aromatic ring can be induced spontaneously in UV-irradiated pyridoxine, due to the high barriers along the reaction coordinates in the excited states. However, the simultaneous dehydroxylation of the C4-bound hydroxymethyl group and dehydrogenation of the ring bound hydroxyl substituent, selectively generating ortho-quinone methide and water, does occur after UV exposure.

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Jun
2011

A homology model of the Arabidopsis thaliana UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8) protein is presented herein, showing a seven-bladed β-propeller conformation similar to the globular structure of RCC1. The UVR8 amino acid sequence contains a very high amount of conserved tryptophans, and the homology model shows that seven of these tryptophans cluster at the 'top surface' of the UVR8 protein where they are intermixed with positive residues (mainly arginines) and a couple of tyrosines. Quantum chemical calculations of excitation spectra of both a large cluster model involving all twelve above-mentioned residues and smaller fragments thereof reveal that absorption maxima appearing in the 280-300 nm range for the full cluster result from interactions between the central tryptophans and surrounding arginines.

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Apr
2011

The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues.

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Mar
2011

The catalytic mechanism of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid (MHPC) oxygenase (MHPCO) has been systematically studied using DFT and ONIOM(DFT:MM) methods. MHPCO catalyzes the hydroxylation and subsequent ring-opening of the aromatic substrate MHPC to give the aliphatic product α-(N-acetylaminomethylene)succinic acid (AAMS). Our calculations show that the active-site residues Arg211 and Tyr223 have a minor effect on the reaction, while the peptide bond of Pro295-Ala296, the side chain of Tyr82 and several crystal water molecules affect the reaction energy profile considerably.

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Mar
2011

Ultraviolet-B radiation regulates plant growth and morphology at low and ambient fluence rates but can severely impact on plants at higher doses. Some plant UV-B responses are related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) has been reported to be a quencher of ROS. UV-B irradiation of Arabidopsis Col-0 plants resulted in increased levels of PDX1 protein, compared with UV-A-exposed plants.

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Oct
2010

The aim of this study was to produce a recombinant version of the highly antigenic Helicobacter pylori TonB (iron-dependent siderophore transporter protein HP1341) in transgenic plants as a candidate oral vaccine antigen.
Using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer, we introduced three different constructs of the tonB gene into the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We investigated transgene insertion by PCR, produced TonB antibodies for analysis of the production of the recombinant protein in plants, verified the identity of the protein produced by mass spectrometry analysis, and analyzed the number of genetic inserts in the plants by Southern blotting.

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Feb
2010

Hybrid meta-GGA density functional theory (the MPWB1K functional) was used to study the hydroxylation and ring-opening mechanism of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase (MHPCO). This enzyme catalyses the conversion of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid (MHPC) to alpha-(N-acetylaminomethylene)succinic acid (AAMS), which is the essential ring-opening step in the bacterial degradation of vitamin B(6). MHPCO belongs to the flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases family.

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Jul
2009

Molecules acting as antioxidants capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) are of the utmost importance in the living cell. The antioxidative properties of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) have recently been discovered. Previous theoretical calculations have shown a high reactivity of pyridoxine toward hydroxyl radicals, where the latter preferably abstract H from either carbon of the two methanol substituents (C8 or C9).

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Jul
2009

An optimized gene expression construct was designed in order to increase the accumulation of the HIV-1 subtype C p24 protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and carrot (Daucus carota) plants. An ER retention signal was introduced into the genetic construct generating a p24 protein containing a SEKDEL amino acid sequence at its C-terminus. Mature A.

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Nov
2008

Development of transgenic edible plants, to be used as production, storage and delivery systems for recombinant vaccine antigens, is a promising strategy to obtain cost effective vaccines against infectious diseases, not least for use in developing countries. Therefore, we used Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer to introduce the p24 gag gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein from HIV-1 subtype C into the Arabidopsis thaliana plant genome. Eighteen plant lines were confirmed positive for the p24 gene by PCR; four of these lines showed an apparent homozygous phenotype when grown on selective medium and these lines also showed transcription of the p24 gene into its corresponding mRNA.

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Jan
2009

In Pisum sativum, the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) gene family consists of at least three members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). Expression of two of these genes (SAD-A and -C) in Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris resulted in full-length soluble proteins. Purified SAD-A was used as antigen for antibody production in rabbits.

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Jun
2008

Homology models of cytochrome P450 26A1 and cytochrome P450 26B1 were constructed using the crystal structures of human, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 as templates for the model building. The homology models generated were investigated for their docking capacities against the natural substrate all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), five different tetralone-derived retinoic acid metabolizing blocking agents (RAMBAs), and R115866. Interaction energies (IE) and linear interaction energies (LIE) were calculated for all inhibitors in both homology models after molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the enzyme-ligand complexes.

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Feb
2008

The F1-ATP synthase atp operon in the proteobacterium Rhodobacter blasticus contains six open reading frames, encoding six hypothetical proteins. Five of these subunits, in the stoichiometry (alphabeta)3gamma delta epsilon make up the catalytic F1-ATP synthase complex similarly in bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria. The sixth gene of the R.

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Dec
1969

Singlet oxygen is known to cause oxidative stress in cells, leading to severe damage (e.g., lipid peroxidation, membrane degradation, mutagenic alterations to DNA, protein misfunctionality).

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Dec
2006

Molecules acting as antioxidants capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) are of utmost importance in the living cell. The antioxidative properties of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) have recently been discovered. In this study, we have analyzed the reactivity of pyridoxine toward the ROS (.

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May
2006

Irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes C24, Wassilewskija (Ws) and Columbia-0 (Col-0) with supplementary ultraviolet-A+B (UV-A+B) radiation revealed ecotype-specific differences in expression of the gene for the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5. C24 showed an increased expression level of PR-5 (5- and 20-fold higher compared with Col-0 and Ws, respectively). Expression of other molecular markers such as CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), MEB5.

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Sep
2006

Plant responses to supplementary UV-B irradiation have been reported to include formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide, in particular, and regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades which in turn are fine-tuned by MAPK phosphatases (MKPs). Here we present direct genetic evidence for the involvement of plasma membrane NADPH oxidase, a source of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in the apoplasts, in UV-B signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana, by analysis of gene expression of the UV-B molecular markers in NADPH oxidase (atrbohD, F and DF) and MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP1) knockout mutants (mkp1). Whereas the NADPH oxidase mutants were affected in UV-B-dependent CHS, PYROA and MEB5.

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Aug
2006

The key electronic and spectroscopic properties of vitamin B(6) (pyridoxine) and some of its main charged and protonated/deprotonated species are explored using hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods including polarized solvation models. It is found that the dominant species at low pH is the N(1)-protonated form and, at high pH, the O(3)(')-deprotonated compound. Computed and experimental UV-spectra for these species (experimental spectra recorded at pH 1.

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May
2006

The use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants increases the risk for emissions of other brominated compounds, such as polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). The large homology in structure of PBDD/Fs and mechanism of toxic action, i.e.

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Oct
2005

The thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer has prompted a large number of studies of UV-B-induced effects in biological and chemical systems. The wavelength dependency of such effects is of interest from mechanistic, physiological or economic points of view. Here, we describe an apparatus for determining the wavelength dependency of UV-B effects in biological and chemical systems.

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Jun
2005

Anthocyanin accumulation occurs in rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana within 8 days after removal of the inflorescence stem. Expression of stress-induced genes CHS and PR-5 was strongly up-regulated by stem removal, and was highest on day 4 after decapitation. These levels were 10 and 5 times higher than in the control, respectively.

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Jun
2004

The glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase (gMDH) catalyses the formation of oxaloacetate from malate during beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the glyoxysome. A partial Pisum sativum L. (cv.

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Sep
2004

The involvement of brassinosteroids in signalling events in plants during UV-B stress (280-315 nm) was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Brassinosteroids are involved in growth and development in plants and have also been shown to enhance stress tolerance. Three mutants deficient in the biosynthetic pathway of brassinolide (BL; det2, dim1 and cpd) and the BL insensitive mutant (bri1) were together with visible light irradiated with 3 or 9 h of UV-B radiation (biologically effective radiation normalised to 300 nm being 0.

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Feb
2004

Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate heavy metal-induced genes from Pisum sativum roots hydroponically exposed to 5 microM HgCl2 and 10 microM EDTA. Six genes were induced out of which one, PsHMIP6B, was novel. The other genes (PsSAMT, PsI2'H, PsNDA, PsAPSR, PsPOD) had not previously been isolated from pea and sequenced.

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Sep
2002

UV-B radiation alters transcript levels of various defence genes and photosynthetic genes in plants. Utilising a DNA array with 5000 ESTs and cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana, 70 genes were found to show a greater than two-fold induction or repression of transcript levels. Six genes (MEB5.

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Apr
2002

DNA fragments containing the 5' promoter regions of the Pisum sativum sadA and sadC genes were amplified from genomic DNA, cloned and sequenced. These sequences contain a number of conserved cis-acting elements, which are potentially involved in stress-induced transcription of the sad genes. To determine whether any of the identified elements are active in binding nuclear factors in vitro, 11 60-bp overlapping (by 30 bp) DNA probe fragments covering the proximal sadC promoter sequence (360 bp) were used in electrophoretic mobility shift assays with competition.

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Apr
2002

Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate genes differentially regulated by low levels (UV-B(BE,300) 0.13 W m(-2)) of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 290-320 nm) in Pisum sativum. Six genes were regulated, two of which were novel.

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