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Author: Akihisa Kato (72)


Feb
2018

The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation.

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Feb
2018

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) exploits the reaction between photosensitizer and irradiated light to generate potentially therapeutic reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen in cancer cells. We have reported several sugar-conjugated chlorins that express stronger antitumor effects in PDT than talaporfin sodium (TS), a second-generation photosensitizer clinically used in Japan. In this study, we developed a novel glucose-conjugated chlorin e6 (G-chlorin e6) and evaluated its antitumor effects.

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Jan
2018

The combined administration of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) is a standard chemotherapy for unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (UR-PDAC); thus, a predictive biomarker to identify patients best suited for nab-P + Gem therapy would be useful. Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) has been reported to be a predictive marker for taxane resistance in various tumors. However, the correlation between TUBB3 expression and the response to nab-P + Gem in patients with UR-PDAC has not been evaluated.

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Dec
2017

Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a pancreatic manifestation of IgG4-retated disease that is often associated with IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an immune-related disease that causes hemolytic anemia. Although type 1 AIP/IgG4-SC and AIHA have a shared etiology as a presumed autoimmune disease, they rarely overlap, and their association has not been clarified.

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Oct
2017

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis, which can be lethal or result in severe neurological defects even with antiviral therapy. While HSV-1 causes encephalitis in spite of HSV-1-specific humoral and cellular immunity, the mechanism by which HSV-1 evades the immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Here we describe a strategy by which HSV-1 avoids immune targeting in the CNS.

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Sep
2017

VP26 is a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) small capsomere-interacting protein. In this study, we investigated the function of VP26 in HSV-1-infected cells with the following results. (i) The VP26 null mutation significantly impaired incorporation of minor capsid protein UL25 into nucleocapsids (type C capsids) in the nucleus.

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Jun
2017

Upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, the CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is redistributed around the nuclear membrane (NM), where it promotes viral de-envelopment during the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. In this study, we attempted to identify the factor(s) involved in CD98hc accumulation and demonstrated the following: (i) the null mutation of HSV-1 UL34 caused specific dispersion throughout the cytoplasm of CD98hc and the HSV-1 de-envelopment regulators, glycoproteins B and H (gB and gH); (ii) as observed with CD98hc, gB, and gH, wild-type HSV-1 infection caused redistribution of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers calnexin and ERp57 around the NM, whereas the UL34-null mutation caused cytoplasmic dispersion of these markers; (iii) the ER markers colocalized efficiently with CD98hc, gB, and gH in the presence and absence of UL34 in HSV-1-infected cells; (iv) at the ultrastructural level, wild-type HSV-1 infection caused ER compression around the NM, whereas the UL34-null mutation caused cytoplasmic dispersion of the ER; and (v) the UL34-null mutation significantly decreased the colocalization efficiency of lamin protein markers of the NM with CD98hc and gB. Collectively, these results indicate that HSV-1 infection causes redistribution of the ER around the NM, with resulting accumulation of ER-associated CD98hc, gB, and gH around the NM and that UL34 is required for ER redistribution, as well as for efficient recruitment to the NM of the ER-associated de-envelopment factors.

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Jun
2017

Peritoneal dissemination is a major clinical issue associated with dismal prognosis and poor quality of life for patients with pancreatic cancer; however, no effective treatment strategies have been established. Herein, we evaluated the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with maltotriose-conjugated chlorin (Mal-chlorin) in culture and in a peritoneal disseminated mice model of pancreatic cancer. The Mal-chlorin was prepared as a water-soluble chlorin derivative conjugated with four Malmolecules to improve cancer selectivity.

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Dec
1969

Whole exome sequencing (WES) has become a common tool for identifying genetic causes of human inherited disorders, and it has also recently been applied to canine genome research. We conducted WES analysis of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), a neurodegenerative disease that sporadically occurs worldwide in Papillon dogs. The disease is considered an autosomal recessive monogenic disease, which is histopathologically characterized by severe axonal swelling, known as "spheroids," throughout the nervous system.

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May
2017

In recent years, knowledge concerning the mechanical properties of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) has increased. In a previous study, we defined traction force and traction momentum and reported that these characteristics are important for optimal stent deployment. However, traction force and traction momentum were represented as relative values and were not evaluated in various conditions.

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Dec
1969

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a causative agent for a variety of diseases. Although antiherpetic drugs such as acyclovir have been developed to inhibit virus replication through interaction with DNA kinases, their continuous administration leads to an increase in the frequency of drug-resistant HSV-1, which is an important clinical issue that requires urgent solution. Recently, we reported that the sialylated O-linked sugar T antigen (sTn) and its attached peptide region (O-glycosylated sTn peptide) derived from the HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) protein inhibited HSV-1 infection by specifically targeting paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα) in vitro.

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Nov
2016

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) envelope glycoprotein D (gD) plays an essential role in viral entry. The functional regions of gD responsible for viral entry have been mapped to its extracellular domain, whereas the gD cytoplasmic domain plays no obvious role in viral entry. Thus far, the role(s) of the gD cytoplasmic domain in HSV-1 replication has remained to be elucidated.

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Dec
1969

To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein UL51 promotes viral replication, we screened for viral proteins that interact with UL51 in infected cells. Affinity purification of tagged UL51 in HSV-1-infected Vero cells was coupled with immunoblotting of the purified UL51 complexes with various antibodies to HSV-1 virion proteins. Subsequent analyses revealed that UL51 interacted with another tegument protein, UL14, in infected cells.

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Jul
2016

Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is rarely secreted by neuroendocrine tumors. Although neuroendocrine tumors may occur at any site in the gastrointestinal system, they very rarely occur in the ampulla of Vater and have a poor prognosis. The present study described the first Cushing's syndrome as a result of ectopic ACTH arising from the ampulla of Vater neuroendocrine carcinoma.

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Dec
1969

We herein report a case of a 56-year-old man with IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) with no biliary stricture, but with a severely thickened bile duct wall. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed diffuse swelling of the pancreas and thickening of the common bile duct (CBD) wall with delayed enhancement. Obvious diffuse wall thickening of the CBD was observed on endoscopic ultrasonography.

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Dec
1969

p53 is a critical host cell factor in the cellular response to a broad range of stress factors. We recently reported that p53 is required for efficient herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication in cell culture. However, a defined role for p53 in HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis in vivo remains elusive.

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Dec
1969

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Us8A gene overlaps the gene that encodes glycoprotein E (gE). Previous studies have investigated the roles of Us8A in HSV-1 infection using null mutations in Us8A and gE; therefore, the role of Us8A remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the function of Us8A and its phosphorylation at serine 61 (Ser-61), which we recently identified as a phosphorylation site by mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis of HSV-1-infected cells, in HSV-1 pathogenesis.

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May
2016

Various mechanical properties of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) have been reported. They can be classified into the device behavior during and after deployment. While there have been several reports on the latter, information on the former is insufficient.

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Jul
2016

The clinical features of acute obstructive suppurative pancreatic ductitis (AOSPD) have not been elucidated. We aimed to clarify the clinical features of AOSPD.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of 20 patients with AOSPD at two tertiary referral centers between 1993 and 2012.

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Jan
2016

To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) regulatory protein ICP0 promotes viral gene expression and replication, we screened cells overexpressing ICP0 for ICP0-binding host cell proteins. Tandem affinity purification of transiently expressed ICP0 coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology and subsequent analyses showed that ICP0 interacted with cell protein RanBP10, a known transcriptional coactivator, in HSV-1-infected cells. Knockdown of RanBP10 in infected HEp-2 cells resulted in a phenotype similar to that observed with the ICP0-null mutation, including reduction in viral replication and in the accumulation of viral immediate early (ICP27), early (ICP8), and late (VP16) mRNAs and proteins.

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Dec
1969

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes a range of human diseases, from mild uncomplicated mucocutaneous infection to life-threatening ones. The Us3 gene of HSV-1 encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved among alphaherpesviruses. Accumulating evidence suggests that Us3 is a critical regulator of HSV-1 infection; however, the molecular mechanism by which Us3 regulates HSV-1 pathogenicity remains to be elucidated.

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Jan
2016

The diagnostic yields of endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsies for malignant biliary strictures (MBS) remain unclear and predictive factors for diagnosis have not been established. We aimed to clarify the diagnostic yields of both methods and the predictive factors
We reviewed 241 patients with biliary strictures who underwent transpapillary brush cytology (n = 202) or forceps biopsy (n= 208) between 2004 and 2014 at a single academic center.
The sensitivity of forceps biopsy for MBS was significantly higher than that of brush cytology [60.

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Jan
2016

There is abundant epidemiological evidence that heavy alcohol intake contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Previous reports indicated that connexin 32 (Cx32), which is a major hepatocyte gap junction protein, is down-regulated in chronic liver disease and has a protective role in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, functions of Cx32 in alcohol-related hepatocarcinogenesis have not been clarified.

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Jan
2016

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is frequently performed for the diagnosis and treatment of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). However, the prevalence of ERCP-related adverse events in patients with type 1 AIP has not been evaluated. We aimed to clarify the feasibility of ERCP in patients with type 1 AIP.

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Mar
2016

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expresses infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), a multi-functional protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and a critical regulator of the viral life cycle. To obtain novel insights into the molecular mechanism by which ICP0 regulates HSV-1 replication, we analyzed HEp-2 cells infected with HSV-1 by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry-based proteomics. This screen identified 50 host-cell proteins that potentially interact with ICP0, including ubiquitin-specific protease 9X (USP9X).

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Dec
2015

Despite progress in clinical cancer medicine in multiple fields, the prognosis of pancreatic cancer has remained dismal. Recently, chemopreventive strategies using phytochemicals have gained considerable attention as an alternative in the management of cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of resveratrol (RV) and apocynin (AC) in N-Nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamster.

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Dec
2015

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has the potential to lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Connexin (Cx) 32, a hepatocyte gap-junction protein, plays a preventive role in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the precise contribution of Cx32 in the development of NASH has not been established.

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Oct
2015

Us3 protein kinases encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) play important roles in viral replication and pathogenicity. To investigate type-specific differences between HSV-1 Us3 and HSV-2 Us3 in cells infected by viruses with all the same viral gene products except for their Us3 kinases, we constructed and characterized a recombinant HSV-1 in which its Us3 gene was replaced with the HSV-2 Us3 gene. Replacement of HSV-1 Us3 with HSV-2 Us3 had no apparent effect on viral growth in cell cultures or on the range of proteins phosphorylated by Us3.

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Dec
1969

We herein report the case of a 72-year-old man who underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT) with talaporfin sodium for recurrent cholangiocarcinoma after surgical resection. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) showed severe stenosis with an irregular surface measuring approximately 1 cm in length from the anastomotic site, and a recurrent nodular lesion was observed at the anastomotic site of the right anterior intrahepatic bile duct on gastrointestinal endoscopy. ERC after PDT revealed a dramatic improvement in the bile duct stenosis, and the nodular lesion had disappeared.

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Sep
2015

To clarify the function(s) of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) major virion structural protein UL47 (also designated VP13/14), we screened cells overexpressing UL47 for UL47-binding cellular proteins. Tandem affinity purification of transiently expressed UL47 coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology and subsequent analyses showed that UL47 interacted with cell protein p32 in HSV-1-infected cells. Unlike in mock-infected cells, p32 accumulated at the nuclear rim in HSV-1-infected cells, and this p32 recruitment to the nuclear rim required UL47.

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Dec
1969

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) responds well to corticosteroid therapy (CST), and CST is essential to induce remission. However, the correlation between long-term outcome and CST has not been evaluated. We aimed to clarify the correlation between long-term outcome of AIP and CST.

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Aug
2015

Herpesviruses have evolved a unique mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport of nascent nucleocapsids: the nucleocapsids bud through the inner nuclear membrane (INM; primary envelopment), and the enveloped nucleocapsids then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane (de-envelopment). Little is known about the molecular mechanism of herpesviral de-envelopment. We show here that the knockdown of both CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and its binding partner β1 integrin induced membranous structures containing enveloped herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) virions that are invaginations of the INM into the nucleoplasm and induced aberrant accumulation of enveloped virions in the perinuclear space and in the invagination structures.

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Apr
2015

A 78-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of choledocholithiasis. ERC demonstrated choledocholithiases with a maximum diameter of 13 mm, and we performed endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with a size of 15 mm. Immediately following the balloon deflation, spurting hemorrhage occurred from the orifice of the duodenal papilla.

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Jun
2015

Replacement of the herpes simplex virus 1 small capsid protein VP26 phosphorylation site Thr-111 with alanine reduced viral replication and neurovirulence to levels observed with the VP26 null mutation. This mutation reduced VP26 expression and mislocalized VP26 and its binding partner, the major capsid protein VP5, in the nucleus. VP5 mislocalization was also observed with the VP26 null mutation.

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Jun
2015

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) envelope glycoprotein H (gH) is important for viral entry into cells and nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. To clarify additional novel roles of gH during HSV-1 replication, host cell proteins that interact with gH were screened for by tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics in 293T cells transiently expressing gH. This screen identified 123 host cell proteins as potential gH interactors.

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Dec
1969

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TP53 (codon 72, rs1042522) and MDM2 promoter (SNP 309, rs2279744) have been associated with risk for various human cancers. However, studies analyzing these polymorphisms in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are lacking. We investigated TP53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP 309 polymorphisms in 32 patients with PDAC, 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 32 normal controls, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

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Aug
2015

Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) have been widely accepted as palliation therapy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). However, the factors predictive of poor oral intake after SEMS placement have not been elucidated sufficiently. We aimed to clarify both the patient and stent-related predictive factors.

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May
2015

We aimed to clarify the clinical benefits of using 8-mm versus 10-mm diameter self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) in bilateral endoscopic stent-in-stent (SIS) deployment for malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHBO).
A total of 72 consecutive patients with MHBO treated by endoscopic bilateral SIS deployment were enrolled. The 8-mm and 10-mm diameter SEMSs were used in 37 patients (8-mm group) and 35 patients (10-mm group), respectively.

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Jun
2015

Comparisons of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) findings between primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) have not been elucidated. We aimed to clarify the differences in transpapillary IDUS findings between PSC and IgG4-SC.
We retrospectively compared transpapillary IDUS findings between 15 patients with PSC and 35 patients with IgG4-SC between 2004 and 2014.

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Jul
2015

The influence of chemotherapy on placement of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO) has not been evaluated extensively. We investigated the influence of chemotherapy on the clinical outcomes of SEMS placement for MGOO.
A total of 152 cancer patients with MGOO from a university hospital and affiliate hospitals were included.

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Apr
2015

Locus and chromosome abnormalities have not been well clarified in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). The aim of this study was to retrospectively examine these abnormalities using fluorescence in situ hybridization. IPMNs (n=28) were histopathologically classified into noninvasive IPMN (n=17) and IPMN with an associated invasive carcinoma (invasive IPMN, n=11) groups.

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Feb
2015

Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) has been reported to function as a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) entry coreceptor by interacting with viral envelope glycoprotein B (gB). Vertebrates have three genetically distinct isoforms of the NMHC-II, designated NMHC-IIA, NMHC-IIB, and NMHC-IIC. COS cells, which are readily infected by HSV-1, do not express NMHC-IIA but do express NMHC-IIB.

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Jan
2015

A mutation in herpes simplex virus 1 dUTPase (vdUTPase), which precluded its phosphorylation at Ser-187, decreased viral neurovirulence and increased mutation frequency in progeny virus genomes in the brains of mice where endogenous cellular dUTPase activity was relatively low, and overexpression of cellular dUTPase restored viral neurovirulence and mutation frequency altered by the mutation. Thus, phosphorylation of vdUTPase appeared to regulate viral virulence and genome integrity by compensating for low cellular dUTPase activity in vivo.
Many DNA viruses encode a homolog of host cell dUTPases, which are known to function in accurate replication of cellular DNA genomes.

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Apr
2015

Various methods to evaluate immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for the diagnosis of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) have been proposed. Our goal was to determine the most useful IHC method for the diagnosis of AIP.
Specimens of AIP (18 patients), chronic pancreatitis (CP, 24 patients), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA, 45 patients) were evaluated with IHC for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1, IgG4, and CD138 (syndecan-1).

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Sep
2014

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL12 protein (pUL12) is a nuclease that is critical for viral replication in vitro and neurovirulence in vivo. In this study, mass spectrometric analysis of pUL12 and phosphate-affinity SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified tyrosine at pUL12 residue 371 (Tyr-371) as a pUL12 phosphorylation site: Tyr-371 is conserved in pUL12 homologs in herpesviruses in all Herpesviridae subfamilies. Replacement of Tyr-371 with phenylalanine (Y371F) in pUL12 (i) abolished its exonuclease activity in HSV-1-infected Vero, HEL, and A549 cells, (ii) reduced viral replication, cell-cell spread, and pUL12 expression in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, (iii) led to aberrant subcellular localization of pUL12 in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, and (iv) reduced HSV-1 neurovirulence in mice.

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May
2014

Initial pancreatogram and natural history of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) have not been clarified, and there were few recent studies concerning the association between AIP and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).
We report an 81-year- old man with AIP associated with IPMN. Although the initial pancreatogram was normal, a short narrowing of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) appeared during a follow-up for IPMN after 6 months, which was highly suggestive of pancreatic cancer.

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Jul
2014

We recently reported that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein kinase Us3 phosphorylated viral dUTPase (vdUTPase) at serine 187 (Ser-187) to upregulate its enzymatic activity, which promoted HSV-1 replication in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells but not in human carcinoma HEp-2 cells. In the present study, we showed that endogenous cellular dUTPase activity in SK-N-SH cells was significantly lower than that in HEp-2 cells and that overexpression of cellular dUTPase in SK-N-SH cells increased the replication of an HSV-1 mutant with an alanine substitution for Ser-187 (S187A) in vdUTPase to the wild-type level. In addition, we showed that knockdown of cellular dUTPase in HEp-2 cells significantly reduced replication of the mutant vdUTPase (S187A) virus but not that of wild-type HSV-1.

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Jul
2014

In order to investigate the novel function(s) of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein ICP22, we screened for ICP22-binding proteins in HSV-1-infected cells. Our results were as follows. (i) Tandem affinity purification of ICP22 from infected cells, coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics and subsequent analyses, demonstrates that ICP22 forms a complex(es) with the HSV-1 proteins UL31, UL34, UL47 (or VP13/14), and/or Us3.

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Jul
2014

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the first-line therapy for large pancreatic duct stones; however, it requires a long duration of therapy.
To clarify the effect of pancreatic stenting prior to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on shortening the duration of therapy and reducing complications.
We retrospectively compared 45 patients who underwent pancreatic stenting prior to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (stenting group) and 35 patients who did not undergo stenting prior to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (non-stenting group) with regard to the cumulative number of shock waves required for stone fragmentation (stone size <3mm) and the rate of complications.

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May
2014

Herpesviruses have evolved a unique mechanism for nuclear egress of nascent progeny nucleocapsids: the nucleocapsids bud through the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space between the inner and outer nuclear membranes (primary envelopment), and enveloped nucleocapsids then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane to release nucleocapsids into the cytoplasm (de-envelopment). We have shown that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) major virion structural protein UL47 (or VP13/VP14) is a novel regulator for HSV-1 nuclear egress. In particular, we demonstrated the following: (i) UL47 formed a complex(es) with HSV-1 proteins UL34, UL31, and/or Us3, which have all been reported to be critical for viral nuclear egress, and these viral proteins colocalized at the nuclear membrane in HSV-1-infected cells; (ii) the UL47-null mutation considerably reduced primary enveloped virions in the perinuclear space although capsids accumulated in the nucleus; and (iii) UL47 was detected in primary enveloped virions in the perinuclear space by immunoelectron microscopy.

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