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Author: Alexandra S Potter (15)


Dec
2017

Moment-to-moment reaction time variability on tasks of attention, often quantified by intra-individual response variability (IRV), provides a good indication of the degree to which an individual is vulnerable to lapses in sustained attention. Increased IRV is a hallmark of several disorders of attention, including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here, task-based fMRI was used to provide the first examination of how average brain activation and functional connectivity patterns in adolescents are related to individual differences in sustained attention as measured by IRV.

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Nov
2017

The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study incorporates a comprehensive range of measures assessing predictors and outcomes related to both mental and physical health across childhood and adolescence. The workgroup developed a battery that would assess a comprehensive range of domains that address study aims while minimizing participant and family burden. We review the major considerations that went into deciding what constructs to cover in the demographics, physical health and mental health domains, as well as the process of selecting measures, piloting and refining the originally proposed battery.

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Nov
2017

Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have most commonly reported volumetric abnormalities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortices. Few studies have examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and brain structure in population-based samples. We investigated the relationship between dimensional measures of ADHD symptomatology, brain structure, and reaction time variability-an index of lapses in attention.

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Nov
2014

Smoking cessation in men and women.

Am J Psychiatry 2014 Nov;171(11):1148-50
Alexandra S Potter

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Dec
2014

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common chronic neurobehavioral disorder related to clinically significant levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. ADHD begins in childhood and symptoms persist into adulthood for the majority of those with the disorder. Associated features of ADHD include emotion dysregulation and cognitive impairments, which contribute to the considerable functional impairments in this disorder.

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Feb
2014

Laboratory studies have found that acute stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves cognition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinical trials of nicotinic agonists have been mixed, underscoring the need to understand the mechanisms for individual differences in clinical response. Using cognitive models within a clinical trial framework may provide insight into these differences.

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Mar
2014

Stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic systems has been shown to alleviate ADHD symptoms and to improve cognitive performance. AZD1446 is a selective α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist with potential effect on the symptoms of ADHD.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of AZD1446 in adults with ADHD treated for 2 weeks.

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Jan
2013

Beneficial effects of nicotine on cognition and behavioral control are hypothesized to relate to the high rates of cigarette smoking in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Given that ADHD is associated with both impulsivity and elevated risk taking, we hypothesized that nicotine modulates risk taking, as it does impulsivity. 26 non-smoking young adults (15 controls with normal impulsivity and 11 ADHD with high impulsivity) received 7 mg transdermal nicotine, 20mg oral mecamylamine, and placebo on separate days, followed by the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART).

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Mar
2012

Evidence for a relationship between cigarette smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has prompted investigations into nicotinic treatments for this disorder. Impulsivity is a hallmark of ADHD and is measured in the laboratory as behavioral inhibition (BI) using the stop signal task (SST). Acute nicotine improves SST performance in adolescents and young adults who have both ADHD and impaired baseline SST performance, raising questions about the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function in BI.

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Oct
2011

Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as selective attention, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive control, and emotional processing. In addition, recent progress in understanding functional connectivity between brain regions utilized during cognitive and emotional processes offers new opportunities for examining drug effects on network-related activity.

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Jun
2009

Nicotinic cholinergic stimulation has known beneficial effects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mecamylamine is a non-competitive nicotinic antagonist which is reported in several animal studies to have paradoxical positive effects on cognition at ultra-low doses. Comparable studies in humans have not been conducted.

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Feb
2008

The strong association between ADHD and cigarette smoking and the known effects of nicotine on cognition has lead to interest in the role of cholinergic function in ADHD cognitive deficits. We have previously demonstrated that acute nicotine improves behavioral inhibition in adolescents with ADHD. This study examined acute nicotine in young adults with ADHD-Combined type on cognitive domains including behavioral inhibition, delay aversion, and recognition memory.

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Dec
2006

Theories of the neurobiological basis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have largely focused on dysregulation of central dopaminergic function. However, other neurotransmitter systems may be implicated in specific cognitive deficits in ADHD. Interest in the potential involvement of nicotinic cholinergic systems in ADHD has arisen in part from the observation that adolescents and adults with ADHD smoke cigarettes at significantly higher rates than people without this disorder.

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Dec
2006

The effect of nicotine on conditioned inhibition was examined using a serial feature negative discrimination task. Nicotine (0.35 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered before each of the 16 training sessions.

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Nov
2004

Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) become cigarette smokers at twice the rate of non-ADHD adolescents, and this finding continues into adulthood. Abnormal cognitive/behavioral inhibition is one core cognitive symptom of ADHD, leading to impulsive behavior in people with this disorder. Nicotine, contained in tobacco smoke, is known to improve attention, vigilance, and short-term memory.

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