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Author: Andre Schmidt (205)


Feb
2018

Myocardial perfusion defects (MPD) due to coronary microvascular dysfunction is frequent in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) and may be involved with development of myocardial damage. We investigated whether MPD precedes left ventricular systolic dysfunction and tested the hypothesis that prolonged use of dipyridamole (DIPY) could reduce MPD in an experimental model of CCC in hamsters.
We investigated female hamsters 6-months after T.

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Dec
2017

Stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are frequently used as cognitive enhancers in healthy people, whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is proposed to enhance mood and empathy in healthy subjects. However, comparative data on the effects of MPH and modafinil on negative emotions in healthy subjects have been widely missing. The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of MPH and modafinil on the neural correlates of fearful face processing using MDMA as a positive control.

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Sep
2017

To develop a document by Brazilian Cardiovascular Imaging Department (DIC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) to review and summarize the most recent evidences about the non-invasive assessment of patients with Chagas disease, with the intent to set up a framework for standardized cardiovascular imaging to assess cardiovascular morphologic and functional disturbances, as well as to guide the subsequent process of clinical decision-making.
Chagas disease remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in Latin America, and has become a health problem in non-endemic countries. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most severe manifestation of Chagas disease, which causes substantial disability and early mortality in the socially most productive population leading to a significant economical burden.

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Jan
2018

Use of echocardiography (echo) has exponentially increased in recent decades. Concerned about this scientific society developed appropriate use criteria (AUC). Clinical management still suffers geographical variations, and no objective data are available about echo AUC in developing countries.

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Oct
2017

In this issue, Falkenbergexplore the practicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of the initial clinical assessment in patients with first-episode psychosis and the prevalence, nature and clinical significance of radiological abnormalities in these patients. They provide evidence for the use of MRI data to detect gross brain abnormalities. In addition, improvements in quantitative analyses makes MRI an indispensable tool to elucidate the neurobiological substrates that might underlie primary (or idiopathic) psychotic illness.

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Dec
1969

Right ventricle (RV) is considered a neglected chamber in cardiology and knowledge about its role in cardiac function was mostly focused on ventricular interdependence. However, progress on the understanding of myocardium diseases primarily involving the RV led to a better comprehension of its role in health and disease. In Chagas disease (CD), there is direct evidence from both basic and clinical research of profound structural RV abnormalities.

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Jun
2017

In 2005, we reported an acute myocardial infarction secondary to a left anterior descending coronary artery injury sustained in a motorcycle accident. The treatment was late myocardial revascularization with in situ left internal thoracic artery-to-left anterior descending coronary artery anastomosis. There is little information available about the natural history of acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma, especially when treated in this manner.

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Sep
2017

The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety.

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Jun
2017

Clinical neurological assessment is challenging for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in the acute setting. Waves of neurochemical abnormalities that follow TBI may serve as fluid biomarkers of neurological status. We assessed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of glutamate, lactate, BDNF, and GDNF, to identify potential prognostic biomarkers of neurological outcome.

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Sep
2017

Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects.
Using a double-blind, within-subject, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine were administrated to 21 healthy subjects while performing a go/no-go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition.

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Sep
2017

There is only limited agreement with respect to location, directionality and functional implications of brain structural alterations observed in patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, their link to occurrence of psychotic symptoms remains unclear. A viable way of addressing these questions is to examine populations in an at-risk mental state (ARMS) before the transition to psychosis.

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Dec
1969

Enigmas often lead to hypotheses and speculations. For this reason, especially for the sake of the reader's motivation, we opted for the plain discussion of some cardiology enigmas.
The present text was aimed to discuss speculatively some cardiology enigmas.

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Mar
2017

Right ventricular (RV) impairment is postulated to be responsible for prominent systemic congestion in Chagas disease. However, occurrence of primary RV dysfunction in Chagas disease remains controversial. We aimed to study RV systolic function in patients with Chagas disease using cardiac magnetic resonance.

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May
2017

Chagas disease leads to biventricular heart failure, usually with prominent systemic congestion. Although echocardiography is widely used in clinical routine, the utility of echocardiographic parameters to detect right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction in patients with Chagas disease is unknown. We sought to study the diagnostic value of echocardiography, including speckle-tracking parameters, to distinguish individuals with RV systolic dysfunction from those with normal RV systolic function in Chagas disease using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as the reference method.

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Mar
2017

The World Health Organization considers the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas a global public health emergency. The neurologic complications due to ZIKV infection comprise microcephaly, meningoencephalitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We describe a fatal case of an adult patient receiving an immunosuppressive regimen following heart transplant.

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Mar
2017

Validation of transendocardial injection as a method for delivering therapeutic agents to the diseased heart is increasing. Puncture heart biopsies should re-emerge as a possible alternative method to allow access to the myocardium and implantable biomaterial for cell therapy. Therefore, this work aims to present a percutaneous puncture device for biopsy and intramyocardial biomaterial injection, standardize the technique and attest to the safety of the method.

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Nov
2016

Despite successful opening of culprit coronary artery, myocardial reperfusion does not always follows primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are used in the treatment of no-reflow (NR), but their role to prevent it is unproven.
To evaluate the effect of in-lab administration of tirofiban on the incidence of NR in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with PPCI.

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Dec
1969

There is strong evidence for abnormal salience processing in patients with psychotic experiences. In particular, there are indications that the degree of aberrant salience processing increases with the severity of positive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this relationship by means of brain imaging.

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Dec
1969

Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are a common complication of critical illness. Both cause intensive-care-unit-acquired (ICU-acquired) muscle weakness (ICUAW) which increases morbidity and delays rehabilitation and recovery of activities of daily living such as walking ability. Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICUAW is, therefore, of great importance at both an individual and a societal level.

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Dec
2016

Pretest risk estimation is routinely used in clinical medicine to inform further diagnostic testing in individuals with suspected diseases. To our knowledge, the overall characteristics and specific determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing clinical high risk (CHR) assessment are unknown.
To investigate the characteristics and determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing CHR assessment and to develop and externally validate a pretest risk stratification model.

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Oct
2016

Increasing evidence indicates that psychosis is associated with abnormal reward processing. Imaging studies in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) have revealed reduced activity in diverse brain regions, including the ventral striatum, insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during reward prediction. However, whether these reductions in local brain activity are due to altered connectivity has rarely been explored.

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Dec
1969

In order to reduce pain caused by the affected hip joint, unilateral hip osteoarthritis patients (HOAP) adopt characteristic gait patterns. However, it is unknown if the knee and hip joint loading in the non-affected (limb) and the affected (limb) limb differ from healthy controls (HC) and which gait parameters correlate with potential abnormal joint loading. Instrumented 3D-gait analysis was performed on 18 HOAP and 18 sex, age, and height matched HC.

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Dec
1969

Although the anuran pelvis is thought to be adapted for jumping, the function of the iliosacral joint has seen little direct study. Previous work has contrasted the basal "lateral-bender" pelvis from the "rod-like" pelvis of crown taxa hypothesized to function as a sagittal hinge to align the trunk with take-off forces. We compared iliosacral movements and pelvic motor patterns during jumping in the two pelvic types.

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Dec
1969

Discriminating subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis who will develop psychosis from those who will not is a prerequisite for preventive treatments. However, it is not yet possible to make any personalized prediction of psychosis onset relying only on the initial clinical baseline assessment. Here, we first present a systematic review of prognostic accuracy parameters of predictive modeling studies using clinical, biological, neurocognitive, environmental, and combinations of predictors.

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Dec
2016

Multicellular tumor spheroids are widely used models in tumor research. Because of their three dimensional organization they can simulate avascular tumor areas comprising proliferative and necrotic cells. Nonetheless, protocols for spheroid generation are still inconsistent.

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Dec
1969

Previous network studies in chronic schizophrenia patients revealed impaired structural organization of the brain's rich-club members, a set of highly interconnected hub regions that play an important integrative role for global brain communication. Moreover, impaired rich-club connectivity has also been found in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients, suggesting that abnormal rich-club connectivity is related to familiar, possibly reflecting genetic, vulnerability for schizophrenia. However, no study has yet investigated whether structural rich-club organization is also impaired in individuals with a clinical risk syndrome for psychosis.

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Dec
1969

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) may be related to the systemic inflammatory response and an increase in serum markers of brain injury such as S100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE).
The study aims to evaluate the association between POCD and serum levels of S100B and NSE after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG).
Prospective observational study.

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Feb
2018

To investigate the correlation between the extent of myocardial sympathetic denervation and fibrosis and the presence of degrees of severity of ventricular arrhythmias in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC).
Forty-three CCC patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥ 35% were divided into three groups: SVT group-presenting Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia (SVT) (n = 15), NSVT group-exhibiting episodes of non-SVT (NSVT) on 24-h Holter monitoring (n = 11), and Control group-exhibiting neither SVT nor episodes of NSVT (n = 17). The patients underwent SPECT imaging for myocardial sympathetic innervation withIodine-MIBG (MIBG) and myocardial perfusion withTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) for the evaluation of regional myocardial fibrosis.

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Dec
1969

This paper introduces a new approach for computing lower extremity muscle forces by incorporating equations that consider "bone structure" and "prevention of bending by load reduction" into existing optimization algorithms. Lower extremity muscle and joint forces, during normal gait, were calculated and compared using two different optimization approaches. We added constraint equations that prevent femoral bending loads to an existing approach that considers "minimal total muscular force".

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Dec
1969

Current surgery outcome evaluations in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) are usually based on static radiological changes. The aim of the present study was to assess the development of characteristic gait parameters and passive hip range of motion (ROM) measurements during the postoperative period up to healed stage of the femoral head represented by Stulberg classification. Twelve children (10 male, 2 female) with unilateral diagnosis of LCPD and 19 healthy control subjects at the same age participated in this prospective longitudinal study.

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Dec
1969

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a multifactorial adverse event most frequently in elderly patients. This study evaluated the effect of dexamethasone on POCD incidence after noncardiac and nonneurologic surgery.
One hundred and forty patients (ASA I-II; age 60-87 years) took part in a prospective phase III, double blind, randomized study involving the administration or not of 8 mg of IV dexamethasone before general anesthesia under bispectral index (BIS) between 35-45 or 46-55.

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Jul
2016

Endomyocardial fibrosis, which is a cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy, is characterized by the deposition of fibrous tissue in the apical region of 1 or both ventricles. The condition not only affects the diastolic dynamics of the ventricles, but also the function of the atrioventricular valves. The disease occurs predominantly in tropical regions worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa.

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Apr
2016

A literature overview of angiographic studies has shown that the prevalence of significant coronary disease in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) varies from 20 to 60%. Early necropsy studies suggested that patients with AS had a lower than expected incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), originating the concept of a protective effect of AS on the coronary arteries. The myth of AS protection against CAD would be better explained as endothelium-myocardial interaction (crosstalk) protection triggered by left ventricular overload.

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Dec
1969

Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication.

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Feb
2016

Ventricular constraint therapy has been used to prevent and reverse the progression of heart failure in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. We hypothesized that ventricular restraint should be tried by closing the pericardium that was previously opened following left ventricle topographical projection. The surgical technique presentation is illustrated by a remarkable 13-year outcome of one patient with dilated cardiomyopathy treated surgically by mitral prosthesis, Cox/Maze III surgery to treat atrial fibrillation, and associated to the ventricular constraint using the patient's own pericardium.

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Mar
2016

The objective of this study was to test if patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis (OA) show greater muscle activity asymmetry between their affected and non-affected limbs than healthy controls between their left and right limbs. Seventeen patients with unilateral hip OA (7 females, 10 males) and 17 age-matched healthy controls (7 females, 10 males) participated in this study. Both groups performed instrumented gait analysis at comparable speeds.

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Apr
2016

Numerous studies show the benefits of exercise training after myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless, the effects on function and remodeling are still controversial.
To evaluate, in patients after (MI), the effects of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity on ventricular remodeling by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).

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Apr
2016

Endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is sugar-based cell-bound surface molecules linked to transmembrane proteins observed on the endothelial surface of the vessels. Damage to this structure causes an increase in platelet and leucocyte adhesion and shear stress in the vessel. We hypothesized a possible link between EG damage and acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

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Dec
1969

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART.

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Dec
1969

Stimulation of serotonergic neurotransmission by psilocybin has been shown to shift emotional biases away from negative towards positive stimuli. We have recently shown that reduced amygdala activity during threat processing might underlie psilocybin's effect on emotional processing. However, it is still not known whether psilocybin modulates bottom-up or top-down connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network underlying threat processing.

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Feb
2016

It is well known that adenine-based purines exert multiple effects on pain transmission. Recently, we have demonstrated that guanine-based purines may produce some antinociceptive effects against chemical and thermal pain in mice. The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (i.

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Mar
2016

Ancestral frogs underwent anatomical shifts including elongation of the hindlimbs and pelvis and reduction of the tail and vertebral column that heralded the transition to jumping as a primary mode of locomotion. Jumping has been hypothesized to have evolved in a step-wise fashion with basal frogs taking-off with synchronous hindlimb extension and crash-landing on their bodies, and then their limbs move forward. Subsequently, frogs began to recycle the forelimbs forward earlier in the jump to control landing.

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Dec
1969

Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown microstructural changes in the brain white matter of at-risk mental state (ARMS) subjects for psychosis and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, only a few studies have been conducted in clinical high-risk samples and findings in both groups are inconsistent, in particular along the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF).
This DTI study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ARMS subjects, untreated and antipsychotic-treated FEP patients and healthy controls (HC) across the whole brain and the SLF.

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Sep
2016

We evaluated the efficacy of an in-field gait retraining programme using mobile biofeedback to reduce cumulative and peak tibiofemoral loads during running. Thirty runners were randomised to either a retraining group or control group. Retrainers were asked to increase their step rate by 7.

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