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Author: Andrea Reiter (13)


Dec
1969

Our ability to learn from the outcomes of our actions and to adapt our decisions accordingly changes over the course of the human lifespan. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using computational models to understand developmental changes in learning and decision-making. Moreover, extensions of these models are currently applied to study socio-emotional influences on learning in different age groups, a topic that is of great relevance for applications in education and health psychology.

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Feb
2018

In their relentless pursuit of thinness, individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in maladaptive behaviors (restrictive food choices and overexercising) that may originate in altered decision making and learning.
In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we employed computational modeling to elucidate the neural correlates of feedback learning and value-based decision making in 36 female patients with AN and 36 age-matched healthy volunteers (12-24 years). Participants performed a decision task that required adaptation to changing reward contingencies.

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Sep
2017

Research in younger adults dissociates cognitive from affective facets of social information processing, rather than promoting a monolithic view of social intelligence. An influential theory on adult development suggests differential effects of aging on cognitive and affective functions. However, this dissociation has not been directly tested in the social domain.

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Sep
2017

Model-Based Control in Dimensional Psychiatry.

Biol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 23;82(6):391-400. Epub 2017 Apr 23.
Valerie Voon, Andrea Reiter, Miriam Sebold, Stephanie Groman
We use parallel interacting goal-directed and habitual strategies to make our daily decisions. The arbitration between these strategies is relevant to inflexible repetitive behaviors in psychiatric disorders. Goal-directed control, also known as model-based control, is based on an affective outcome relying on a learned internal model to prospectively make decisions.

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Oct
2016

Addicted individuals continue substance use despite the knowledge of harmful consequences and often report having no choice but to consume. Computational psychiatry accounts have linked this clinical observation to difficulties in making flexible and goal-directed decisions in dynamic environments via consideration of potential alternative choices. To probe this in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 43) versus healthy volunteers (n = 35), human participants performed an anticorrelated decision-making task during functional neuroimaging.

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Feb
2017

Despite its clinical relevance and the recent recognition as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5, binge eating disorder (BED) has rarely been investigated from a cognitive neuroscientific perspective targeting a more precise neurocognitive profiling of the disorder. BED patients suffer from a lack of behavioral control during recurrent binge eating episodes and thus fail to adapt their behavior in the face of negative consequences, eg, high risk for obesity. To examine impairments in flexible reward-based decision-making, we exposed BED patients (n=22) and matched healthy individuals (n=22) to a reward-guided decision-making task during functional resonance imaging (fMRI).

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Aug
2016

Behavioral control is influenced not only by learning from the choices made and the rewards obtained but also by "what might have happened," that is, inference about unchosen options and their fictive outcomes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the neural signatures of direct learning from choices that are actually made and their associated rewards via reward prediction errors (RPEs). However, electrophysiological correlates of abstract inference in decision-making are less clear.

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Dec
1969

Addiction shows familial aggregation and previous endophenotype research suggests that healthy relatives of addicted individuals share altered behavioral and cognitive characteristics with individuals suffering from addiction. In this study we asked whether impairments in behavioral control proposed for addiction, namely a shift from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual, model-free control, extends toward an unaffected sample (n = 20) of adult children of alcohol-dependent fathers as compared to a sample without any personal or family history of alcohol addiction (n = 17). Using a sequential decision-making task designed to investigate model-free and model-based control combined with a computational modeling analysis, we did not find any evidence for altered behavioral control in individuals with a positive family history of alcohol addiction.

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Mar
2015

It is suggested that acute stress shifts behavioral control from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual, model-free strategies. Recent findings indicate that interindividual differences in the cortisol stress response influence model-based decision-making. Although not yet investigated in humans, animal studies show that chronic stress also shifts decision-making toward more habitual behavior.

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Apr
2015

We investigated whether greed would predict risky decision-making and recorded neural responses during a monetary gambling task using the electroencephalogram. We found that individuals high in trait-greed took higher risks to maximize monetary outcome. Furthermore, this relation was moderated by state-greed; specifically, trait-greed had a stronger impact on risky decision-making when activated by situational characteristics.

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Sep
2008

The rare recurrent translocation of (8;9)(p22;p24) with PCM1-JAK2 fusion was recently characterized in diverse hematological malignancies. Most of them are atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or other myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), and are predominantly in the male. We report a female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially presenting with normal karyotype and negative HLA-DR expression who achieved complete remission after standard chemotherapy.

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Sep
2008

A procedure for the determination of oxycodone in meconium using direct ELISA microplate technology followed by electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described for the first time. The abuse of oxycodone (OxyContin) has been widely discussed in mainstream media, and it has been described as a cheap form of heroin. Oxycodone has been reported as having a high degree of abuse and potential complications in neonates from maternal drug use.

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