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Author: Andrew I Bell (35)


Feb
2018

While the association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has long been recognised, the precise role of the virus in BL pathogenesis is not fully resolved. EBV can be lost spontaneously from some BL cell lines, and these EBV-loss lymphoma cells reportedly have a survival disadvantage. Here we have generated an extensive panel of EBV-loss clones from multiple BL backgrounds and examined their phenotype comparing them to their isogenic EBV-positive counterparts.

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Oct
2017

Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2017 Oct;372(1732)
Claire Shannon-Lowe, Alan B Rickinson, Andrew I Bell
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), originally discovered through its association with Burkitt lymphoma, is now aetiologically linked to a remarkably wide range of lymphoproliferative lesions and malignant lymphomas of B-, T- and NK-cell origin. Some occur as rare accidents of virus persistence in the B lymphoid system, while others arise as a result of viral entry into unnatural target cells. The early finding that EBV is a potent B-cell growth transforming agent hinted at a simple oncogenic mechanism by which this virus could promote lymphomagenesis.

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Nov
2017

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is typically acquired asymptomatically in childhood. In contrast, infection later in life often leads to infectious mononucleosis (IM), a febrile illness characterized by anti-EBV IgM antibody positivity, high loads of circulating latently infected B cells, and a marked lymphocytosis caused by hyperexpansion of EBV-specific CD8T cells plus a milder expansion of CD56NKG2AKIRnatural killer (NK) cells. How the two situations compare is unclear due to the paucity of studies on clinically silent infection.

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Dec
1969

The EBV is known to persist in memory B cells, but it remains unclear how this affects cell numbers and humoral immunity. We here studied EBV persistence in memory B cell subsets and consequences on B cell memory in young children. EBV genome loads were quantified in 6 memory B cell subsets in EBVadults.

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Apr
2016

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has tropism for B lymphocytes, in which it establishes latency, and can also cause lymphoproliferative disorders of these cells manifesting as primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). T cell immunity is vital for the control of KSHV infection and disease; however, few models of B lymphocyte infection exist to study immune recognition of such cells. Here, we developed a model of B lymphocyte infection with KSHV in which infected tonsillar B lymphocytes were expanded by providing mitogenic stimuli and then challenged with KSHV-specific CD4(+)T cells.

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Dec
2015

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) provides a unique opportunity to track Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the context of the reconstituting B-cell system. Although many allo-HSCT recipients maintain low or undetectable levels of EBV DNA posttransplant, a significant proportion exhibit elevated and rapidly increasing EBV loads which, if left untreated, may lead to potentially fatal EBV-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. Intriguingly, this high-level EBV reactivation typically arises in the first 3 months posttransplant, at a time when the peripheral blood contains low numbers of CD27+ memory cells which are the site of EBV persistence in healthy immunocompetent donors.

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Mar
2015

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection often occurs in early childhood and is asymptomatic. However, if delayed until adolescence, primary infection may manifest as acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM), a febrile illness characterised by global CD8+ T-cell lymphocytosis, much of it reflecting a huge expansion of activated EBV-specific CD8+ T-cells. While the events of AIM have been intensely studied, little is known about how these relate to asymptomatic primary infection.

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Mar
2015

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of B cells leads to the sequential activation of two viral promoters, Wp and Cp, resulting in the expression of six EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and the viral Bcl2 homologue BHRF1. The viral transactivator EBNA2 is required for this switch from Wp to Cp usage during the initial stages of infection. EBNA2-dependent Cp transcription is mediated by the EBNA2 response element (E2RE), a region that contains at least two binding sites for cellular factors; one of these sites, CBF1, interacts with RBP-JK, which then recruits EBNA2 to the transcription initiation complex.

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Jan
2015

We have validated a flexible, high-throughput and relatively inexpensive RT-QPCR array platform for absolute quantification of Epstein-Barr virus transcripts in different latent and lytic infection states. Several novel observations are reported. First, during infection of normal B cells, Wp-initiated latent gene transcripts remain far more abundant following activation of the Cp promoter than was hitherto suspected.

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Dec
2014

Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitt lymphoma.

Chin J Cancer 2014 Dec 21;33(12):609-19. Epub 2014 Nov 21.
Martin Rowe, Leah Fitzsimmons, Andrew I Bell
In 1964, a new herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), was discovered in cultured tumor cells derived from a Burkitt lymphoma (BL) biopsy taken from an African patient. This was a momentous event that reinvigorated research into viruses as a possible cause of human cancers. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EBV was a potent growth-transforming agent for primary B cells, and that all cases of BL carried characteristic chromosomal translocations resulting in constitutive activation of the c-MYC oncogene.

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May
2014

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a lifelong latent infection in humans. EBV infection of primary B cells causes cell activation and proliferation, a process driven by the viral latency III gene expression program, which includes EBV nuclear proteins (EBNAs), latent membrane proteins, and untranslated RNAs, including microRNAs. Some latently infected cells enter the long-lived memory B-cell compartment and express only EBNA1 transiently (Lat I) or no EBV protein at all (Lat 0).

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Mar
2013

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in all cases of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) but in few European/North American sporadic BLs. Gene expression arrays of sporadic tumors have defined a consensus BL profile within which tumors are classifiable as "molecular BL" (mBL). Where endemic BLs fall relative to this profile remains unclear, since they not only carry EBV but also display one of two different forms of virus latency.

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Dec
1969

Previous studies have reported that the tumour cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) exhibit recurrent chromosome abnormalities. These genetic changes are broadly assumed to lead to changes in gene expression which are important for the pathogenesis of this tumour. However, this assumption has yet to be formally tested at a global level.

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Dec
1969

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a lymphomagenic human herpesvirus, colonises the host through polyclonal B cell-growth-transforming infections yet establishes persistence only in IgD⁺ CD27⁺ non-switched memory (NSM) and IgD⁻ CD27⁺ switched memory (SM) B cells, not in IgD⁺ CD27⁻ naïve (N) cells. How this selectivity is achieved remains poorly understood. Here we show that purified N, NSM and SM cell preparations are equally transformable in vitro to lymphoblastoid cells lines (LCLs) that, despite upregulating the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) enzyme necessary for Ig isotype switching and Ig gene hypermutation, still retain the surface Ig phenotype of their parental cells.

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May
2012

Patients with the primary immunodeficiency X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), which is caused by mutations in SH2D1A, are highly susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Nonetheless, some XLP patients demonstrate less severe clinical manifestations after primary infection. SH2D1A encodes the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), which is expressed in T and natural killer cells and is required for cytotoxicity against B cells, the reservoir for EBV.

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Jan
2011

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been shown to encode at least 40 microRNAs (miRNAs), an important class of molecules that negatively regulate the expression of many genes through posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we have used real-time PCR assays to quantify the levels of EBV-encoded BHRF1 and BART miRNAs in latently infected cells and in cells induced into the lytic cycle. During latency, BHRF1 miRNAs were seen only in cells with detectable Cp- and/or Wp-initiated EBNA transcripts, while the BART miRNAs were expressed in all forms of latent infection.

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Nov
2010

Therapeutic targeting of virus-encoded proteins using cellular immunotherapy has proved successful for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. However, the more limited repertoire and immunogenicity of EBV-encoded proteins in other malignancies such as Hodgkin lymphoma and extranodal natural killer (NK)/T lymphoma has been more challenging to target. The immunosubdominant latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) is considered the optimal target in such Latency II tumors, although data relating to its expression in T/NK malignancies are limited.

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Dec
2009

Epstein-Barr virus was originally identified in the tumour cells of a Burkitt's lymphoma, and was the first virus to be associated with the pathogenesis of a human cancer. Studies on the relationship of EBV with Burkitt's lymphoma have revealed important general principles that are relevant to other virus-associated cancers. In addition, the impact of such studies on the knowledge of EBV biology has been enormous.

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Jun
2009

The gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for life in infected individuals despite the presence of a strong immune response. During the lytic cycle of EBV many viral proteins are expressed, potentially allowing virally infected cells to be recognized and eliminated by CD8+ T cells. We have recently identified an immune evasion protein encoded by EBV, BNLF2a, which is expressed in early phase lytic replication and inhibits peptide- and ATP-binding functions of the transporter associated with antigen processing.

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Sep
2009

The transformation of B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) results in the upregulation of STAT1, a key transcription factor in the interferon signalling pathway. Although the mechanism of EBV induction of STAT1 protein expression has been intensively studied, there has been little investigation into the function of STAT1 in EBV-transformed LCLs. In this study, we have implemented a novel strategy to investigate the functional role of STAT1 through the introduction of the simian virus 5 (SV5) V-protein into LCLs by retroviral gene transfer.

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Aug
2009

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with malignant diseases of lymphoid and epithelial cell origin. The tropism of EBV is due to B-cell-restricted expression of CD21, the major receptor molecule for the virus. However, efficient infection of CD21- epithelial cells can be achieved via transfer from EBV-coated B cells.

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Jun
2009

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists in the immune host by preferentially colonizing the isotype-switched (IgD(-)CD27(+)) memory B-cell pool. In one scenario, this is achieved through virus infection of naive (IgD(+)CD27(-)) B cells and their differentiation into memory via germinal center (GC) transit; in another, EBV avoids GC transit and infects memory B cells directly. We report 2 findings consistent with this latter view.

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Mar
2009

Two factors contribute to Burkitt lymphoma (BL) pathogenesis, a chromosomal translocation leading to c-myc oncogene deregulation and infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Although the virus has B cell growth-transforming ability, this may not relate to its role in BL since many of the transforming proteins are not expressed in the tumor. Mounting evidence supports an alternative role, whereby EBV counteracts the high apoptotic sensitivity inherent to the c-myc-driven growth program.

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Jan
2009

To investigate how intense Plasmodium falciparum infection predisposes to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL), we analyzed the effect of acute malaria on existing EBV-host balance.
EBV genome loads in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and EBV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were assayed by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay.
Gambian children, from whom samples were obtained during an acute malaria attack and again up to 6 weeks later, had extremely high viral loads, reaching levels that in the United Kingdom are seen only in patients with infectious mononucleosis.

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Nov
2008

SCC12F cells are a line of keratinocytes that retain the capacity for terminal differentiation in vitro. We showed previously that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded oncogene latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) altered SCC12F morphology in vitro, downregulated cell-cell-adhesion molecule expression and promoted cell motility. In organotypic raft culture, LMP1-expressing cells failed to stratify and formed poorly organized structures which displayed impaired terminal differentiation.

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Aug
2008

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists in healthy virus carriers within the immunoglobulin (Ig)D(-)CD27(+) (class-switched) memory B-cell compartment that normally arises through antigen stimulation and germinal center transit. Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lack such class-switched memory B cells but are highly susceptible to EBV infection, often developing fatal symptoms resembling those seen in EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS), a disease caused by aberrant virus entry into the NK- or T-cell system. Here we show that XLP patients who survive primary EBV exposure carry relatively high virus loads in the B-cell, but not the NK- or T-cell, compartment.

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Jul
2007

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded leader protein, EBNA-LP, strongly activates the EBNA2-mediated transcriptional activation of cellular and viral genes and is therefore important for EBV-induced B-cell transformation. However, a truncated form of EBNA-LP is produced in cells infected with variant EBV strains lacking EBNA2 due to a genetic deletion. The function of this truncated form is unknown.

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Oct
2006

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus, transforms B cell growth in vitro through expressing six virus-coded Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and two latent membrane proteins (LMPs). In many EBV-associated tumors, however, viral antigen expression is more restricted, and the aetiological role of the virus is unclear. For example, endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) classically presents as a monoclonal, c-myc-translocation-positive tumor in which every cell carries EBV as an EBNA1-only (Latency I) infection; such homogeneity among EBV-positive cells, and the lack of EBV-negative comparators, hampers attempts to understand EBV's role in BL pathogenesis.

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Oct
2006

Studies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cell lines have identified several forms of virus latency, but the patterns of virus gene expression in EBV-positive tumour cells appear more variable. However, it is unclear to what extent these differences merely reflect the increased sensitivities of different detection methods. Here, the design and validation of novel real-time RT-PCR assays to quantify relative levels of EBV transcripts are described.

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Nov
2006

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent cycle promoter Wp, present in each tandemly arrayed copy of the BamHI W region in the EBV genome, drives expression of the EB viral nuclear antigens (EBNAs) at the initiation of virus-induced B-cell transformation. Thereafter, an alternative EBNA promoter, Cp, becomes dominant, Wp activity declines dramatically, and bisulfite sequencing of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) shows extensive Wp methylation. Despite this, Wp is never completely silenced in LCLs.

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Nov
2005

The Sharing Health Care Initiative (SHCI) demonstration project, which aimed to improve management of chronic diseases, was implemented in four small remote communities in the Katherine region which are serviced by the Katherine West Health Board, a remote Aboriginal-community-controlled health organisation in the Northern Territory. We reviewed the project proposal, final report, evaluation reports and transitional funding proposal, and supplemented these with in-depth interviews with key individuals. We determined factors critical to the sustainability of the SHCI project in relation to context, community engagement, systems flexibility and adaptability, the availability and effect of information systems, and the human nature of health care and policy.

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Dec
2005

Immunoglobulin genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease has suggested that such lesions often arise from atypical post-germinal center B cells, in some cases carrying functionally inactivated immunoglobulin genes. To investigate whether EBV can rescue cells that are failed products of the somatic hypermutation process occurring in germinal centers (GCs), we isolated GC cells from tonsillar cell suspensions and exposed them to EBV in vitro. Screening more than 100 EBV-transformed cell lines of GC origin identified 6 lines lacking surface immunoglobulin, a phenotype never seen among lines derived from circulating naive or memory B cells.

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Sep
2005

Patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) undergoing primary EBV infection show large expansions of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood. While latent infection of the B cell pool is quickly controlled, virus shedding from lytically infected cells in the oropharynx remains high for several months. We therefore studied how responses localize to the tonsil, a major target site for EBV, during primary infection and persistence.

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Aug
2005

Most Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt's lymphomas (BLs) carry a wild-type EBV genome and express EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) selectively from the BamHI Q promoter (latency I). Recently we identified a distinct subset of BLs carrying both wild-type and EBNA2 gene-deleted (transformation-defective) viral genomes. The cells displayed an atypical "BamHI W promoter (Wp)-restricted" form of latency where Wp (rather than Qp) was active and EBNA1, -3A, -3B, -3C, and -LP were expressed in the absence of EBNA2 or latent membrane proteins 1 and 2.

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