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Author: Andrew Mackinnon (202)


Feb
2018

Cerebral small-vessel disease is a major cause of cognitive impairment. Perivascular spaces (PvS) occur in small-vessel disease, but their relationship to cognitive impairment remains uncertain. One reason may be difficulty in distinguishing between lacunes and PvS.

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Feb
2018

teen Mental Health First Aid (tMHFA) is a classroom-based training programme for students aged 15-18 years to improve supportive behaviours towards peers, increase mental health literacy and reduce stigma. This research evaluated tMHFA by comparing it to a matched emergency Physical First Aid (PFA) training programme.
A cluster-randomised crossover trial matched four public schools in two pairs and then randomised each to first receive tMHFA or PFA for all Year 10 students.

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Feb
2018

No longitudinal epidemiological research has reported associations between physical frailty and performance in specific cognitive domains. Our aim was to investigate whether such associations existed in the absence of accompanying neurodegenerative disorders such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia.
We addressed this issue in a population-based sample of 896 adults aged 70 years and older over 4 waves of data covering a 12-year period.

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Dec
1969

Within high income countries, mental health is now the leading cause of long term sickness absence in the workplace. Managers are in a position to make changes and decisions that have a positive effect on the wellbeing of staff, the recovery of employees with mental ill health, and potentially prevent future mental health problems. However, managers report addressing workplace mental health issues as challenging.

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Jan
2018

A runny nose.

Pract Neurol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
Thomas Kirk, Meneka Kanagaratnam, Andrew D MacKinnon, Arani Nitkunan

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Dec
1969

The frequency, clinical correlates, and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) are still poorly known. We aimed at determining the location and number of CMB and their relationship with clinical manifestations, vascular risk factors, drugs, and other neuroimaging features in CADASIL patients.
We collected clinical data by means of a structured proforma and centrally evaluated CMB on magnetic resonance gradient echo sequences applying the Microbleed Anatomical Rating Scale in CADASIL patients seen in 2 referral centers in Italy and United Kingdom.

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Jan
2018

Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Parents have an important role in reducing the risk of these disorders, but cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking.
This study aimed to examine the postintervention effects of the Partners in Parenting (PiP) program on parenting risk and protective factors for adolescent depression and anxiety, and on adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms.

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Dec
2017

Myeloid cells are an abundant leukocyte in many types of tumors and contribute to immune evasion. Expression of the enzyme arginase 1 (Arg1) is a defining feature of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and leads to depletion of L-arginine, a nutrient required for T cell and natural killer (NK) cell proliferation. Here we use CB-1158, a potent and orally-bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of arginase, to investigate the role of Arg1 in regulating anti-tumor immunity.

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Nov
2017

Depression often emerges for the first time during adolescence. There is accumulating evidence that universal depression prevention programs may have the capacity to reduce the impact of depression when delivered in the school environment.
This trial investigated the effectiveness of SPARX-R, a gamified online cognitive behavior therapy intervention for the prevention of depression relative to an attention-matched control intervention delivered to students prior to facing a significant stressor-final secondary school exams.

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Oct
2017

To determine whether MRI markers, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can predict cognitive decline and dementia in patients with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD).
In the prospective St George's Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke study, multimodal MRI was performed annually for 3 years and cognitive assessments annually for 5 years in a cohort of 99 patients with SVD, defined as symptomatic lacunar stroke and confluent white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Progression to dementia was determined in all patients.

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Dec
1969

Despite substantial evidence demonstrating numerous parental risk and protective factors for the development of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders, there is currently no single measure that assesses these parenting factors. To address this gap, we developed theas a criterion-referenced measure of parental concordance with a set of evidence-based parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders. In this paper, we used a sample of Australian parents of adolescents to: (1) validate the PRADAS as a criterion-referenced measure; (2) examine parental concordance with the guidelines in the sample; and (3) examine correlates of parental concordance with the guidelines.

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Sep
2017

An active area in psychosis research is the identification of predictors of transition to a psychotic state among those who are assessed as being at high risk of psychosis. Many of the potential predictors are time dependent in the sense that they may change over time and are measured at a number of assessment time points. Examples are various psychopathological measures such as negative symptoms, positive symptoms, depression, and anxiety.

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Dec
1969

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the primary cause of vascular cognitive impairment and is associated with decline in executive function (EF) and information processing speed (IPS). Imaging biomarkers are needed that can monitor and identify individuals at risk of severe cognitive decline. Recently there has been interest in combining several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of SVD into a unitary score to describe disease severity.

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May
2017

The proteasome is a vital cellular machine that maintains protein homeostasis, which is of particular importance in multiple myeloma and possibly other cancers. Targeting of proteasome 20S peptidase activity with bortezomib and carfilzomib has been widely used to treat myeloma. However, not all patients respond to these compounds, and those who do eventually suffer relapse.

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Apr
2017

Self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) has the potential to increase access and availability of evidence-based therapy and reduce the cost of depression treatment.
To estimate the effect of self-guided iCBT in treating adults with depressive symptoms compared with controls and evaluate the moderating effects of treatment outcome and response.
A total of 13 384 abstracts were retrieved through a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from database inception to January 1, 2016.

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Apr
2017

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has transformed the radiological assessment of a variety of cerebral pathologies, in particular acute stroke. In neuroimaging studies, DWI can also be used to evaluate pathology outside the brain parenchyma, although it is sometimes underutilized for this purpose. In this pictorial review, the principles of DWI are outlined, and 13 cases of abnormal diffusion outside the brain parenchyma are illustrated in order to show DWI as a useful sequence for the evaluation of the following recommended review areas: the dural venous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, meninges, ventricles, cavernous sinus and orbits, skull base and lymph nodes.

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Feb
2017

The proteasome plays a crucial role in degradation of normal proteins that happen to be constitutively or inducibly unstable, and in this capacity it plays a regulatory role. Additionally, it degrades abnormal/damaged/mutant/misfolded proteins, which serves a quality-control function. Inhibitors of the proteasome have been validated in the treatment of multiple myeloma, with several FDA-approved therapeutics.

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Jun
2017

Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) are higher in people with psychosis compared to the general population, but there is little research into measures of the elasticity of the arterial wall (pulse pressure; PP) and peripheral resistance (mean arterial pressure; MAP). PP and MAP can provide an additional perspective on the functioning of the circulatory system.

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Feb
2017

The objective is to summarise recent findings from the 2010 Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) and examine their implications for future policy and planning to improve mental health, physical health and other circumstances of people with a psychotic disorder.
Survey of High Impact Psychosis collected nationally representative data on 1825 people with psychotic illness. Over 60 papers have been published covering key challenges reported by participants: financial problems, loneliness and social isolation, unemployment, poor physical health, uncontrolled symptoms of mental illness, and lack of stable, suitable housing.

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Jan
2018

People with psychosis have an elevated risk of depression and diabetes but no large-scale study has characterized their relationship. We aimed to assess this association and to evaluate possible explanatory factors.
Analysis of cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1155 people with psychosis who gave a fasting blood sample and could be tested for diabetes mellitus.

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Nov
2016

This study examined the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular (CV)-related morbidity and mortality in young people with psychosis aged 18 to 24 years.
The study included 132 people aged 18 to 24 years who participated in the 2010 second Australian national survey of people living with psychosis. The 2009 World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Health Risks report was used as a framework to determine which specific risk factors were present in each in these young people.

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Dec
1969

Joint modelling has emerged to be a potential tool to analyse data with a time-to-event outcome and longitudinal measurements collected over a series of time points. Joint modelling involves the simultaneous modelling of the two components, namely the time-to-event component and the longitudinal component. The main challenges of joint modelling are the mathematical and computational complexity.

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Dec
1969

This study explored the prevalence and associations of eight WHO-defined CVD risk factors for death and disability in people with psychosis.
The study included 1156 people aged 18-64years, diagnosed with psychosis. The 2009 World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Health Risks Report was used as a framework to determine the prevalence and number of eight key risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men and women with psychosis.

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Dec
1969

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general community is associated with obesity, smoking, alcohol, and sedative medication use and contributes to depressed mood, daytime sedation, and sudden cardiovascular deaths. Poor cardiovascular health, impaired social functioning, and negative and cognitive symptoms are also among the common clinical features of psychotic disorders. People with psychosis have higher rates of sleep disturbance; however, OSA has not been extensively investigated in this population.

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Jul
2016

People with bipolar disorder (BD) have a mortality gap of up to 20 years compared to the general population. Physical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, cause the majority of excess deaths in psychiatric populations and are the leading causes of mortality in people with BD. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to reducing the risk of physical conditions in psychiatric populations.

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Dec
1969

To estimate awareness of pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes and associated factors in people with psychosis, a known high-risk group.
Cross sectional analysis of a national sample with psychosis who were aged 18-64 years, gave a fasting blood sample (n = 1155), had pre-diabetes or diabetes based on testing (n = 359) and reported if they knew they had high blood sugar or diabetes at survey (n = 356). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with awareness of pre-diabetes or diabetes prior to testing.

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Mar
2016

Identification of challenges associated with quitting and overcoming them may improve cessation outcomes. This study describes the development and initial validation of a scale for measuring challenges to stopping smoking.
The item pool was generated from empirical and theoretical literature and existing scales, expert opinion and interviews with smokers and ex-smokers.

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Oct
2017

There is a need for brief, accurate screening scales for social anxiety disorder to enable better identification of the disorder in research and clinical settings. A five-item social anxiety screener, the Social Phobia Screener (SOPHS), was developed to address this need. The screener was validated in two samples: (a) 12,292 Australian young adults screened for a clinical trial, including 1,687 participants who completed a phone-based clinical interview and (b) 4,214 population-based Australian adults recruited online.

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May
2016

Anxiety is a common mental health problem in youth. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of an online self-directed anxiety prevention program in a school-based sample and to compare two methods of implementing an anxiety program in schools.
A three-arm cluster stratified randomised controlled trial was conducted with 30 Australian schools.

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May
2016

The prevalence and burden of disease of depression and anxiety disorders in young people necessitates effective early intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-intensity interventions (problem solving therapy (PST) and physical activity promotion) in young people (15-25 years) with mild-moderate depression and/or anxiety.
A 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial (RCT) with factors of PST versus supportive counselling (control) and behavioural activation physical activity versus lifestyle psychoeducation (control).

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Apr
2016

In view of the high co-occurrence of depression and insomnia, a novel way to reduce the risk of escalating depression might be to offer an insomnia intervention. We aimed to assess whether an online self-help insomnia program could reduce depression symptoms.
We did this randomised controlled trial at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to assess whether combining the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) could improve diagnostic accuracy when screening for dementia in an Arabic-speaking population with low levels of literacy.
Based on data from 225 elderly participant and informant dyads, the screening performances of the two instruments were compared and three methods for combining them--'or', 'and' and 'weighted sum' rules--were assessed.
The 'weighted sum' method had a significantly better area under the curve value compared to the RUDAS used alone.

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Feb
2018

There is growing support for the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). This has led to the development of novel strategies targeting inflammation in the treatment of depression. Rosuvastatin and aspirin have well-documented, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

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Dec
2015

Loneliness involves subjective, rather than objective, social isolation and has a range of negative effects on mental and physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of loneliness in psychotic disorders and its association with symptoms and cognitive performance.
Data were drawn from the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis and comprised responses from 1642 participants with an International Classification of Diseases 10 diagnosis of psychotic disorder who had completed a semi-structured interview of symptoms and social functioning (including loneliness), along with standardized assessments of current (digit symbol coding; DSC) and premorbid (National Adult Reading Test) cognitive ability.

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Dec
2015

Psychosis is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. A positive synergy between antipsychotic drug effects and a pre-existing liability to diabetes mellitus might explain the especially high relative risk of diabetes mellitus in young adults with psychosis. We aimed to assess the individual and joint effect of age, family history of diabetes mellitus, and currently prescribed antipsychotic drug treatment on risk for diabetes mellitus.

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Mar
2016

The K6 and K10 are well-validated screening measures for psychological distress and are widely used. However, the accuracy of these scales in identifying common mental disorders may be suboptimal. This study aimed to develop a brief scale of psychological distress--the Distress Questionnaire-5 (DQ5)--and validate its diagnostic accuracy in identifying common mental disorders, relative to the K6 and K10.

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Oct
2015

Evidence suggests that current treatments cannot fully alleviate the burden of disease associated with depression but that prevention approaches offer a promising opportunity to further reduce this burden. Adolescence is a critical period in the development of mental illness, and final school examinations are a significant and nearly universal stressor that may act as a trigger for mental health difficulties such as depression. The aim of the present trial is to investigate the impact of SPARX-R, an online, gamified intervention based on cognitive behavioural principles, on the prevention of depression in secondary school students before their final examinations.

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May
2016

The co-occurrence of type 2 diabetes and psychosis is an important form of medical comorbidity within individuals, but no large-scale study has evaluated comorbidity within families. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence for familial comorbidity between type 2 diabetes and psychosis.
Data were analysed from an observational study of a nationally representative sample of 1642 people with psychosis who were in contact with psychiatric services at the time of survey (The 2010 Australian National Survey of Psychosis).

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Jul
2015


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Jun
2015

There is limited research examining mental health-related stigma of undergraduates in non-western developing countries. This study examined stigma of undergraduates in Sri Lanka towards another depressed undergraduate.
A hypothetical vignette of an undergraduate suffering from depression was presented.

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Jun
2015

Late-life depression is associated with high rates of morbidity, premature mortality, disability, functional decline, caregiver burden and increased health care costs. While clinical and public health approaches are focused on prevention or early intervention strategies, the ideal method of intervention remains unclear. No study has set out to evaluate the role of neurobiological agents in preventing depressive symptoms in older populations at risk of depression.

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Jan
2016

Detecting treatment efficacy using cognitive change in trials of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been challenging, making the use of surrogate markers such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) attractive. We determined the sensitivity of MRI to change in SVD and used this information to calculate sample size estimates for a clinical trial. Data from the prospective SCANS (St George’s Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke) study of patients with symptomatic lacunar stroke and confluent leukoaraiosis was used (n = 121).

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