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Author: Anne Jorde (13)


Oct
2017

Alcohol metabolizing enzymes, such as the alcohol dehydrogenases and the aldehyde dehydrogenases, regulate the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood and play an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. Recent genome-wide systematic searches found associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1789891, risk allele: A, protective allele: C) in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and the risk of alcohol dependence. The current study investigated the effect of this single nucleotide polymorphism on alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, relapse risk and brain gray matter volume.

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Jun
2017

Threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) is a sensitive means to incorporate spatial neighborhood information in neuroimaging studies without using arbitrary thresholds. The majority of methods have applied TFCE to voxelwise data. The need to understand the relationship among multiple variables and imaging modalities has become critical.

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Dec
1969

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors are highly expressed in the amygdala, caudate and hypothalamus. GATA4 gene encodes a transcription factor of ANP associated with the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. We have previously demonstrated that the GATA4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13273672 revealed stronger alcohol-specific amygdala activation associated with lowered relapse risk to heavy drinking at 90 days in the AA-homozygotes.

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Nov
2015

The aim of the current study was to determine genotype effects of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2C) and kainate receptor (GRIK1), which have been previously associated with alcoholism, on behavior, neural cue-reactivity and drinking outcome. Eighty-six abstinent alcohol dependent patients were recruited from an in-patient setting. Neuropsychological tests, genotyping and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to study genotype effects.

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Aug
2015

The endogenous opioid system is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol-use disorders. Genetic variants of the opioid system alter neural and behavioral responses to alcohol. In particular, a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1799971 (A118G) in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is suggested to modulate alcohol-related phenotypes and neural response in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system.

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Jul
2015

Mesocorticolimbic reactivity to alcohol-associated cues has been shown to be associated with relapse to renewed drinking and to be decreased by cue-exposure-based extinction training (CET). Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that the extinction of conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior might be facilitated by drugs increasing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated memory consolidation.
In this study, we assessed the efficacy of CET treatment supplemented with the partial NMDA-receptor agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) at reducing mesolimbic cue reactivity (CR), craving, and relapse risk in alcoholism.

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Feb
2015

Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with a dysregulation in habit formation and execution in dependent patients. Although there are established craving questionnaires assessing various components of craving, to our knowledge, no questionnaire exists to assess habitual and automated substance intake. In this study, we present and validate the "Craving Automated Scale for Alcohol" (CAS-A), a newly developed questionnaire assessing craving and other components of automated addictive behavior.

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May
2014

Two genome-wide association studies recently showed alcohol dependence to be associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs13273672) located on a gene (GATA4) that encodes a transcription factor of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). A growing body of evidence suggests that ANP might be involved in the symptomology of alcohol dependence. This study examined whether reactivity to alcohol cues in the ANP target region amygdala, a key area implicated in addictive behavior, differs depending on the GATA4 genotype of a patient.

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May
2014

Working memory (WM) impairments are often observed in alcohol-dependent individuals, especially in early abstinence, which may contribute to an increased relapse risk after detoxification. Brain imaging studies on visuospatial WM in alcohol-dependent patients compared to controls indicate that information processing requires compensatory increased neural activation to perform at a normal level. However, to date, no study tested whether such increased neural WM activation patterns or the lack thereof predict relapse behavior in alcohol-dependent individuals, and whether such differences persist when adequately correcting for individual grey matter differences.

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Nov
2010

The presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has previously been inferred in the genesis of Crohn's disease (CD), and a higher incidence of MAP PCR positivity has been demonstrated in the gut and peripheral blood of CD patients than in healthy individuals. The objective of this prospective study was to assess the potential etiological role of MAP in the pathogenesis of CD.
The presence of mycobacteria was assessed in bowel biopsies from newly diagnosed, treatment naïve Norwegian patients with IBD, including CD and ulcerative colitis (UC), as compared to a hospital-based cohort of CD and UC patients.

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Jun
2010

The present study was performed to assess the interlaboratory reproducibility of the molecular detection and identification of species of Zygomycetes from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kidney and brain tissues obtained from experimentally infected mice. Animals were infected with one of five species (Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus microsporus, Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Mucor circinelloides). Samples with 1, 10, or 30 slide cuts of the tissues were prepared from each paraffin block, the sample identities were blinded for analysis, and the samples were mailed to each of seven laboratories for the assessment of sensitivity.

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Jul
2007

Leptotrichia amnionii, a recently described, very fastidious, gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic pathogen of the female urogenital tract. We report a case of second-trimester abortion in a patient with chorioamnionitis and L. amnionii bacteremia and a case of renal abscess in a female 5 weeks postpartum.

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Dec
1969

Diagnostic approaches to onychomycosis have traditionally been based on a combination of culture and microscopy. In the present study clinical specimens from 346 patients with suspected onychomycosis were analysed by 18S polymerase chain reaction (detection) followed by sequencing and subsequent database search (identification) in parallel with routine culture on agar (detection and identification). In 49 samples Trichophyton rubrum was identified by culture and sequencing.

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