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Author: Antonio Galina (47)


Jul
2017

The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG).

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Aug
2017

Mitochondrial oxidation of nutrients is tightly regulated in response to the cellular environment and changes in energy demands. In vitro studies evaluating the mitochondrial capacity of oxidizing different substrates are important for understanding metabolic shifts in physiological adaptations and pathological conditions, but may be influenced by the nutrients present in the culture medium or by the utilization of endogenous stores. One such influence is exemplified by the Crabtree effect (the glucose-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration) as most in vitro experiments are performed in glucose-containing media.

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Apr
2017

The mutualistic relationship between trypanosomatids and their respective endosymbiotic bacteria represents an excellent model for studying metabolic co-evolution since the symbiont completes essential biosynthetic routes of the host cell. In this work, we investigated the influence of the endosymbiont on the energy metabolism of Strigomonas culicis by comparing the wild strain with aposymbiotic protists. The bacterium maintains a frequent and close association with glycosomes, which are distributed around the prokaryote.

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Jun
2016

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels decrease during aging and are involved in age-related metabolic decline. To date, the mechanism responsible for the age-related reduction in NAD has not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that expression and activity of the NADase CD38 increase with aging and that CD38 is required for the age-related NAD decline and mitochondrial dysfunction via a pathway mediated at least in part by regulation of SIRT3 activity.

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Oct
2016

Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation.

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Dec
2015

Oxygen concentration should be carefully regulated in all living tissues, beginning at the early embryonic stages. Unbalances in oxygen regulation can lead to cell death and disease. However, to date, few studies have investigated the consequences of variations in oxygen levels for fetal-like cells.

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Mar
2016

Tumours display different cell populations with distinct metabolic phenotypes. Thus, subpopulations can adjust to different environments, particularly with regard to oxygen and nutrient availability. Our results indicate that progression to metastasis requires mitochondrial function.

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Jun
2015

High intensity interval training (HIIT) is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage) in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics.

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Nov
2015

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that regulate plant development and responses to stresses. Mitochondria are the source of most ROS in heterotrophic cells, and mitochondrial complex I and complex III are regarded as the main sites of ROS production in plant mitochondria. Recent studies have demonstrated that succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) also contributes to mitochondrial ROS production.

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Feb
2015

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, exhibits a single mitochondrion with an enlarged portion termed kinetoplast. This unique structure harbors the mitochondrial DNA (kDNA), composed of interlocked molecules: minicircles and maxicircles. kDNA is a hallmark of kinetoplastids and for this reason constitutes a valuable target in chemotherapeutic and cell biology studies.

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Dec
2014

During cold acclimation, shivering is progressively replaced by nonshivering thermogenesis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle are relevant for nonshivering thermogenesis, which depends largely on thyroid hormone. Since the skeletal muscle fibers progressively adapt to cold exposure through poorly defined mechanisms, our intent was to determine whether skeletal muscle type 2 deiodinase (D2) induction could be implicated in the long-term skeletal muscle cold acclimation.

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Oct
2014

Elevated levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are considered to be one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity. The early stages of atherosclerosis are initiated by the accumulation of oxLDL and the induction of toxic effects on endothelial cells, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate how diphenyl diselenide (DD), an organoselenium compound, protect vascular endothelial cells against the toxic effects of oxLDL in vitro.

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Sep
2014

Enhanced glycolysis, the classic bioenergetic phenotype of cancer cells was described by Otto Warburg approximately 90 years ago. However, the Warburg hypothesis does not necessarily imply mitochondrial dysfunction. The alkyl-halogen, 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), would not be expected to have selective targets for cancer therapy due to its high potential reactivity toward many SH side groups.

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Nov
2013

2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a neuroprotective compound previously shown to promote neuronal differentiation in a neuroblastoma cell line and neurite outgrowth in primary neurons. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNP could induce neurogenesis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Murine ESCs, grown as embryoid bodies (EBs), were exposed to 20 μM DNP (or vehicle) for 4 days.

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Nov
2013

Tumour cells thrive in environments that would be hostile to their normal cell counterparts. Survival depends on the selection of cell lines that harbour modifications of both, gene regulation that shifts the balance between the cell cycle and apoptosis and those that involve the plasticity of the metabolic machinery. With regards to metabolism, the selected phenotypes usually display enhanced anaerobic glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, the so-called Warburg effect, and anabolic pathways that provide precursors for the synthesis of lipids, proteins and DNA.

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Sep
2012

Doxorubicin (DOXO) is an efficient and low-cost chemotherapeutic agent. The use of DOXO is limited by its side effects, including cardiotoxicity, that may progress to cardiac failure as a result of multifactorial events that have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, the effects of DOXO at two different doses were analyzed to identify early functional and molecular markers of cardiac distress.

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Sep
2013

The mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) is a main source of cellular ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). The production of H₂O₂ also involves the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and oxygen consumption. Impaired insulin signaling causes oxidative neuronal damage and places the brain at risk of neurodegeneration.

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Jan
2013

Goldfish have been used for cold acclimation studies, which have focused on changes in glycolytic and oxidative enzymes or alterations in lipid composition in skeletal muscle. Here we examine the effects of cold acclimation on the functional properties of isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers from goldfish white skeletal muscle, focusing on understanding the types of changes that occur in the mitochondrial respiratory states. We observed that cold acclimation promoted a significant increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates.

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Feb
2014

Tissue damage by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) results from a temporary cessation of blood flow followed by the restoration of circulation. The injury depresses mitochondrial respiration, increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreases the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and stimulates invasion by inflammatory cells. The primary objective of this work was to address the potential use of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) to preserve and restore mitochondrial function in the kidney after I/R.

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Jun
2013

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxygen (O2) have been implicated in neurogenesis and self-renewal of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). On the other hand, oxidative unbalance, either by an impairment of antioxidant defenses or by an intensified production of ROS, is increasingly related to risk factors of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia. In this scenario, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) emerged as an interesting platform for the study of cellular and molecular aspects of this mental disorder, by complementing other experimental models, with exclusive advantages such as the recapitulation of brain development.

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Jan
2013

NO (nitric oxide) is described as an inhibitor of plant and mammalian respiratory chains owing to its high affinity for COX (cytochrome c oxidase), which hinders the reduction of oxygen to water. In the present study we show that in plant mitochondria NO may interfere with other respiratory complexes as well. We analysed oxygen consumption supported by complex I and/or complex II and/or external NADH dehydrogenase in Percoll-isolated potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria.

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Jun
2012

Insulin brain resistant state is associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease by mechanisms that may involve mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. Conversely, physical exercise improves cognitive function and brain insulin signaling. The intracerebroventricular (i.

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May
2012

3-Bromopyruvate (3BrPA) is an antitumor agent that alkylates the thiol groups of enzymes and has been proposed as a treatment for neoplasias because of its specific reactivity with metabolic energy transducing enzymes in tumor cells. In this study, we show that the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) ATPase (SERCA) type 1 is one of the target enzymes of 3BrPA activity. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum vesicles (SRV) were incubated in the presence of 1mM 3BrPA, which was unable to inhibit the ATPase activity of SERCA.

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Feb
2012

The alkylating agent 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) has been used as an anti-tumoral drug due to its anti-proliferative property in hepatomas cells. This propriety is believed to disturb glycolysis and respiration, which leads to a decreased rate of ATP synthesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the alkylating agent 3-BrPA on the respiratory states and the metabolic steps of the mitochondria of mice liver, brain and in human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2.

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Mar
2012

Schizophrenia has been defined as a neurodevelopmental disease that causes changes in the process of thoughts, perceptions, and emotions, usually leading to a mental deterioration and affective blunting. Studies have shown altered cell respiration and oxidative stress response in schizophrenia; however, most of the knowledge has been acquired from postmortem brain analyses or from nonneural cells. Here we describe that neural cells, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from skin fibroblasts of a schizophrenic patient, presented a twofold increase in extramitochondrial oxygen consumption as well as elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), when compared to controls.

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Jul
2011

Tumor cells are characterized by accelerated growth usually accompanied by up-regulated pathways that ultimately increase the rate of ATP production. These cells can suffer metabolic reprogramming, resulting in distinct bioenergetic phenotypes, generally enhancing glycolysis channeled to lactate production. In the present work we showed metabolic reprogramming by means of inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDACis), sodium butyrate and trichostatin.

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Feb
2012

The UCP1 [first UCP (uncoupling protein)] that is found in the mitochondria of brown adipocytes [BAT (brown adipose tissue)] regulates the heat production, a process linked to non-shivering thermogenesis. The activity of UCP1 is modulated by GDP and fatty acids. In this report, we demonstrate that respiration and heat released by BAT mitochondria vary depending on the respiratory substrate utilized and the coupling state of the mitochondria.

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May
2011

Increasing evidence points to the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Previous data indicate that mitochondrial function is affected in monocytes from septic patients, but the underlying mechanisms and the impact of these changes on the patients' outcome are unknown. We aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with septic shock.

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Dec
2010

Brain accumulation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and oxidative stress underlie neuronal dysfunction and memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hexokinase (HK), a key glycolytic enzyme, plays important pro-survival roles, reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and preventing apoptosis in neurons and other cell types. Brain isozyme HKI is mainly associated with mitochondria and HK release from mitochondria causes a significant decrease in enzyme activity and triggers oxidative damage.

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Sep
2010

Ebselen (Ebs) and diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)(2)] readily oxidize thiol groups. Here we studied mitochondrial swelling changes in mitochondrial potential (Deltapsim), NAD(P)H oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, protein aggregate formation, and oxygen consumption as ending points of their in vitro toxicity. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that organochalchogens toxicity could be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction via oxidation of vicinal thiol groups that are known to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial permeability (Petronilli et al.

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Dec
2010

HK (hexokinase) is an enzyme involved in the first step in the glucose metabolism pathway, converting glucose into G6P (glucose 6-phosphate). Owing to the importance of skeletal muscle for fish swimming and acclimation processes, we used goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) white muscle in order to investigate subcellular distribution and kinetics of HK.

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Aug
2010

2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is classically known as a mitochondrial uncoupler and, at high concentrations, is toxic to a variety of cells. However, it has recently been shown that, at subtoxic concentrations, DNP protects neurons against a variety of insults and promotes neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the beneficial neuroactive properties of DNP are still largely unknown.

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Nov
2009

Hematophagy poses a challenge to blood-feeding organisms since products of blood digestion can exert cellular deleterious effects. Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways, and also an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulating redox metabolism. Therefore, regulation of mitochondrial function should be relevant for hematophagous arthropods.

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Jul
2009

As a protozoan parasite of hematophagous insects, Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes are exposed to reactive oxygen species during development in hosts. In this work, we investigated the role of H(2)O(2) as a modulator of the ecto-phosphatase activity present in living T. rangeli.

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Feb
2009

Potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria (PTM) have a mitochondrially bound hexokinase (HK) activity that exhibits a pronounced sensitivity to ADP inhibition. Here we investigated the role of mitochondrial HK activity in PTM reactive oxygen species generation. Mitochondrial HK has a 10-fold higher affinity for glucose (Glc) than for fructose (KMGlc=140 microM versus KMFrc=1,375 microM).

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Feb
2009

3-BrPA (3-bromopyruvate) is an alkylating agent with anti-tumoral activity on hepatocellular carcinoma. This compound inhibits cellular ATP production owing to its action on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation; however, the specific metabolic steps and mechanisms of 3-BrPA action in human hepatocellular carcinomas, particularly its effects on mitochondrial energetics, are poorly understood. In the present study it was found that incubation of HepG2 cells with a low concentration of 3-BrPA for a short period (150 microM for 30 min) significantly affected both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiratory functions.

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Dec
2008

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is involved in rat and mice thermoregulation, and heat produced by BAT depends on the concerted action of thyroid hormones and catecholamines. Little is known about cold-induced thermogenesis in mammals that have little or no BAT, such as rabbits. In these animals, thermogenesis primarily occurs in skeletal muscle.

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Oct
2008

Mitochondrial hexokinase (mt-HK) and creatine kinase (mt-CK) activities have been recently proposed to reduce the rate of mitochondrial ROS generation through an ADP re-cycling mechanism. Here, we determined the role of mt-HK and mt-CK activities in regulate mitochondrial ROS generation in rat brain, kidney, heart and liver, relating them to the levels of classical antioxidant enzymes. The activities of both kinases were significantly higher in the brain than in other tissues, whereas the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were higher in both liver and kidney mitochondria.

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Jun
2008

Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis. A systematic survey of mitochondrial function in brain tissues during sepsis is lacking. In the present work, we investigate brain mitochondrial function in a septic mouse model.

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Feb
2008

Glucokinase (GK, hexokinase type IV) is required for the accumulation of glycogen in adult liver and hepatoma cells. Paradoxically, mammalian embryonic livers store glycogen successfully in the absence of GK. Here we address how mammalian embryonic livers, but not adult livers or hepatoma cells, manage to accumulate glycogen in the absence of this enzyme.

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Oct
2007

Dengue virus infection affects millions of people all over the world. Although the clinical manifestations of dengue virus-induced diseases are known, the physiopathological mechanisms involved in deteriorating cellular function are not yet understood. In this study we evaluated for the first time the associations between dengue virus-induced cell death and mitochondrial function in HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line.

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Apr
2007

Glucose metabolism plays an essential role in the physiology and development of almost all living organisms. In the present study we investigated glucose metabolism during the embryogenesis of the hard tick Boophilus microplus. An increase in glucose and glycogen content during the embryonic development of B.

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Oct
2004

With yeast-soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase, the heat released during PP(i) hydrolysis was -6.3 kcal/mol regardless of the KCl concentration in the medium. With the membrane-bound pyrophosphatase of corn vacuoles, the heat released varies between -23.

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Sep
2004

Brain hexokinase is associated with the outer membrane of mitochondria, and its activity has been implicated in the regulation of ATP synthesis and apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Here we show that the ADP produced by hexokinase activity in rat brain mitochondria (mt-hexokinase) controls both membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) and ROS generation.

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Oct
2003

The energy derived from pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis is used to pump protons across the tonoplast membrane, thus forming a proton gradient. In a plant's cytosol, the concentration of PPi varies between 10 and 800 microm, and the PPi concentration needed for one-half maximal activity of the maize (Zea mays) root tonoplast H+-pyrophosphatase is 30 microm. In this report, we show that the H+-pyrophosphatase of maize root vacuoles is able to hydrolyze PPi (Reaction 2) formed by Reaction 1, which is catalyzed by PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (PFP): Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) + Pi <--> PPi +Fructose-6-phosphate (F6 P) (reaction 1) PPi --> 2 Pi (reaction 2) H+cyt --> H+vac (reaction 3) F1,6BP + H+cyt <--> H+vac + F6P + Pi (reaction 4) During the steady state, one-half of the inorganic phosphate released (Reaction 4) is ultimately derived from F1,6BP, whereas PFP continuously regenerates the pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolyzed.

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Aug
2003

Maize root tonoplasts are able to accumulate Ca(2+) using the energy derived from the H(+) gradient formed during PP(i) hydrolysis. Oxalate increases 6- to 10-fold the amount of Ca(2+) accumulated by tonoplast. Two apparently different K(s) values for Ca(2+) with values of 0.

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