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Author: Arash Nazeri (21)


Feb
2018

Observational studies have consistently reported elevated plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, results from clinical trials of homocysteine-lowering treatments are inconsistent. This discrepancy may be explained by a lack of causal association between homocysteine and AD.

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Jun
2017

Threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) is a sensitive means to incorporate spatial neighborhood information in neuroimaging studies without using arbitrary thresholds. The majority of methods have applied TFCE to voxelwise data. The need to understand the relationship among multiple variables and imaging modalities has become critical.

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Nov
2017

Postmortem studies have demonstrated considerable dendritic pathologies among persons with schizophrenia and to some extent among those with bipolar I disorder. Modeling gray matter (GM) microstructural properties is now possible with a recently proposed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging modeling technique: neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. This technique may bridge the gap between neuroimaging and histopathological findings.

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Dec
2016

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]) share genetic vulnerability and symptom domains. The authors present direct comparison of structural brain circuitry in children and adolescents with NDDs and control subjects and examine brain circuit-behavior relationships across NDDs using dimensional measures related to each disorder.
Diffusion imaging and behavioral measures were acquired in 200 children and adolescents (ADHD: N=31; OCD: N=36; ASD: N=71; controls: N=62; mean age range: 10.

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Apr
2016

Social networks are increasingly being used to study the epidemiology of human diseases. These methods are usually limited to studying a single or a small group of diseases within a small community and may not fully capture effects of environmental factors that drift the epidemiology of diseases at the community level (rather than individual level). By introducing an ecological variant of the social network, we described provincial disease network (PDN) to study the similarities in regional occurrence of diseases.

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Dec
1969

The glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) gene is a major determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter modulating local neuronal circuitry. GABAergic dysfunction and expression of GAD1 have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and in working memory impairment. We examined the influence of the functional GAD1 rs3749034 variant on white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), cortical thickness, and working memory performance in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (N=197).

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Feb
2016

To determine the motor-behavioral and neural correlates of putative functional common variants in the sodium-channel NaV1.8 encoding gene (SCN10A) in vivo in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
We recruited 161 patients with relapsing-onset MS and 94 demographically comparable healthy participants.

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Nov
2015

Serum urate levels have been associated with risk for and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Urate-related compounds are therapeutic candidates in neuroprotective efforts to slow PD progression. A urate-elevating agent is currently under investigation as a potential disease-modifying strategy in people with PD.

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Jun
2015

Studies of diffusion tensor imaging have focused mainly on the role of deep white matter tract microstructural abnormalities associated with aging and age-related cognitive decline. However, the potential role of superficial white matter (SWM) in aging and, by extension, cognitive-aging, is less clear. Healthy individuals (n = 141; F/M: 66/75 years) across the adult lifespan (18-86 years) underwent diffusion tensor imaging and a battery of cognitive testing.

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Jan
2015

As humans age, a characteristic pattern of widespread neocortical dendritic disruption coupled with compensatory effects in hippocampus and other subcortical structures is shown in postmortem investigations. It is now possible to address age-related effects on gray matter (GM) neuritic organization and density in humans using multishell diffusion-weighted MRI and the neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. In 45 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (21-84 years), we used a multishell diffusion imaging and the NODDI model to assess the intraneurite volume fraction and neurite orientation-dispersion index (ODI) in GM tissues.

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Dec
1969

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) exhibits substantial similarities to multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinical manifestations and imaging results and has long been considered a variant of MS. With the advent of a specific biomarker in NMO, known as anti-aquaporin 4, this assumption has changed; however, the differential diagnosis remains challenging and it is still not clear whether a combination of neuroimaging and clinical data could be used to aid clinical decision-making. Computer-aided diagnosis is a rapidly evolving process that holds great promise to facilitate objective differential diagnoses of disorders that show similar presentations.

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Nov
2014

The cerebellum resides in the posterior cranial fossa dorsal to the brainstem and has diverse connections to the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. It is anatomically and physiologically divided into distinct functional compartments and is composed of highly regular arrays of neuronal units, each sharing the same basic cerebellar microcircuitry. Its circuitry is critically involved in motor control and motor learning, and its role in nonmotor cognitive and affective functions is becoming increasingly recognized.

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Nov
2014

Proteomic and imaging markers have been widely studied as potential biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset and performed parallel independent component analysis on cross sectional and longitudinal proteomic and imaging data in order to identify the best proteomic model for diagnosis, monitoring and prediction of Alzheimer disease (AD). We used plasma proteins measurement and imaging data from AD and healthy controls (HC) at the baseline and 1 year follow-up.

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Dec
1969

Psychopathic offenders show a persistent pattern of emotional unresponsivity to the often horrendous crimes they perpetrate. Recent studies have related psychopathy to alterations in white matter. Therefore, diffusion tensor imaging followed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis in 11 psychopathic offenders matched to 11 healthy controls was completed.

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Feb
2014

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the TNF super family that controls many cellular activities including proliferation, migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation by binding to fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), a highly inducible cell surface receptor. Recent studies have indicated that TWEAK-Fn14 axis signaling may contribute to chronic autoimmune diseases. TWEAK expression via microglia in cortical lesions, presence of TWEAK(+) macrophages in inflamed leptomeninges, and absence of TWEAK/Fn14 expression in healthy brain implicates importance of this pathway in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis lesions.

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Sep
2013

Post-mortem studies have demonstrated alterations in superficial white matter (SWM) in schizophrenia patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to assess SWM in vivo, and compare SWM fractional anisotropy (FA) in schizophrenia patients vs healthy controls. The assessment of SWM in vivo also provides an opportunity to identify novel neural correlates of cognitive performance, and potential cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients.

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Dec
1969

Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and validated batteries are limited in languages other than English. We aimed to translate, cross-culturally adapt, validate, and assess reliability of Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) in Persian. The MACFIMS is a well-constructed battery in the MS literature.

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Dec
1969

Myelin and oligodendrocyte disruption may be a core feature of schizophrenia pathophysiology. The purpose of the present study was to localize the effects of previously identified risk variants in the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) gene on brain morphometry in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Forty-five schizophrenia patients and 47 matched healthy controls underwent clinical, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and genetics procedures.

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Jul
2012

The aim of the present study was to describe the patterns of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in a nationally representative sample of the Iranian population. The data collected in the Third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases (SuRFNCD-2007) were used. In a sample of 3702 Iranian adult participants, patterns of F&V consumption were assessed using the WHO STEPwise method.

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Apr
2011

Little evidence exists regarding the association of leptin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by conventional criteria. Moreover, the contribution of obesity to this relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association between leptin concentrations with MetS in obese and nonobese subjects.

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