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Author: Arpana Agrawal (206)


Jan
2018

Adolescents and young adults increasingly view cannabis as a relatively safe drug. Perception of risk associated with cannabis use is negatively correlated with the prevalence of use, but the causal nature of this association is debated. The aim of this study is to quantitate the reciprocal associations between cannabis use and risk perception in a longitudinal panel of emerging adults.

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Jan
2018

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a heritable complex behavior. Due to the highly polygenic nature of AUD, identifying genetic variants that comprise this heritable variation has proved to be challenging. With the exception of functional variants in alcohol metabolizing genes (e.

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Oct
2017

Downward trends in a number of adolescent risk behaviors including violence, crime, and drug use have been observed in the USA in recent years. It is unknown whether these are separate trends or whether they might relate to a general reduction in propensity to engage in such behaviors. Our objectives were to quantify trends in substance use disorders (SUDs) and delinquent behaviors over the 2003-2014 period and to determine whether they might reflect a single trend in an Externalizing-like trait.

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Jan
2018

The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) is the largest consortium in the history of psychiatry. This global effort is dedicated to rapid progress and open science, and in the past decade it has delivered an increasing flow of new knowledge about the fundamental basis of common psychiatric disorders. The PGC has recently commenced a program of research designed to deliver "actionable" findings-genomic results that 1) reveal fundamental biology, 2) inform clinical practice, and 3) deliver new therapeutic targets.

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Sep
2017

The current investigation assessed for moderating effects of childhood trauma on genetic and environmental contributions to timing of alcohol use initiation and alcohol use disorder in African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. Data were drawn from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a longitudinal female twin study.

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Sep
2017

Recent research has demonstrated that subclinical autistic traits of parents amplify the effects of deleterious mutations in the causation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their offspring. Here, we examined the extent to which two neurodevelopmental traits that are non-specific to ASD-inattention/hyperactivity and motor coordination-might contribute to ASD recurrence in siblings of ASD probands.
Data from a quantitative trait study of 114 ASD probands and their brothers, 26% of whom also had ASD, were analyzed.

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Sep
2017

Survival analysis was used to explore the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and covariates (sex, interview age, and ancestry) on a previously published model's ability to predict onset of drinking. A SNP variant of rs279871, in the chromosome 4 gene encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABRA2), was selected due to its associations with alcoholism in young adults and with behaviors that increased risk for early drinking.
A subsample of 674 adolescents (ages 14-17) participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) was examined using a previously derived Cox proportional hazards model containing: 1) number of non-drinking related conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, 2) membership in a high-risk alcohol-dependent (AD) family, 3) most best friends drank (MBFD), 4) Achenbach Youth Self Report (YSR) externalizing score, and 5) YSR social problems score.

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Feb
2018

Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and parental separation are associated with increased risk for early use of alcohol in offspring, but whether they increase risks for early use of other substances and for early sexual debut is under-studied. We focused on associations of parental AUDs and parental separation with substance initiation and sexual debut to (1) test the strength of the associations of parental AUDs and parental separation with time to initiation (age in years) of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use and sexual debut and (2) compare the strength of association of parental AUD and parental separation with initiation.
Prospective adolescent and young adult cohort of a high-risk family study, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA).

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Oct
2017

Childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for cannabis initiation and problem use, but the extent to which this association is attributable to shared familial influences is unknown. We estimate the magnitude of associations between childhood maltreatment, timing of cannabis initiation, and cannabis-related problems, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women, and parse the relative influence of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and individual-specific environmental (E) factors on these constructs and their covariation.
Data were from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.

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Nov
2017

There are high levels of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder, but little is known about the genetic etiology of this comorbidity.
We tested the hypothesis that shared genetic liability contributes to the high rates of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. To do this, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia derived from a large meta-analysis by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were computed in three substance use disorder datasets: the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (ascertained for tobacco use disorder; n = 918 cases; 988 control subjects), the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (ascertained for alcohol use disorder; n = 643 cases; 384 control subjects), and the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence (ascertained for cocaine use disorder; n = 210 cases; 317 control subjects).

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Aug
2017

Neuroticism, a 'Big Five' personality trait, has been associated with sub-clinical traits of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the current study was to examine whether causal overlap between ASD and ADHD traits can be accounted for by genetic and environmental risk factors that are shared with neuroticism. We performed twin-based structural equation modeling using self-report data from 12 items of the Neo Five-Factor Inventory Neuroticism domain, 11 Social Responsiveness Scale items, and 12 Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale items obtained from 3,170 young adult Australian individual twins (1,081 complete pairs).

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Jul
2017

Parental monitoring can buffer the effect of deviant peers on adolescents' substance use by reducing affiliation with substance-using peers. However, children's genetic predispositions may evoke poorer monitoring, contributing to negative child outcomes. We examined evocative genotype-environment correlations underlying children's genetic predisposition for behavioral undercontrol and parental monitoring in early adolescence via children's impulsivity in middle childhood, and the influence of parental monitoring on affiliation with substance-using peers a year and a half later (n = 359).

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Jul
2017

Studying personality profiles allows researchers to generate important hypotheses in risk factors and correlates of alcohol use/misuse. Studies examining the association between personality traits and treatment outcome are limited in India. We studied the correlation between personality and treatment outcome in patients with alcohol dependence.

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Dec
1969

Dual diagnosis with substance use disorders (SUDs) consistently contributes to the premature mortality and increased disability observed in schizophrenia. Large genome-wide association studies are providing the information needed to investigate the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders. Here, we discuss recent genetic investigations of dual diagnosis (i.

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Aug
2017

Imaging genetics and genomics research has begun to provide insight into the molecular and genetic architecture of neural phenotypes and the neural mechanisms through which genetic risk for psychopathology may emerge. As it approaches its third decade, imaging genetics is confronted by many challenges, including the proliferation of studies using small sample sizes and diverse designs, limited replication, problems with harmonization of neural phenotypes for meta-analysis, unclear mechanisms, and evidence that effect sizes may be more modest than originally posited, with increasing evidence of polygenicity. These concerns have encouraged the field to grow in many new directions, including the development of consortia and large-scale data collection projects and the use of novel methods (e.

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Feb
2017

All stages of development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have not been equally studied. While initiation of drinking has been given considerable attention, other stages have not been as thoroughly investigated. It is not clear whether the same factors are associated consistently across early and late transitions in AUD involvement.

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Jan
2017

Heavy episodic drinking is developmentally normative among adolescents and young adults, but is linked to adverse consequences in later life, such as drug and alcohol dependence. Genetic and peer influences are robust predictors of heavy episodic drinking in youth, but little is known about the interplay between polygenic risk and peer influences as they impact developmental patterns of heavy episodic drinking.
Data were from a multisite prospective study of alcohol use among adolescents and young adults with genome-wide association data (n = 412).

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Dec
1969

There is concern that medical marijuana laws (MMLs) could negatively affect adolescents. To better understand these policies, we assess how adolescent exposure to MMLs is related to educational attainment.
Data from the 2000 Census and 2001-2014 American Community Surveys were restricted to individuals who were of high school age (14-18) between 1990 and 2012 (n=5,483,715).

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Aug
2017

We examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association.
Data on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18-29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study.

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Jun
2016

Approximately 50-70% of the variation in cannabis use and use disorders can be attributed to heritable factors. For cannabis use, the remaining variance can be parsed in to familial and person-specific environmental factors while for use disorders, only the latter contribute. While numerous candidate gene studies have identified the role of common variation influencing liability to cannabis involvement, replication has been elusive.

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Sep
2016

Meta-analyses of genome-wide association study data have begun to lead to promising new discoveries for behavioral and psychiatrically relevant phenotypes (e.g., schizophrenia, educational attainment).

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Dec
1969

Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e.

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Dec
1969

Behavioral genetic studies have provided insights into why early substance use initiation is associated with increased risk for disorder. Few genetically informative studies, however, have operationalized initiation as the timing of first use and simultaneously modeled the timing of initiation and problematic use of multiple substances. Such research can help capture the risk associated with early initiation and determine the extent to which genetic and environmental risk generalizes across substances.

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Nov
2016

Substance use has been implicated in the onset and maintenance of risky sexual behaviors, which have particularly devastating consequences in young women. This study examined whether (i) adolescent onset of cannabis use is associated with repeated voluntary unprotected sex in women and (ii) whether this association persists after accounting for correlated familial influences.
General population sample of female twins.

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Jun
2016

Little is known about recent trends in marijuana use disorders among adolescents in the United States. We analyzed trends in the past-year prevalence of DSM-IV marijuana use disorders among adolescents, both overall and conditioned on past-year marijuana use. Potential explanatory factors for trends in prevalence were explored.

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Dec
1969

Use of cigarettes and cannabis frequently co-occurs. We examine the role of genetic and environmental influences on variation in and covariation between tobacco cigarette and cannabis use across European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women.
Data on lifetime cannabis and cigarette use were drawn from interviews of 956 AA and 3557 EA young adult female twins and non-twin same sex female full siblings.

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Sep
2016

The study examined unique trajectories of ADHD severity from childhood (7-16 yo at baseline) through adulthood in a sample of ADHD, bipolar and healthy subjects. Comorbid disorders and temperament were examined as correlates of course of ADHD. N = 81 participants with an ADHD diagnosis, ascertained as a comparison group in a study of bipolar disorder (BP-I), were followed over a 10-year period.

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Dec
1969

Forms of childhood trauma tend to co-occur and are associated with increased risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders. Commonly used binary measures of trauma exposure have substantial limitations.
We performed multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), separately by sex, using data from the Childhood Trauma (CT) Study's sample of twins and siblings (N = 2594) to derive three first-order factors (childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, and parental partner abuse) and, as hypothesized, one higher order, childhood trauma factor (CTF) representing a measure of their common variance.

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Mar
2016

There is a developing body of research looking at cannabis use opportunity, but little research examining timing of opportunity to use cannabis.
Identify factors associated with (1) earlier opportunity to use cannabis and (2) faster progression from opportunity to cannabis dependence.
Cross-sectional study of 3824 Australian twins and siblings, measuring age of onset of cannabis use opportunity and DSM-IV cannabis dependence.

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Nov
2015

Despite evidence for heritable variation in cannabis involvement and the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, no consistent patterns have emerged from candidate endocannabinoid (eCB) genetic association studies of cannabis involvement. Given interactions between eCB and stress systems and associations between childhood stress and cannabis involvement, it may be important to consider childhood adversity in the context of eCB-related genetic variation. We employed a system-level gene-based analysis of data from the Comorbidity and Trauma Study (N = 1,558) to examine whether genetic variation in six eCB genes (anabolism: DAGLA, DAGLB, NAPEPLD; catabolism: MGLL, FAAH; binding: CNR1; SNPs N = 65) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) predict cannabis dependence symptoms.

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Nov
2015

Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk for internalizing pathology. The present study examined whether early life stress and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within 4 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predicted individual differences in amygdala functional connectivity in school-age children (9- to 14-year-olds; N = 120).

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Dec
2015

Distinctions in the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to initiation of cigarette smoking may explain, in part, the differences between African Americans and European Americans in the prevalence of smoking. The current investigation is the first to compare heritable and environmental influences on smoking initiation between African-American and European-American women.
Data were drawn from Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study participants and female Missouri Family Study participants (n=4498; 21% African-American, the remainder European-American).

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Sep
2015

Disagreement exists over whether permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws affected underage adolescents (e.g., those age 17 years with the MLDA of 18).

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Mar
2016

Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Extraversion: Findings from the Genetics of Personality Consortium.

Behav Genet 2016 Mar 11;46(2):170-82. Epub 2015 Sep 11.
Stéphanie M van den Berg, Marleen H M de Moor, Karin J H Verweij, Robert F Krueger, Michelle Luciano, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Lindsay K Matteson, Jaime Derringer, Tõnu Esko, Najaf Amin, Scott D Gordon, Narelle K Hansell, Amy B Hart, Ilkka Seppälä, Jennifer E Huffman, Bettina Konte, Jari Lahti, Minyoung Lee, Mike Miller, Teresa Nutile, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Alexander Viktorin, Juho Wedenoja, Abdel Abdellaoui, Goncalo R Abecasis, Daniel E Adkins, Arpana Agrawal, Jüri Allik, Katja Appel, Timothy B Bigdeli, Fabio Busonero, Harry Campbell, Paul T Costa, George Davey Smith, Gail Davies, Harriet de Wit, Jun Ding, Barbara E Engelhardt, Johan G Eriksson, Iryna O Fedko, Luigi Ferrucci, Barbara Franke, Ina Giegling, Richard Grucza, Annette M Hartmann, Andrew C Heath, Kati Heinonen, Anjali K Henders, Georg Homuth, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, William G Iacono, Joost Janzing, Markus Jokela, Robert Karlsson, John P Kemp, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Antti Latvala, Terho Lehtimäki, David C Liewald, Pamela A F Madden, Chiara Magri, Patrik K E Magnusson, Jonathan Marten, Andrea Maschio, Hamdi Mbarek, Sarah E Medland, Evelin Mihailov, Yuri Milaneschi, Grant W Montgomery, Matthias Nauck, Michel G Nivard, Klaasjan G Ouwens, Aarno Palotie, Erik Pettersson, Ozren Polasek, Yong Qian, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Olli T Raitakari, Anu Realo, Richard J Rose, Daniela Ruggiero, Carsten O Schmidt, Wendy S Slutske, Rossella Sorice, John M Starr, Beate St Pourcain, Angelina R Sutin, Nicholas J Timpson, Holly Trochet, Sita Vermeulen, Eero Vuoksimaa, Elisabeth Widen, Jasper Wouda, Margaret J Wright, Lina Zgaga, , David Porteous, Alessandra Minelli, Abraham A Palmer, Dan Rujescu, Marina Ciullo, Caroline Hayward, Igor Rudan, Andres Metspalu, Jaakko Kaprio, Ian J Deary, Katri Räikkönen, James F Wilson, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Laura J Bierut, John M Hettema, Hans J Grabe, Brenda W J H Penninx, Cornelia M van Duijn, David M Evans, David Schlessinger, Nancy L Pedersen, Antonio Terracciano, Matt McGue, Nicholas G Martin, Dorret I Boomsma
Extraversion is a relatively stable and heritable personality trait associated with numerous psychosocial, lifestyle and health outcomes. Despite its substantial heritability, no genetic variants have been detected in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies, which may be due to relatively small sample sizes of those studies. Here, we report on a large meta-analysis of GWA studies for extraversion in 63,030 subjects in 29 cohorts.

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Oct
2015

Prior neuroimaging studies have suggested that alterations in brain structure may be a consequence of cannabis use. Siblings discordant for cannabis use offer an opportunity to use cross-sectional data to disentangle such causal hypotheses from shared effects of genetics and familial environment on brain structure and cannabis use.
To determine whether cannabis use is associated with differences in brain structure in a large sample of twins/siblings and to examine sibling pairs discordant for cannabis use to separate potential causal and predispositional factors linking lifetime cannabis exposure to volumetric alterations.

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Sep
2015

Bulimic behaviors (i.e., binge eating and compensatory behaviors) and substance use frequently co-occur.

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Aug
2015

Considerable attention has been paid to the "gateway" pattern of drug use initiation in which individuals progress from tobacco and alcohol use to cannabis and other illicit drugs. The extent to which this sequence reflects a causal impact of licit substance use on illicit substance involvement remains unclear. Clarifying the mechanisms underlying substance use initiation may help inform our understanding of risk for psychopathology, as increasing research is demonstrating associations between initiation patterns and heavier involvement.

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Jul
2015

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with elevated risk of early marijuana use and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Both the prevalence of CSA and the course of marijuana use differ between African Americans and European Americans. The current study aimed to determine whether these differences manifest in racial/ ethnic distinctions in the association of CSA with early and problem use of marijuana.

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Aug
2015

Despite substantial evidence that alcohol use disorder (AUD) and bulimic behaviors (i.e., binge eating and compensatory behaviors) co-occur, insufficient information exists regarding a possible shared etiology.

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Jul
2015

Meta-analysis of Genome-wide Association Studies for Neuroticism, and the Polygenic Association With Major Depressive Disorder.

JAMA Psychiatry 2015 Jul;72(7):642-50
, Marleen H M de Moor, Stéphanie M van den Berg, Karin J H Verweij, Robert F Krueger, Michelle Luciano, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Lindsay K Matteson, Jaime Derringer, Tõnu Esko, Najaf Amin, Scott D Gordon, Narelle K Hansell, Amy B Hart, Ilkka Seppälä, Jennifer E Huffman, Bettina Konte, Jari Lahti, Minyoung Lee, Mike Miller, Teresa Nutile, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Alexander Viktorin, Juho Wedenoja, Goncalo R Abecasis, Daniel E Adkins, Arpana Agrawal, Jüri Allik, Katja Appel, Timothy B Bigdeli, Fabio Busonero, Harry Campbell, Paul T Costa, George Davey Smith, Gail Davies, Harriet de Wit, Jun Ding, Barbara E Engelhardt, Johan G Eriksson, Iryna O Fedko, Luigi Ferrucci, Barbara Franke, Ina Giegling, Richard Grucza, Annette M Hartmann, Andrew C Heath, Kati Heinonen, Anjali K Henders, Georg Homuth, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, William G Iacono, Joost Janzing, Markus Jokela, Robert Karlsson, John P Kemp, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Antti Latvala, Terho Lehtimäki, David C Liewald, Pamela A F Madden, Chiara Magri, Patrik K E Magnusson, Jonathan Marten, Andrea Maschio, Sarah E Medland, Evelin Mihailov, Yuri Milaneschi, Grant W Montgomery, Matthias Nauck, Klaasjan G Ouwens, Aarno Palotie, Erik Pettersson, Ozren Polasek, Yong Qian, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Olli T Raitakari, Anu Realo, Richard J Rose, Daniela Ruggiero, Carsten O Schmidt, Wendy S Slutske, Rossella Sorice, John M Starr, Beate St Pourcain, Angelina R Sutin, Nicholas J Timpson, Holly Trochet, Sita Vermeulen, Eero Vuoksimaa, Elisabeth Widen, Jasper Wouda, Margaret J Wright, Lina Zgaga, David Porteous, Alessandra Minelli, Abraham A Palmer, Dan Rujescu, Marina Ciullo, Caroline Hayward, Igor Rudan, Andres Metspalu, Jaakko Kaprio, Ian J Deary, Katri Räikkönen, James F Wilson, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Laura J Bierut, John M Hettema, Hans J Grabe, Cornelia M van Duijn, David M Evans, David Schlessinger, Nancy L Pedersen, Antonio Terracciano, Matt McGue, Brenda W J H Penninx, Nicholas G Martin, Dorret I Boomsma
Neuroticism is a pervasive risk factor for psychiatric conditions. It genetically overlaps with major depressive disorder (MDD) and is therefore an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in more than 63,000 participants (including MDD cases).

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Jan
2016

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 28(1) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2015-54029-001). The FFI-BPD values for Sample 3 in Table 2 should read 1.42 (0.

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