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Author: Avril V Brereton (12)


Dec
2014

Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood.

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Jul
2011

Key theories of autism implicate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compromise, while olfactory identification (OI) deficits are associated with OFC dysfunction. This study aimed to complete a 5-year follow-up of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) who previously lacked the normal age-OI association; and compare unirhinal-OI in children with HFA, Asperger's disorder (ASP), and controls. While both HFA and controls had improved birhinal-OI at follow-up, reduced OI in some HFA participants suggested OFC deterioration and heterogeneous OFC development.

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May
2008

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the superior search abilities observed in autism/Asperger's disorder may in part be a consequence of a more pronounced inhibition of return (IOR). Contrary to our prediction, IOR in individuals with autism was comparable to the matched comparison group. However, the autism group committed more false alarm responses than the matched comparison group; this may reflect a possible inhibitory deficit, or suggest that individuals with autism rely more on probabilities to determine their behavioural responses.

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Jun
2002

The repetitive, stereotyped, and obsessive behaviors that characterize autism may in part be attributable to disruption of the region of the fronto-striatal system, which mediates executive abilities. Neuropsychological testing has shown that children with autism exhibit set-shifting deficiencies on tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting task but show normal inhibitory ability on variants of the Stroop color-word test. According to Minshew and Goldstein's multiple primary deficit theory, the complexity of the executive functioning task is important in determining the performance of individuals with autism.

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Jul
2007

Autism and mental retardation (MR) are often associated, suggesting that these conditions are etiologically related. Recently, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has identified submicroscopic deletions and duplications as a common cause of MR, prompting us to search for such genomic imbalances in autism. Here we describe a 1.

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Oct
2006

We investigated gait in newly diagnosed children with autism. From our previous study with 6- to 14-year-olds, we hypothesized that motor symptoms indicative of basal ganglia and cerebellar dysfunction would appear across the developmental trajectory of autism. Two groups were recruited: children with autism (eight males, three females; mean age 5 y 10 mo [SD 9 mo]; range 4 y 4 mo-6 y 9 mo) and a comparison group of typically developing children (eight males, three females; mean age 5 y 9 mo [SD 1 y 1 mo]; range 4 y 3 mo-7 y 2 mo).

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Oct
2006

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a specific pattern of behavioural, communication and social problems. Additional mental health problems are often poorly understood and undetected. This study investigates the level and pattern of emotional and behavioural problems in young people with autism compared with children with intellectual disability (ID).

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Aug
2006

This paper examines upper-body movement kinematics in individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD). In general, the results indicate that HFA is more consistently associated with impaired motoric preparation/initiation than AD. The data further suggest that this quantitative difference in motor impairment is not necessarily underpinned by greater executive dysfunction vulnerability in autism relative to AD.

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Jan
2006

The repetitive, stereotyped and obsessive behaviours, which are core diagnostic features of autism, are thought to be underpinned by executive dysfunction. This study examined executive impairment in individuals with autism and Asperger's disorder using a verbal equivalent of an established pseudo-random number generating task. Different patterns of disinhibition emerged in the autism (n = 12) and Asperger's disorder (n = 12) groups.

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Nov
2002

To determine whether a subset of items from the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC) could be selected to construct a reliable autism screening tool.
A 29-item scale-the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm (DBC-ASA)-was developed by using items from the DBC and evaluated in a sample comprising 180 children who met criteria for autism and 180 controls matched for age, sex, and IQ range.
This study found that the DBC-ASA has good validity in discriminating young people (4-18 years) with autism and IQ ranging from normal to severe intellectual disability from others using a cutoff score of 17.

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Dec
2002

To compare, contrast and review clinical and neuropsychological studies of high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.
This paper reviews past and contemporary conceptualizations of autism and Asperger's disorder, together with epidemiological information, genetic and neurobehavioural findings. This paper focuses on neurobehavioural studies, in particular, executive functioning, lateralization, visual-perceptual and motor processing, which have provided an important source of information about the potential neurobiological dissociation that may exist between autism and Asperger's disorder.

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Aug
2002

Neurobiological and behavioural studies of possible left hemisphere dysfunction in autism have generated conflicting results. Left hemisphere dysfunction may manifest in autism only in tasks that invoke executive functions. Moreover, left hemisphere dysfunction may underpin autism but not Asperger's disorder.

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