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Author: Belinda Garner (16)


Nov
2017

Memory impairment in psychosis may be mediated through detrimental effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. This study prospectively investigated the relationship between cortisol, sulphate dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA(S) and cortisol: DHEA(S) ratio and memory in 35 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients during the first 12 weeks of treatment and 23 healthy controls (HC).
Morning blood sampling and tests of attention, working memory and verbal memory occurred at baseline and 12-week follow-up.

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Jan
2016

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation has been implicated in the development and relapse of psychotic disorders. Elevated cortisol secretion has been positively linked with symptom severity in people with psychosis. Antiglucocorticoid and related drugs that target the HPA axis may be useful for the treatment of individuals with psychosis.

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Mar
2015

Stress is implicated in the development and course of psychotic illness, but the factors that influence stress levels are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of neuropsychological functioning and coping styles on perceived stress in people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls (HC). Thirty-four minimally treated FEP patients from the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre, Melbourne, Australia, and 26 HC participants from a similar demographic area participated in the study.

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Feb
2015

Stress and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning have been implicated in the early phase of psychosis and may partly explain reported changes in brain structure. This study used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether biological measures of stress were related to brain structure at baseline and to structural changes over the first 12 weeks of treatment in first episode patients (n=22) compared with matched healthy controls (n=22). At baseline, no significant group differences in biological measures of stress, cortical thickness or hippocampal volume were observed, but a significantly stronger relationship between baseline levels of cortisol and smaller white matter volumes of the cuneus and anterior cingulate was found in patients compared with controls.

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Sep
2014

Acupuncture has been reported to be beneficial in treating cognitive impairment in various pathological conditions. This review describes the effort to understand the signaling pathways that underlie the acupunctural therapeutic effect on cognitive function. We searched the literature in 12 electronic databases from their inception to November 2013, with full text available and language limited to English.

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Jul
2013

Vocational recovery is a primary treatment goal of young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP), yet treatment in this domain is often delayed due to concerns that it might be too stressful. This study aimed to examine whether a relationship exists between vocational status and level of perceived stress and daily hassles in FEP.
Forty-seven FEP participants were recruited upon admission to the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC), Melbourne.

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Apr
2013

Impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyper-activity of this system have been described in patients with psychosis. Conversely, some psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterised by HPA hypo-activity, which could be related to prior exposure to trauma. This study examined the cortisol response to the administration of low-dose dexamethasone in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and its relationship to childhood trauma.

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Feb
2011

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate form (DHEA) are neuroactive steroids with antiglucocorticoid properties. An imbalance in the ratio of cortisol to DHEA(S) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders. This study prospectively investigated circulating cortisol, DHEAS and their ratio in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients compared to healthy controls, and their relationship to perceived stress, psychotic, negative and mood symptoms.

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Jul
2010

PTSD is an anxiety disorder related to exposure to a severe psychological trauma. Symptoms include re-experiencing the event, avoidance and arousal as well as distress and impairment resulting from these symptoms.Guidelines suggest a combination of both psychological therapy and pharmacotherapy may enhance treatment response, especially in those with more severe PTSD or in those who have not responded to either intervention alone.

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Jan
2010

Pituitary volume is currently measured as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hyperactivity in patients with psychosis despite suggestions of susceptibility to antipsychotics. Qualifying and quantifying the effect of atypical antipsychotics on the volume of the pituitary gland will determine whether this measure is valid as a future estimate of HPA-axis activation in psychotic populations.
To determine the qualitative and quantitative effect of atypical antipsychotic medications on pituitary gland volume in a first-episode psychosis population.

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May
2008

The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a relaxation massage therapy programme in reducing stress, anxiety and aggression on a young adult psychiatric inpatient unit.
This was a prospective, non-randomized intervention study comparing treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU plus massage therapy intervention (MT) over consecutive 7 week blocks (May-August 2006). MT consisted of a 20 min massage therapy session offered daily to patients during their period of hospitalization.

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Dec
2007

This study used magnetic resonance imaging to examine pituitary gland volume (PGV) in teenage patients with a first presentation of borderline personality disorder (BPD). No difference in PGV was observed between healthy controls (n=20) and the total BPD cohort (n=20). However, within the BPD cohort, those exposed to childhood trauma (n=9) tended to have smaller pituitaries (-18%) than those with no history of childhood trauma (n=10).

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Jan
2007

Prolonged maternal deprivation leads to long-term alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, disturbances of auditory information processing and neurochemical changes in the adult brain, some of which are similar to that observed in schizophrenia. Here we report the adult behavioural effects of maternal deprivation (12h on postnatal days 9 and 11) in Wistar rats on paradigms of auditory information processing (prepulse inhibition), sensitivity to dopamimetics (amphetamine-induced hyper-locomotion) and cognition (T-maze delayed alternation and Morris water-maze). In addition, we examined the long-lasting effect of chronic 21-day corticosterone treatment during the post-pubertal period (i.

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Sep
2006

The experience of stress is commonly implicated in models of the onset of psychotic disorders. However, prospective studies investigating associations between biological markers of stress and the emergence of psychotic disorders are limited and inconclusive. One biological system proposed as the link between the psychological experience of stress and the development of psychosis is the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis.

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Sep
2005

We examined pituitary volume before the onset of psychosis in subjects who were at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis.
Pituitary volume was measured on 1.5-mm, coronal, 1.

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