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Author: Benjamin Renouf (7)


Dec
1969

Induction of chromosomal translocations in human cells is of a great interest to study tumorigenesis and genome instability. Here, we explain in detail a method to induce translocations using the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We describe how to detect translocation formation by PCR, calculate translocation frequency by 96-well PCR screen, and analyze breakpoint junctions.

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Dec
1969

Recurrent chromosomal translocations are found in numerous tumor types, often leading to the formation and expression of fusion genes with oncogenic potential. Creating chromosomal translocations at the relevant endogenous loci, rather than ectopically expressing the fusion genes, opens new possibilities for better characterizing molecular mechanisms driving tumor formation. In this chapter, we describe methods to create cancer translocations in human cells.

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Sep
2014

Breakpoint junctions of the chromosomal translocations that occur in human cancers display hallmarks of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). In mouse cells, translocations are suppressed by canonical NHEJ (c-NHEJ) components, which include DNA ligase IV (LIG4), and instead arise from alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ). Here we used designer nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9) to introduce DSBs on two chromosomes to study translocation joining mechanisms in human cells.

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Apr
2012

Cdx2, a gene of the paraHox cluster, encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that plays numerous roles in embryonic development and in homeostasis of the adult intestine. Whereas Cdx2 exerts a tumor suppressor function in the gut, its abnormal ectopic expression in acute leukemia is associated to a pro-oncogenic function. To try to understand this duality, we have hypothesized that Cdx2 may interact with different protein partners in the two tissues and set up experiments to identify them by tandem affinity purification.

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Mar
2010

Verotoxin (VT-1) is a cytotoxin, produced by Shigella dysenteriae type 1 or by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, which binds specifically to globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). This glycosphingolipid is a B cell differentiation antigen (Gb3/CD77) strongly expressed on Burkitt's lymphoma cells. We have previously shown that, in these cells, VT-1 induces apoptosis via a caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway.

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Jul
2007

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded leader protein, EBNA-LP, strongly activates the EBNA2-mediated transcriptional activation of cellular and viral genes and is therefore important for EBV-induced B-cell transformation. However, a truncated form of EBNA-LP is produced in cells infected with variant EBV strains lacking EBNA2 due to a genetic deletion. The function of this truncated form is unknown.

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Dec
1969

Chronic treatments with antidepressants active on major depressive disorders influence pathways involved in cell survival and plasticity. As astrocytes seem to play a key role in the protection of brain cells, we investigated in these cells the rapid effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac) on signaling cascades and gene induction, which probably play a role in neuroprotection. We show here that fluoxetine alone activates the extracellular signal-regulated-protein kinase (Erk) and p38 mitogen-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascades.

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