Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Bruce Tonge (108)


Jan
2018

Autism spectrum disorder is associated with diverse social, educational, and occupational challenges. To date, no standardized, internationally accepted tools exist to assess autism spectrum disorder-related functioning. World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can serve as foundation for developing such tools.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Children with a developmental disability are three to four times more likely than their typically developing peers of developing significant emotional and behavioural problems. There is strong evidence to suggest that individual biological and psychological factors interact with family functioning to precipitate and perpetuate these problems.
This study examined the psychometric properties of a brief measure, the Parent and Family Adjustment Scales (PAFAS) for use with parents of children with a developmental disability.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

While diagnostically independent, autism and schizotypal disorders can co-occur. Their concurrent impact on outcomes and phenotypes has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of comorbid autism and schizotypal disorders in children on executive functioning and socio-pragmatic skills - core features of both disorders.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Adolescents with intellectual disability have increased rates of psychopathology compared with their typically developing peers and present to hospital more frequently for ambulant conditions. The aim of this study is to describe the psychopathology and related characteristics of a sample of adolescents with intellectual disability who presented to general hospital services.
We investigated a cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability in South East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and June 2010.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2017

This study investigates whether the augmentation of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with fluoxetine improves outcomes in anxious school refusing adolescents (11-16.5 years). Sixty-two participants were randomly allocated to CBT alone, CBT + fluoxetine or CBT + placebo.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Young people with intellectual disability exhibit substantial and persistent problem behaviours compared with their non-disabled peers. The aim of this study was to compare changes in emotional and behavioural problems for young people with intellectual disability with and without Down syndrome as they transition into adulthood in two different Australian cohorts.
Emotional and behavioural problems were measured over three time points using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) for those with Down syndrome (n = 323 at wave one) and compared to those with intellectual disability of another cause (n = 466 at wave one).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2017

Oxidative stress, inflammation and heavy metals have been implicated in the aetiology of autistic disorder. N-acetyl cysteine has been shown to modulate these pathways, providing a rationale to trial N-acetyl cysteine for autistic disorder. There are now two published pilot studies suggesting efficacy, particularly in symptoms of irritability.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Changes to the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria raised concerns among parents and practitioners that the criteria may exclude some children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Few studies have examined DSM-5 sensitivity and specificity in children less than 5 years of age. This study evaluated 185 children aged 20-55 months with DSM-IV PDD or developmental delay.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2016

In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2016

This study is the second of four to prepare International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF; and Children and Youth version, ICF(-CY)) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).The objective of this study was to survey the opinions and experiences of international experts on functioning and disability in ASD.
Using a protocol stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and monitored by the ICF Research Branch, an email-based questionnaire was circulated worldwide among ASD experts, and meaningful functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2015

This is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to use a comprehensive scoping review approach to identify the concepts of functional ability and disability used in the scientific ADHD literature and link these to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, to extract the relevant concepts of functional ability and disability from the identified outcome studies of ADHD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

People with intellectual disabilities are at a higher risk for experiencing behavioral, emotional, and psychiatric problems in comparison with the general population. People with Down syndrome have been reported as experiencing fewer behavioral problems than others with intellectual disability, although still at a greater level than the non-intellectually disabled population, except for depression and Alzheimer disease. The aim of this study was to describe the trajectories of subscales of behavior, including depressive symptoms, communication disturbance, anxiety, disruptiveness, and social relating abilities, for young adults with Down syndrome.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2015

The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and temper tantrums in four genetic syndrome groups. Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study (ACAD), which collected information from a cohort of individuals with an intellectual disability at five time points over 18 years. Data were examined from a total of 248 people with one of the four following syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Williams syndrome.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2015

This study is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The objective was to use a systematic review approach to identify, number, and link functional ability and disability concepts used in the scientific ASD literature to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY (Children and Youth version of the ICF, covering the life span).
Systematic searches on outcome studies of ASD were carried out in Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, and relevant functional ability and disability concepts extracted from the included studies.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2015

Parental characteristics such as psychopathology and parenting practices are understood to be implicated in school-refusal presentations. Expanding upon these largely affective and behavioral factors, the present study sought to examine the role of a parenting cognitive construct--parenting self-efficacy--in understanding school-refusal. School-refusing adolescents (n = 60, 53% male) and school-attending adolescents (n = 46, 39% male) aged 12-17 years (M = 13.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK)) and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing) and their parents were administered the MASK.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2015

There is increasing interest in oxytocin as a therapeutic to treat social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a course of oxytocin nasal spray to improve social behavior in youth with ASD.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial across two Australian university sites between February 2009 and January 2012, 50 male participants aged between 12 and 18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder, were randomized to receive either oxytocin (n = 26) or placebo (n = 24) nasal sprays (either 18 or 24 International Units), administered twice-daily for 8 weeks.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2014

Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2014

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by a unique pattern of preserved abilities and deficits within and across cognitive domains. The Complex Information Processing Theory proposes this pattern reflects an altered capacity to respond to cognitive demands. This study compared how complexity induced by time constraints on processing affect cognitive function in individuals with ASD and typically-developing individuals.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2014

The literature on the association between behavioural and emotional problems and ageing in adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia is limited and has generally not reported on a wide range of behavioural and emotional problems. This research aimed to extend the field by examining the associations between age and a wide spectrum of behavioural and emotional problems in adults with DS without dementia. A preliminary analysis of the association between potential covariates and behavioural and emotional problems was also undertaken.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2014

Irritability is ubiquitous in child and adolescent psychopathology. This study aimed to determine if the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI), a measure of irritability, could be used to screen for psychopathology in adolescents. The clinical sample comprised 31 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2014

This article reviews recent evidence and other earlier relevant articles regarding early intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
There is a well-established body of empirical evidence for the effectiveness of Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (EIBI) with young children with ASD. The importance of parent skills training, education and positive behaviour support is also a key factor in influencing outcomes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

There is substantial evidence for facial emotion recognition (FER) deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extent of this impairment, however, remains unclear, and there is some suggestion that clinical groups might benefit from the use of dynamic rather than static images. High-functioning individuals with ASD (n = 36) and typically developing controls (n = 36) completed a computerised FER task involving static and dynamic expressions of the six basic emotions.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2014

Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is the first-line diagnostic test for individuals with intellectual disability, autism, or multiple congenital anomalies, with a 10-20% diagnostic yield. An ongoing challenge for the clinician and laboratory scientist is the interpretation of variants of uncertain significance (VOUS)-usually rare, unreported genetic variants. Laboratories differ in their threshold for reporting VOUS, and clinical practice varies in how this information is conveyed to the family and what follow-up is arranged.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2014

Irritable mood is implicated in a range of psychiatric conditions in both adults and adolescents. Research into appropriate measures of irritability, however, has been sparse. Recently, Stringaris et al.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2014

Information on the use of psychotropic medications in adolescents with intellectual disability is scant. Such information can guide interventions to improve psychotropic medication use in this population. We investigated the prevalence of, and factors associated with, psychotropic medication use in adolescents with intellectual disability in Australia who live in the community.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2013

This study describes the mental illness and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents who experienced a depressive disorder and identifies predictors of full remission and recurrence.
140 adolescents with major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder NOS were offered psychosocial and/or antidepressant treatment across two clinical trials. Three to nine years later (mean 5.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2013

It has been consistently reported that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show considerable handwriting difficulties, specifically relating to accurate and consistent letter formation, and maintaining appropriate letter size. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying factors that contribute to these difficulties, specifically relating to motor control. We examined the integrity of fundamental handwriting movements and contributions of neuromotor noise in 26 children with ASD aged 8-13 years (IQ>75), and 17 typically developing controls.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The mirror neuron hypothesis of autism is highly controversial, in part because there are conflicting reports as to whether putative indices of mirror system activity are actually deficient in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent evidence suggests that a typical putative mirror system response may be seen in people with an ASD when there is a degree of social relevance to the visual stimuli used to elicit that response. Individuals with ASD (n = 32) and matched neurotypical controls (n = 32) completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment in which the left primary motor cortex (M1) was stimulated during the observation of static hands, individual (i.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2013

Intervention for behavioural and psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities often only takes place once these conditions are well established and more resistant to change. As an alternative, this paper promotes a public health prevention model and maps out opportunities for intervention at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The resulting model is partly derived from generic research into these issues and partly on specific evidence on interventions for people with intellectual disabilities; it also contains more theoretical considerations.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2013

Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in adolescents with depressive disorders. To date there is limited evidence of the extent to which sleep disturbances are associated with treatment response in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the extent to which self-reported sleep disturbances are associated with treatment response in adolescents with depression.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2013

To review the recent evidence regarding early intervention and prevention studies for children with developmental disabilities and behaviour problems from 2011 to 2013. Recent advances in the field are discussed and important areas for future research are highlighted.
Recent reviews and studies highlight the utility of antecedent interventions and skills training interventions for reducing behaviour problems.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Motor impairments have been found to be a significant clinical feature associated with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) in addition to core symptoms of communication and social cognition deficits. Motor deficits in high-functioning autism (HFA) and AD may differentiate these disorders, particularly with respect to the role of the cerebellum in motor functioning. Current neuroimaging and behavioral evidence suggests greater disruption of the cerebellum in HFA than AD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2014

To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder.
A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent skills training and a control sample. Two rural and two metropolitan regions were randomly allocated to intervention groups (n = 70) or control (n = 35).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2012

Children with autism have difficulties in emotion recognition and a number of interventions have been designed to target these problems. However, few emotion training interventions have been trialled with young children with autism and co-morbid ID. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emotion training programme for a group of young children with autism with a range of intellectual ability.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2013

Mounting evidence suggests a possible role for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the neuropathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the extent of this impairment is unclear. A non-invasive, in vivo measure of GABA involves transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex to probe cortical inhibition. Individuals diagnosed with ASD (high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder) (n = 36 [28 male]; mean age: 26.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2012

High rates of behavior and emotional problems have been consistently reported in children and adolescents with autism. Elevated rates of mental health problems have also been reported in adults with autism. Little is known, however, about the longitudinal development of behavior and emotional problems in autism.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2012

Standardised normative data for checklists of behavioural and emotional disturbance have a demonstrated usefulness for clinicians, researchers, and service providers.
The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults (DBC-A) was the instrument used in a large-scale Australian study (n = 1,538) of emotional and behavioural disturbance.
To assist the field, normative data is now available on the DBC-A for adults with ID from age 18-85 years, across three levels of intellectual disability (ID).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2012

Self-efficacy can be conceptualised as a person's perception of their own ability to produce a desired outcome. Low self-efficacy has been reported to be a mediating variable in developing depression. The Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Depressed Adolescents (SEQ-DA) is a 12-item inventory, designed to measure self-perceived ability of the young person to cope with depressive symptoms.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2012

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and variable other features including agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, congenital heart defects, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and Hirschsprung disease. The current study investigated the behavioral phenotype of MWS.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2012

Research has suggested an abnormal acceleration in head circumference growth in children with autism within the first 12 months of life. This study aimed to examine head circumference at birth and head circumference growth rates in young children with autism and developmental delay, and young children with developmental delay without autism.
This study assessed head circumference at birth and rate of change in head circumference in young children with autism (n=86) and children with developmental delay without autism (n=40).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2012

Motor impairments are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Electrophysiologic studies reveal abnormalities in the preparation of movement; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to key motor cortical sites may therefore be a useful technique for improving motor function in ASD.
To examine whether rTMS can improve electrophysiologic and behavioral indices of motor activity.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2012

The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not particularly well understood, and biomedical treatment approaches are therefore extremely limited. A prominent explanatory model suggests that social-relating symptoms may arise from dysfunction within the mirror neuron system, while a recent neuroimaging study suggests that these impairments in ASD might reduce with age.
Participants with autism spectrum disorder (i.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2012

The relationship of motor proficiency with emotional/behavioural disturbance, autistic symptoms and communication disturbance was investigated in children diagnosed with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used as a measure of motor impairment, and the Developmental Behavioural Checklist was used as a measure of emotional/behavioural disturbance in the following groups: AD (n = 22), high functioning autism (HFA) (n = 23), LFA (n = 8) and typically developing children (n = 20). The HFA group had more difficulty with motor items, such as ball skills and balance, than did the AD group.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2011

Autism spectrum disorders.

Aust Fam Physician 2011 Sep;40(9):672-7
Bruce Tonge, Avril Brereton
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders affecting approximately one in 160 Australians. Symptoms are apparent during the second year of life causing impairments in social interaction, communication and behaviour with restricted and stereotyped interests.
To increase the general practitioner's awareness of the presenting symptoms of ASDs and their associated problems in children, screening for ASDs, and the assessment process, treatment options and outcomes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Gender is an important factor to consider in understanding the clinical presentation, management, and developmental trajectory of children with neuropsychiatric disorders. While much is known about the clinical and neurobehavioural profiles of boys with neuropsychiatric disorders, surprisingly little is known about girls. The aim of this chapter was to review our understanding of gender by considering the most prevalent childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders, autism and Fragile X syndrome.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2011

Although neuropsychological deficits in adult depression are relatively well established, findings in children/adolescents have been inconsistent and thus require further investigation. The current study investigated verbal fluency (VF), cognitive speed, motor speed, and executive functions in adolescents with unipolar depression. Results indicated that adolescents with minor depression showed working memory deficits and poorer VF (letter task).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top