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Author: Carolin Moessnang (12)


Feb
2018

This ECNP meeting was designed to build bridges between different constituencies of mental illness treatment researchers from a range of backgrounds with a specific focus on enhancing the development of novel, evidence based, psychological treatments. In particular we wished to explore the potential for basic neuroscience to support the development of more effective psychological treatments, just as this approach is starting to illuminate the actions of drugs. To fulfil this aim, a selection of clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and neuroscientists were invited to sit at the same table.

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Dec
1969

The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) is to date the largest multi-centre, multi-disciplinary observational study on biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current paper describes the clinical characteristics of the LEAP cohort and examines age, sex and IQ differences in ASD core symptoms and common co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. A companion paper describes the overall design and experimental protocol and outlines the strategy to identify stratification biomarkers.

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Dec
1969

The tremendous clinical and aetiological diversity among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been a major obstacle to the development of new treatments, as many may only be effective in particular subgroups. Precision medicine approaches aim to overcome this challenge by combining pathophysiologically based treatments with stratification biomarkers that predict which treatment may be most beneficial for particular individuals. However, so far, we have no single validated stratification biomarker for ASD.

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Jan
2018

The serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region 5-HTTLPR is a key genetic regulator of 5-HTT expression in the human brain where the short allele S has been implicated in emotion dysregulation. However, the neural mechanism underlying the association between this variant and emotion processing is still unclear. Earlier studies suggested an effect of 5-HTTLPR on amygdala activation during emotional face processing.

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Aug
2017

Previous research suggests a role of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in metacognitive representation of social information, while the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) has been linked to social perception. This study targeted these functional roles in the context of spontaneous mentalizing. An animated shapes task was presented to 46 subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Sep
2017

Altered connectivity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus during working memory is considered an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia (SCZ), but the relevance for other mental disorders with shared genetic background remains unknown. Here we investigated its presence in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD). Furthermore, we aimed to provide an independent replication of this phenotype in first-degree relatives of SCZ patients.

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Dec
1969

The debilitating effects of social dysfunction in many psychiatric disorders prompt the need for systems-level biomarkers of social abilities that can be applied in clinical populations and longitudinal studies. A promising neuroimaging approach is the animated shapes paradigm based on so-called Frith-Happé animations (FHAs) which trigger spontaneous mentalizing with minimal cognitive demands. Here, we presented FHAs during functional magnetic resonance imaging to 46 subjects and examined the specificity and sensitivity of the elicited social brain responses.

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Nov
2016

Although most studies agree that humans cannot smell in stereo, it was recently suggested that olfactory localization is possible when assessed implicitly. In a spatial cueing paradigm, lateralized olfactory cues impaired the detection of congruently presented visual targets, an effect contrary to the typical facilitation observed in other sensory domains. Here, we examined the specificity and the robustness of this finding by studying implicit localization abilities in another chemosensory system and by accounting for possible confounds in a modified paradigm.

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Jun
2015

The correction of ballistocardiogram artifacts in simultaneous EEG-fMRI often yields unsatisfactory results. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of results, we inferred EEG signal uncertainty from postcorrection artifact residuals and computed the uncertainty-weighted mean of ERPs. Using an uncertainty-weighted mean significantly and consistently reduced both inter- and intrasubject SEM in the analysis of auditory evoked responses (AER, indicated by the N1-P2 complex) and in the effects of an auditory oddball paradigm (N1-P3 complex, standard-deviant difference).

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Dec
2012

According to the aberrant-salience hypothesis, attribution of motivational salience is severely disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. To provide a translational approach for investigating underlying mechanisms, neural correlates of salience attribution were examined in normal mice and in a MK-801 model of schizophrenia. Electrophysiological responses to standard and deviant tones were assessed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using an auditory oddball paradigm.

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Dec
1969

Navigation based on chemosensory information is one of the most important skills in the animal kingdom. Studies on odor localization suggest that humans have lost this ability. However, the experimental approaches used so far were limited to explicit judgements, which might ignore a residual ability for directional smelling on an implicit level without conscious appraisal.

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Jun
2011

Olfactory impairment is a consistent premotor symptom in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), presumably caused by pathological processes in the olfactory bulb and olfactory structures within mesolimbic brain areas. The objective of the present study was to obtain an in-depth insight into olfactory network dysfunction in PD patients. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (3 T) was conducted with 16 early-stage PD patients and 16 matched controls during an odor detection task.

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