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Author: Catherine Orr (19)



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Nov
2017

Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have most commonly reported volumetric abnormalities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortices. Few studies have examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and brain structure in population-based samples. We investigated the relationship between dimensional measures of ADHD symptomatology, brain structure, and reaction time variability-an index of lapses in attention.

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Dec
1969

Deficits of self-control are associated with a number of mental state disorders. The ability to direct attention away from an alluring stimulus appears to aid inhibition of an impulsive response. However, further functional imaging research is required to assess the impact of shifts in attention on self-regulating processes.

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Feb
2017

A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and acceptability of asenapine compared with other antipsychotics in the treatment of psychotic disorders.
Four databases, 8 trial registries, and conference presentations were searched for randomized clinical trials of asenapine versus any comparator for the treatment of any psychotic illness. Primary outcome measures were changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and the incidence of withdrawal due to adverse effects.

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Aug
2017

There are multiple recent reports of an association between anxious/depressed (A/D) symptomatology and the rate of cerebral cortical thickness maturation in typically developing youths. We investigated the degree to which anxious/depressed symptoms are tied to age-related microstructural changes in cerebral fiber pathways. The participants were part of the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

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Aug
2017

Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood.
Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task.

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May
2016

Participation in contact sports places athletes at elevated risk for repeated head injuries and is associated with negative mental health outcomes later in life. The current study identified changes observable on neuroimaging that persisted beyond the apparent resolution of acute symptoms of concussion. Sixteen young adult ice hockey players with a remote history of concussion but no subjective complaints were compared against 13 of their teammates with no history of concussion.

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Dec
2015

Cannabis use in adolescence may be characterized by differences in the neural basis of affective processing. In this study, we used an fMRI affective face processing task to compare a large group (n=70) of 14-year olds with a history of cannabis use to a group (n=70) of never-using controls matched on numerous characteristics including IQ, SES, alcohol and cigarette use. The task contained short movies displaying angry and neutral faces.

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Feb
2015

To investigate the degree to which concussion history and postconcussive symptoms are associated with cortical morphology among male hockey players.
Male subjects (n = 29), ranging in age from 14 to 23 years (mean 17.8 years), were recruited from preparatory school and collegiate ice hockey teams and underwent neuroimaging and baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing.

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Aug
2014

A comprehensive account of the causes of alcohol misuse must accommodate individual differences in biology, psychology and environment, and must disentangle cause and effect. Animal models can demonstrate the effects of neurotoxic substances; however, they provide limited insight into the psycho-social and higher cognitive factors involved in the initiation of substance use and progression to misuse. One can search for pre-existing risk factors by testing for endophenotypic biomarkers in non-using relatives; however, these relatives may have personality or neural resilience factors that protect them from developing dependence.

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Nov
2013

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in adolescence. Heavy use is associated with deficits on a broad range of cognitive functions and heavy use during adolescence may impact development of gray and white matter.
To examine differences in intrinsic brain activity and connectivity associated with cannabis dependence in adolescence using whole-brain voxelwise approaches.

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Dec
1969

Research examining the neural mechanisms associated with error awareness has consistently identified dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity as necessary but not predictive of conscious error detection. Two recent studies (Steinhauser and Yeung, 2010; Wessel et al., 2011) have found a contrary pattern of greater dorsal ACC (dACC) activity [in the form of the error-related negativity (ERN)] during detected errors, but suggested that the greater activity may instead reflect task influences (e.

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Aug
2011

Distinct cognitive and neural mechanisms underlie perception and action in near (within-reach) and far (outside-reach) space. Objects in far space can be brought into the brain's near-space through tool-use. We determined whether a near object can be pushed into far space by changing the pictorial context in which it occurs.

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Nov
2008

Whereas right parietal damage can result in left hemineglect, the general population shows a subtle neglect of the right hemispace-known as pseudoneglect. A recent study has demonstrated that people collide to the right more often and attributed this bias to pseudoneglect. [Nicholls, M.

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Jan
2008

Relative finger length can predict a person's gender or their hand preference. We measured finger length using a new "tubes" test, which required participants to slide a clear plastic tube over their fingers and read the length from an attached mm scale. Data collected from 600 students demonstrated that the right fingers are longer than the left for dextrals, but not for non-dextrals.

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Nov
2005

Schizophrenia and schizotypal personality have been linked to sinistrality as well as ambidextrality. The current study clarifies the relation between laterality and schizotypal personality by administering a battery of laterality questionnaires to measure hand, eye, ear, and foot preference in a group of 933 university students. To determine whether the relationship between schizotypy and laterality is limited to self-report measures, performance asymmetries between the hands were measured with tapping rate.

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Apr
2005

Two experiments investigated the contribution of space- and object-based coordinates to previously reported leftward perceptual biases (pseudoneglect) at various locations across visual space. Neurologically intact participants (n = 34 and 27) made luminance discriminations between two left/right mirror-reversed luminance gradients (greyscales task), which were variously displaced around the midline in the participants' left and right hemispaces. The orientations of the stimuli were manipulated so that object- and space-based coordinates were congruent or incongruent.

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