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Author: Cathleen A Hanlon (33)


Sep
2017

RABORAL V-RG® is an oral rabies vaccine bait that contains an attenuated ("modified-live") recombinant vaccinia virus vector vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene (V-RG). Approximately 250 million doses have been distributed globally since 1987 without any reports of adverse reactions in wildlife or domestic animals since the first licensed recombinant oral rabies vaccine (ORV) was released into the environment to immunize wildlife populations against rabies. V-RG is genetically stable, is not detected in the oral cavity beyond 48 h after ingestion, is not shed by vaccinates into the environment, and has been tested for thermostability under a range of laboratory and field conditions.

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Jun
2017

OBJECTIVE To assess the immunogenicity of thermostable live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV) preserved by vaporization (PBV) and delivered to the duodenal mucosa of a wildlife species targeted for an oral vaccination program. ANIMALS 8 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). PROCEDURES Endoscopy was used to place RABV PBV (n = 3 foxes), alginate-encapsulated RABV PBV (3 foxes), or nonpreserved RABV (2 foxes) vaccine into the duodenum of foxes.

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Apr
2016

Striped skunks are one of the most important terrestrial reservoirs of rabies virus in North America, and yet the prevalence of rabies among this host is only passively monitored and the disease among this host remains largely unmanaged. Oral vaccination campaigns have not efficiently targeted striped skunks, while periodic spillovers of striped skunk variant viruses to other animals, including some domestic animals, are routinely recorded. In this study we evaluated the spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of infection status among striped skunk cases submitted for rabies testing in the North Central Plains of US in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, and also evaluated potential eco-climatological drivers of such patterns.

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May
2015

A rabies vaccine that is thermostable over a range of ambient environmental temperatures would be highly advantageous, especially for tropical regions with challenging cold-chain storage where canine rabies remains enzootic resulting in preventable human mortality. Live attenuated rabies virus (RABV) strain ERAG333 (R333E) was preserved by vaporization (PBV) in a dry, stable foam. RABV stabilized using this process remains viable for at least 23 months at 22°C, 15 months at 37°C, and 3h at 80°C.

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Jan
2015

To compare anamnestic antibody responses of dogs and cats with current versus out-of-date vaccination status.
Cross-sectional study.
74 dogs and 33 cats.

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Nov
2014

During 2013, 53 reporting jurisdictions reported 5,865 rabid animals and 3 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 4.8% decrease from the 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human case reported in 2012. Ninety-two percent of reported rabid animals were wildlife.

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Apr
2014

Feline injection site sarcomas affect 1-10 cats per every 10,000 vaccinated and are associated with high mortality. Radical resection may be curative, but is often associated with prolonged recovery, disfigurement and loss of function when tumors occur at currently recommended injection sites. The objective of this study was to assess alternatives to currently recommended vaccination sites in terms of preference by oncology practitioners, ease of injection and serological responses.

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Sep
2013

Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies.

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Jun
2013

Little is known about the immunogenicity of RABORAL V-RG(®) (V-RG), an oral rabies vaccine, in raccoon kits (Procyon lotor). The objectives of this study were to characterize the immunogenicity of V-RG in young kits and investigate the potential impact of maternal antibodies on response to vaccination of nursing raccoon kits. Raccoon kits (n=30) were vaccinated at either 3 weeks of age, 7 weeks of age, or assigned as contact controls.

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Jul
2010

Viral strain evolution and disease emergence are influenced by anthropogenic change to the environment. We investigated viral characteristics, host ecology, and landscape features in the rabies-striped skunk disease system of the central Great Plains to determine how these factors interact to influence disease emergence. We amplified portions of the N and G genes of rabies viral RNA from 269 samples extracted from striped skunk brains throughout the distribution of two different rabies strains for which striped skunks were the reservoir.

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Mar
2010

Antibodies play a central role in prophylaxis against many infectious agents. While neutralization is a primary function of antibodies, the Fc- and complement-dependent activities of these multifunctional proteins may also be critical in their ability to provide protection against most viruses. Protection against viral pathogens in vivo is complex, and while virus neutralization--the ability of antibody to inactivate virus infectivity, often measured in vitro--is important, it is often only a partial contributor in protection.

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Sep
2009

To identify cases of rabies involving vaccinated dogs and cats in the United States.
Retrospective data review.
41 states that reported >or= 1 rabid dog or cat between 1997 and 2001.

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May
2008

These recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update the previous recommendations on human rabies prevention (CDC. Human rabies prevention--United States, 1999: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 1999;48 [No.

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Apr
2008

In 2004, the raccoon rabies virus variant emerged in Ohio beyond an area where oral rabies vaccine had been distributed to prevent westward spread of this variant. Our genetic investigation indicates that this outbreak may have begun several years before 2004 and may have originated within the vaccination zone.

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Aug
2007

During 2006, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the CDC, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals.

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Dec
2006

During 2005, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,417 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the CDC, representing a 6.2% decrease from the 6,836 cases in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings reported in 2004. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals.

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Jul
2006

Oral vaccination of free-ranging wildlife is a promising technique in rabies control. The small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) is an important reservoir of rabies on several Caribbean islands, but no vaccines have been evaluated for this species. Captive mongooses were used to test the safety and efficacy of the commercially licensed vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) recombinant vaccine and a newly developed genetically engineered oral rabies virus vaccine (SPBNGA-S).

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Nov
2006

Oral rabies vaccination programs have been implemented to control the spread of wildlife rabies in the United States. However, current surveillance systems are inadequate for the efficient management and evaluation of these large scale vaccine baiting programs. With this in mind, a GIS-based rabies surveillance database and Internet mapping application was created.

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Dec
2005

The epidemiology of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in 4 upstate New York counties was described from data obtained from 2,216 incidences of PEP recorded by local health departments from 1995 to 2000. Overall annual incidence for the study period was 27 cases per 100,000 persons. Mean annual PEP incidence rates were highest in rural counties and during the summer months.

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Mar
2006

The World Health Organization estimates human mortality from endemic canine rabies to be 55,000 deaths/year. Limited supply hampers the accessibility of appropriate lifesaving treatment, particularly in areas where rabies is endemic. Anti-rabies antibodies are key to protection against lethal rabies.

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Jan
2006

Rabid dog exposures result in > 99% of human rabies deaths worldwide. Ninety-eight percent of these cases occur in developing countries. Thus, the best protection against human rabies would be prevention through adequate vaccination of the reservoir population.

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Jul
2005

The need to replace rabies immune globulin (RIG) as an essential component of rabies postexposure prophylaxis is widely acknowledged. We set out to discover a unique combination of human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) able to replace RIG. Stringent criteria concerning neutralizing potency, affinity, breadth of neutralization, and coverage of natural rabies virus (RV) isolates and in vitro escape mutants were set for each individual antibody, and the complementarities of the two MAbs were defined at the onset.

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Jul
2005

Oral rabies virus (RV) vaccines are used to immunize a diversity of mammalian carnivores, but no single biological is effective for all major species. Recently, advances in reverse genetics have allowed the design of recombinant RV for consideration as new vaccines. The objective of this experiment was to examine the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of recombinant RV vaccines administered to captive dogs by the oral route, compared to a commercial vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) recombinant virus vaccine.

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Jul
2005

New causative agents of rabies continue to emerge as shown by the recent description of four novel lyssaviruses from bats in Eurasia, Aravan (ARAV), Khujand (KHUV), Irkut (IRKV), and West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV). The effect of rabies vaccination prior to exposure to these new lyssaviruses was investigated in two animal models (i.e.

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Mar
2005

In 2004, four recipients of kidneys, a liver, and an arterial segment from a common organ donor died of encephalitis of an unknown cause.
We reviewed the medical records of the organ donor and the recipients. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissues from the recipients were tested with a variety of assays and pathological stains for numerous causes of encephalitis.

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Nov
2003

Bat lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand were isolated in southern Kyrgyzstan in 1991 and in northern Tajikistan in 2001, respectively. Preliminary studies with anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies suggested that the viruses were distinct from other lyssavirus serotypes. These data were supported by sequencing of the N gene of Aravan virus.

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Sep
2003

Since 1981, an epizootic of raccoon rabies has spread throughout the eastern United States. A concomitant increase in reported rabies cases in skunks has raised concerns that an independent maintenance cycle of rabies virus in skunks could become established, affecting current strategies of wildlife rabies control programs. Rabies surveillance data from 1981 through 2000 obtained from the health departments of 11 eastern states were used to analyze temporal and spatial characteristics of rabies epizootics in each species.

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Jul
2003

To provide a cost-effective and safe replacement for human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG), we used DNA recombinant technology to express 3 human rabies virus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (huMAbs) in a rhabdovirus vector (RhV). Infection of either baby hamster kidney cells or CHO cells, with the resulting RhV-huMAb recombinant viruses, yielded high-level production (< or =40 micro g/mL/48 h) of RhV recombinant-expressed huMAbs (rhuMAbs) that differ in both isotype and epitope-recognition specificity. A cocktail of these rhuMAbs neutralizes several fixed and street wild-type rabies viruses (RVs).

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Jun
2003

Plant genetic engineering led to the production of plant-derived mAb (mAbP), which provides a safe and economically feasible alternative to the current methods of antibody production in animal systems. In this study, the heavy and light chains of human anti-rabies mAb were expressed and assembled in planta under the control of two strong constitutive promoters. An alfalfa mosaic virus untranslated leader sequence and Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) endoplasmic reticulum retention signal were linked at the N and C terminus of the heavy chain, respectively.

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Aug
2002

To evaluate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in dogs experimentally infected with rabies.
29 Beagles.
Dogs were sedated and inoculated in the right masseter muscle with a salivary gland homogenate from a naturally infected rabid dog (day 0).

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Jun
2002

Rabies is an acute, progressive, incurable viral encephalitis. The causative agents are neurotropic RNA viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. Mammalian reservoirs include the Carnivora and Chiroptera, but rabid dogs still pose the greatest hazard worldwide.

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Apr
2002

Raccoons and skunks are major rabies reservoirs in North America. Oral vaccination is one method to consider for disease control in these carnivores. Under field conditions in the USA, only one oral rabies vaccine has been used.

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May
2002

Pre-exposure DNA vaccination protects non-human primates against rabies virus. Post-exposure protection of monkeys against rabies virus by DNA vaccination has not been attempted. Presumably, post-exposure experiments have not been undertaken because neutralizing antibody is usually slow to be induced after DNA vaccination.

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