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Author: Charles E Rupprecht (192)


Dec
1969

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that is preventable in humans by appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, current PEP relies on polyclonal immune globulin products purified from pooled human (HRIG) or equine (ERIG) plasma that are either in chronic shortage or in association with safety concerns. Here, we present the development of an antibody cocktail, SYN023, made of two novel monoclonal antibodies (MAb) CTB011 and CTB012 that could serve as safer and more cost-effective alternatives to the current RIG products.

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Dec
1969

Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG) have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.

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Sep
2017

RABORAL V-RG® is an oral rabies vaccine bait that contains an attenuated ("modified-live") recombinant vaccinia virus vector vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene (V-RG). Approximately 250 million doses have been distributed globally since 1987 without any reports of adverse reactions in wildlife or domestic animals since the first licensed recombinant oral rabies vaccine (ORV) was released into the environment to immunize wildlife populations against rabies. V-RG is genetically stable, is not detected in the oral cavity beyond 48 h after ingestion, is not shed by vaccinates into the environment, and has been tested for thermostability under a range of laboratory and field conditions.

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Dec
1969

Bartonellae are phylogenetically diverse, intracellular bacteria commonly found in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats have a high prevalence and diversity of Bartonella infections globally. Isolates (n = 42) were obtained from five bat species in four provinces of Thailand and analyzed using sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA).

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Aug
2017

In the USA, rabies vaccines (RVs) are licensed for intramuscular (IM) use only, although RVs are licensed for use by the intradermal (ID) route in many other countries. Recent limitations in supplies of RV in the USA reopened discussions on the more efficient use of available biologics, including utilization of more stringent risk assessments, and potential ID RV administration. A clinical trial was designed to compare the immunogenic and adverse effects of a purified chicken embryo cell (PCEC) RV administered ID or IM.

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Nov
2016

Rabies causes more than 24 000 human deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends annual canine vaccination campaigns with at least 70% coverage to control the disease. While previous studies have considered optimal coverage of animal rabies vaccination, variation in the frequency of vaccination campaigns has not been explored.

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Dec
1969

In the United States and Canada, the most recent documented cases of rabies have been attributed to bat rabies viruses (RABV). We undertook this systematic review in an effort to summarize and enhance understanding of the risk of infection for individuals who have been potentially exposed to a suspect or confirmed rabid bat. United States rabies surveillance summaries documented a total of 41 human bat-rabies virus variant verified non-transplant cases between 1990 and 2015.

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Dec
1969

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that has no effective treatment after onset of illness. However the disease can be prevented effectively by prompt administration of post exposure prophylaxis which includes administration of passive immunizing antibodies (Rabies Immune Globulin, RIG). Currently, human RIG suffers from many restrictions including limited availability, batch-to batch inconsistencies and potential for contamination with blood-borne pathogens.

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Jun
2016

Rabies is a neglected viral zoonosis with the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. Pasteur's historical accomplishments during the late 19(th) century began the process of human vaccine development, continuing to evolve into the 21(st) century. Over the past 35 years, great improvements occurred in the production of potent tissue culture vaccines and the gradual removal from the market of unsafe nerve tissue products.

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Oct
2015

As part of a larger survey for detection of pathogens among wildlife in sub-Saharan Africa conducted during 2007-2012, multiple diverse paramyxovirus sequences were detected in renal tissues of bats. Phylogenetic analysis supports the presence of at least 2 major viral lineages and suggests that paramyxoviruses are strongly associated with several bat genera.

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Apr
2015

Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.
We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework.

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Sep
2014

The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited.

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Aug
2014

The SAG2 vaccine (RABIGEN® SAG2) is a modified live attenuated rabies virus vaccine, selected from the SAD Bern strain in a two-step process of amino acid mutation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The strain is genetically stable and does not spread in vivo or induce a persistent infection. Its absence of residual pathogenicity was extensively demonstrated in multiple target and non target species (such as wild carnivores and rodent species), including non-human primates.

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Dec
1969

Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies.

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Aug
2014

To assess the epidemiology of rabies in rodents and lagomorphs and provide information that will enable public health officials to make recommendations regarding postexposure prophylaxis for humans after contact with these animals.
Cross-sectional epidemiological analysis.
Rodents and lagomorphs submitted to state laboratories for rabies diagnosis from 1995 through 2010.

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Aug
2014

We screened 217 bats of at least 20 species from 17 locations in Kenya during July and August of 2006 for the presence of adenovirus, rhabdovirus, and paramyxovirus nucleic acids using generic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR assays. Of 217 bat fecal swabs examined, 4 bats were adenovirus DNA-positive, 11 bats were paramyxovirus RNA-positive, and 2 bats were rhabdovirus RNA-positive. Three bats were coinfected by two different viruses.

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Jul
2014

In 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural West Virginia, USA to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (AdRG1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait; ONRAB) in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We selected ONRAB for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, Raboral V-RG®, in US-Canada border studies.

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May
2014

In 2009, a novel lyssavirus (subsequently named Ikoma lyssavirus, IKOV) was detected in the brain of an African civet (Civettictis civetta) with clinical rabies in the Serengeti National Park of Tanzania. The degree of nucleotide divergence between the genome of IKOV and those of other lyssaviruses predicted antigenic distinction from, and lack of protection provided by, available rabies vaccines. In addition, the index case was considered likely to be an incidental spillover event, and therefore the true reservoir of IKOV remained to be identified.

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Dec
1969

In 2001-2005 we sampled permanently marked big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at summer roosts in buildings at Fort Collins, Colorado, for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA). Seroprevalence was higher in adult females (17.9%, n = 2,332) than males (9.

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Dec
1969

The south-central skunk rabies virus (SCSK) is the most broadly distributed terrestrial viral lineage in North America. Skunk rabies has not been efficiently targeted by oral vaccination campaigns and represents a natural system of pathogen invasion, yielding insights to rabies emergence. In the present study we reconstructed spatiotemporal spread of SCSK in the whole territory of its circulation using a combination of Bayesian methods.

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Dec
1969

We assessed rabies vaccine (RV) and immune globulin (RIG) availability on the local market by querying US Embassy medical staff worldwide. Of 112 responses, 23% were from West, Central, and East Africa. RV and RIG availability varied by region.

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Dec
2013

To determine direct and indirect costs associated with raccoon rabies incidents involving cattle herds in Hampshire County, WV, in 2008 and Guernsey County, Ohio, in 2010.
Ex post cost analysis.
1 cattle herd in Hampshire County, WV, in 2008 and 1 cattle herd in Guernsey County, Ohio, in 2010.

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Dec
1969

Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru.

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Jan
2014

Eight years after emigrating from Brazil, an otherwise healthy man developed rabies. An exposure prior to immigration was reported. Genetic analysis revealed a canine rabies virus variant found only in the patient's home country, and the patient had not traveled internationally since immigrating to the United States.

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Nov
2013

Zoonotic and vector-borne pathogens have comprised a significant component of emerging human infections in recent decades, and bats are increasingly recognized as reservoirs for many of these disease agents. To identify novel pathogens associated with bats, we screened tissues of bats collected in Kenya. Virus isolates were identified by next generation sequencing of viral nucleic acid preparations from the infected cell culture supernatant and characterized.

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Sep
2013

Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management.

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Oct
2013

Even though rabies is almost uniformly fatal, it is readily preventable with currently available tools. Vaccination is highly efficacious for the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of rabies in humans and animals, and prompt postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with vaccine and rabies immune globulin (RIG) can reliably prevent disease in humans. However, access to these tools and knowledge of their proper use are often limited, especially in impoverished, rabies-enzootic countries with the highest disease burden.

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Oct
2013

Rabies, an acute progressive encephalomyelitis caused by viruses in the genus Lyssavirus, is one of the oldest known infectious diseases. Although dogs and other carnivores represent the greatest threat to public health as rabies reservoirs, it is commonly accepted that bats are the primary evolutionary hosts of lyssaviruses. Despite early historical documentation of rabies, molecular clock analyses indicate a quite young age of lyssaviruses, which is confusing.

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Jul
2013

Vaccine potency testing is necessary to evaluate the immunogenicity of inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccine preparations before human or veterinary application. Currently, the NIH test is recommended by the WHO expert committee to evaluate RABV vaccine potency. However, numerous disadvantages are inherent concerning cost, number of animals and biosafety requirements.

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May
2013

Although there are over 1,150 bat species worldwide, the diversity of viruses harbored by bats has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife surveillance. Such surveys are of importance in determining the potential for novel viruses to emerge in humans, and for optimal management of bats and their habitats. To enhance our knowledge of the viral diversity present in bats, we initially surveyed 415 sera from African and Central American bats.

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May
2013

To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of deer owners following identification of a cluster of captive deer with rabies as an aid for the development of rabies prevention educational materials.
Cross-sectional study.
Captive-deer owners who were members of the pennsylvania deer farmers association.

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Jul
2013

Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are the most commonly encountered rabid bat in North America and represent an important source of wildlife rabies epizootics. Urban and suburban colonies of E. fuscus are often evicted from their roosts in houses, with poorly understood consequences for bat dispersal, population dynamics, and rabies virus transmission.

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Jul
2013

Rabies, which is globally endemic, poses a risk to international travelers. To improve recommendations for travelers, we assessed the global availability of rabies vaccine (RV) and rabies immune globulin (RIG).
We conducted a 20-question online survey, in English, Spanish, and French, distributed via e-mail to travel medicine providers and other clinicians worldwide from February 1 to March 30, 2011.

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Apr
2013

We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County.

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Jun
2013

Cost effective diagnostic tests are needed in rabies virus (RABV) enzootic areas to study the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of rabies virus among reservoir hosts. To reduce the associated costs of acquiring and maintaining specialized laboratory equipment, an indirect rapid immunohistochemistry test (IRIT), for the detection and differentiation of RABV variants, was evaluated by traditional light microscopy. The IRIT utilizes fresh frozen brain touch impressions or cell culture monolayers fixed in buffered formalin, a panel of murine anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies (mAb-N) and commercially available biotin-labeled goat anti-mouse antibody.

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Mar
2013

We present an unconventional approach to antiviral drug discovery, which is used to identify potent small molecules against rabies virus. First, we conceptualized viral capsid assembly as occurring via a host-catalyzed biochemical pathway, in contrast to the classical view of capsid formation by self-assembly. This suggested opportunities for antiviral intervention by targeting previously unappreciated catalytic host proteins, which were pursued.

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Apr
2013

Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness.

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Apr
2013

Polyomaviruses (PyVs) have been identified in a wide range of avian and mammalian species. However, little is known about their occurrence, genetic diversity and evolutionary history in bats, even though bats are important reservoirs for many emerging viral pathogens. This study screened 380 specimens from 35 bat species from Kenya and Guatemala for the presence of PyVs by semi-nested pan-PyV PCR assays.

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Nov
2012

Determining the genetic pathways that viruses traverse to establish in new host species is crucial to predict the outcome of cross-species transmission but poorly understood for most host-virus systems. Using sequences encoding 78% of the rabies virus genome, we explored the extent, repeatability and dynamic outcome of evolution associated with multiple host shifts among New World bats. Episodic bursts of positive selection were detected in several viral proteins, including regions associated with host cell interaction and viral replication.

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Sep
2012

During 2011, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife.

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Sep
2012

Lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) constitute one of the most important groups of viral zoonoses globally. All lyssaviruses cause the disease rabies, an acute progressive encephalitis for which, once symptoms occur, there is no effective cure. Currently available vaccines are highly protective against the predominantly circulating lyssavirus species.

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Sep
2012

Potency testing of most human and veterinary rabies vaccines requires vaccination of mice followed by a challenge test using an intracerebral injection of live rabies virus. NICEATM, ICCVAM, and their international partners organized a workshop to review the availability and validation status of alternative methods that might reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals for rabies vaccine potency testing, and to identify research and development efforts to further advance alternative methods. Workshop participants agreed that general anesthesia should be used for intracerebral virus injections and that humane endpoints should be used routinely as the basis for euthanizing animals when conducting the mouse rabies challenge test.

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Aug
2012

Two major techniques are currently used to estimate rabies virus antibody values: neutralization assays, such as the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The RFFIT is considered the gold standard assay and has been used to assess the titer of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies for more than three decades. In the late 1970s, ELISA began to be used to estimate the level of rabies virus antibody and has recently been used by some laboratories as an alternate screening test for animal sera.

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Dec
1969

In nature, rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae) represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species. Although it is generally accepted that RABV evolved originally in bats and further shifted to carnivores, mechanisms of such host shifts are poorly understood, and examples are rarely present in surveillance data. Outbreaks in carnivores caused by a RABV variant, associated with big brown bats, occurred repeatedly during 2001-2009 in the Flagstaff area of Arizona.

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Aug
2012

Rabies has the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. Pathobiological and clinical insights have questioned the assertion that death is inevitable after onset of acute encephalomyelitis. Relying upon national laboratory-based surveillance, we reviewed records of human rabies acquired in the United States during 1960-2009.

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Sep
2012

Despite extensive culling of common vampire bats in Latin America, lethal human rabies outbreaks transmitted by this species are increasingly recognized, and livestock rabies occurs with striking frequency. To identify the individual and population-level factors driving rabies virus (RV) transmission in vampire bats, we conducted a longitudinal capture-recapture study in 20 vampire bat colonies spanning four regions of Peru. Serology demonstrated the circulation of RV in vampire bats from all regions in all years.

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Dec
1969

Rates of evolution span orders of magnitude among RNA viruses with important implications for viral transmission and emergence. Although the tempo of viral evolution is often ascribed to viral features such as mutation rates and transmission mode, these factors alone cannot explain variation among closely related viruses, where host biology might operate more strongly on viral evolution. Here, we analyzed sequence data from hundreds of rabies viruses collected from bats throughout the Americas to describe dramatic variation in the speed of rabies virus evolution when circulating in ecologically distinct reservoir species.

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