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Author: Ching-Hwa Tsai (63)


Oct
2017

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a serious health problem in China and Southeast Asia. Relapse is the major cause of mortality, but mechanisms of relapse are mysterious. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and host genomic instability (GI) have correlated with NPC development.

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May
2017

During the lytic phase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), binding of the transactivator Zta to the origin of lytic replication (oriLyt) and the BHLF1 transcript, forming a stable RNA-DNA hybrid, is required to initiate viral DNA replication. EBV-encoded viral DNA replication proteins form complexes to amplify viral DNA. BMRF1, the viral DNA polymerase accessory factor, is essential for lytic DNA replication and also known as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of BHLF1 and BALF2 (single-stranded DNA [ssDNA]-binding protein).

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Jan
2017

Lytic reactivation of EBV has been reported to play an important role in human diseases, including NPC carcinogenesis. Inhibition of EBV reactivation is considered to be of great benefit in the treatment of virus-associated diseases. For this purpose, we screened for inhibitory compounds and found that apigenin, a flavonoid, seemed to have the ability to inhibit EBV reactivation.

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Dec
1969

The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) was recently found to mediate important morphogenesis processes at the nuclear envelope (NE). We previously showed that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BFRF1 protein recruits the ESCRT-associated protein Alix to modulate NE structure and promote EBV nuclear egress. Here, we uncover new cellular factors and mechanisms involved in this process.

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Dec
1969

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic human virus, is associated with several lymphoproliferative disorders, including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). In vitro, EBV transforms primary B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Recently, several studies have shown that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in EBV-associated neoplasia.

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Dec
1969

The lytic reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been reported to be strongly associated with several human diseases, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Inhibition of the EBV lytic cycle has been shown to be of great benefit in the treatment of EBV-associated diseases. The administration of dietary compounds is safer and more convenient than other approaches to preventing EBV reactivation.

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Apr
2016

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy derived from the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx. Although a combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapy is effective for therapy, relapse and metastasis after remission remain major causes of mortality. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is believed to be one of causes of NPC development.

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Jul
2015

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression and correlated with clinical outcomes.
We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect the difference in the expression of mRNA level of Cav-1 mRNA in NPC, non-NPC cell lines, and 74 NPC and 29 nontumorous nasopharyngeal mucosa biopsies. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining were used to detect the protein expression of Cav-1 in cell lines and biopsy tissues.

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Jun
2015

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, has the potential to immortalize primary B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in vitro. During immortalization, several EBV products induce cytokines or chemokines, and most of these are required for the proliferation of LCLs. Interleukin-32 (IL-32), a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine, is upregulated after EBV infection, and this upregulation is detectable in all LCLs tested.

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Jul
2015

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) uses various strategies to manipulate host cytokine production in favor of the survival of infected B-cells. Microarray and cytokine protein array assays revealed that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was significantly up-regulated in EBV-infected primary B cells and maintained in abundance in EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). TIMP-1 plays critical roles in extracellular matrix homeostasis and regulates signaling pathways.

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Apr
2015

Oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) uses various approaches to escape host immune responses and persist in B cells. Such persistent infections may provide the opportunity for this virus to initiate tumor formation. Using EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as a model, we found that the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD74 in B cells is repressed after EBV infection.

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Jan
2015

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea can reduce the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), yet the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was tested on a set of Epstein Barr virus-negative and -positive NPC cell lines.

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Feb
2015

BGLF4 kinase, the only Ser/Thr protein kinase encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, phosphorylates multiple viral and cellular substrates to optimize the cellular environment for viral DNA replication and the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. Previously, we found that nuclear targeting of BGLF4 is through direct interaction with the FG repeat-containing nucleoporins (FG-Nups) Nup62 and Nup153 independently of cytosolic transport factors. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of BGLF4 on the structure and biological functions of the nuclear pore complex (NPC).

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Nov
2014

Highly pathogenic influenza viruses cause high levels of morbidity, including excessive infiltration of leukocytes into the lungs, high viral loads and a cytokine storm. However, the details of how these pathological features unfold in severe influenza infections remain unclear. Accumulation of Gr1 + CD11b + myeloid cells has been observed in highly pathogenic influenza infections but it is not clear how and why they accumulate in the severely inflamed lung.

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Aug
2014

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication.

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May
2014

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication involves complex processes, including DNA synthesis, DNA cleavage and packaging, and virion egress. These processes require many different lytic gene products, but the mechanisms of their actions remain unclear, especially for DNA cleavage and packaging. According to sequence homology analysis, EBV BALF3, encoded by the third leftward open reading frame of the BamHI-A fragment in the viral genome, is a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL28.

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Dec
1969

N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation have been suggested to play a role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Although chemicals have been shown to be a risk factor contributing to the carcinogenesis of NPC, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We demonstrated recently that N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) enhances the genomic instability and tumorigenicity of NPC cells via induction of EBV reactivation.

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Aug
2013

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) alters the regulation and expression of a variety of cytokines in its host cells to modulate host immune surveillance and facilitate viral persistence. Using cytokine antibody arrays, we found that, in addition to the cytokines reported previously, two chemotactic cytokines, CCL3 and CCL4, were induced in EBV-infected B cells and were expressed at high levels in all EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Furthermore, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-mediated Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation was responsible for upregulation of CCL3 and CCL4.

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Oct
2012

MALT1 belongs to a family of paracaspase and modulates NF-κB signaling pathways through its scaffolding function and proteolytic activity. MALT1 cleaves protein substrates after a positively charged Arginine residue. BCL10, a 233 amino acids polypeptide, is identified as one of the MALT1 proteolytic substrates.

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Dec
1969

Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood.

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Nov
2012

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characteristic for its strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and high metastatic rate. Recently, overexpressed recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) (MST1R), receptor tyrosine kinase has been reported in human cancers and tumor metastasis. Therefore, the role of RON in EBV-associated NPC and its metastasis was investigated.

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Sep
2012

The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery participates in membrane scission and cytoplasmic budding of many RNA viruses. Here, we found that expression of dominant negative ESCRT proteins caused a blockade of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) release and retention of viral BFRF1 at the nuclear envelope. The ESCRT adaptor protein Alix was redistributed and partially colocalized with BFRF1 at the nuclear rim of virus replicating cells.

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Nov
2012

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BGLF4 is a member of the conserved herpesvirus kinases that regulate multiple cellular and viral substrates and play an important role in the viral lytic cycles. BGLF4 has been found to phosphorylate several cellular and viral transcription factors, modulate their activities, and regulate downstream events. In this study, we identify an NF-κB coactivator, UXT, as a substrate of BGLF4.

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Dec
1969

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces an uncoordinated S-phase-like cellular environment coupled with multiple prophase-like events in cells replicating the virus. The EBV encoded Ser/Thr kinase BGLF4 has been shown to induce premature chromosome condensation through activation of condensin and topoisomerase II and reorganization of the nuclear lamina to facilitate the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids in a pathway mimicking Cdk1. However, the observation that RB is hyperphosphorylated in the presence of BGLF4 raised the possibility that BGLF4 may have a Cdk2-like activity to promote S-phase progression.

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Aug
2012

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belongs to the gammaherpesvirus family. To produce infectious progeny, EBV reactivates from latency into the lytic cycle by expressing the determinative lytic transactivator, Zta. In the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), p53 is a prerequisite for the initiation of the EBV lytic cycle by facilitating the expression of Zta.

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Jan
2012

Many herpesviral immediate-early proteins promote their robust lytic phase replications by hijacking the cell cycle machinery. Previously, lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was found to be concurrent with host cell cycle arrest. In this study, we showed that ectopic expression of EBV immediate-early protein Rta in HEp-2 cells resulted in increased G1/S population, hypophosphorylation of pRb and decreased incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine.

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Aug
2011

EBV, an oncogenic human herpesvirus, can transform primary B lymphocytes into immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) through multiple regulatory mechanisms. However, the involvement of protein tyrosine kinases in the infinite proliferation of B cells is not clear. In this study, we performed kinase display assays to investigate this subject and identified a specific cellular target, Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (RON) tyrosine kinase, expressed in LCLs but not in primary B cells.

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Mar
2011

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) undergoes latent and lytic replication cycles, and its reactivation from latency to lytic replication is initiated by expression of the two viral immediate-early transactivators, Zta and Rta. In vitro, reactivation of EBV can be induced by anti-immunoglobulin, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate, and histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). We have discovered that protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) is required specifically for EBV reactivation by HDACi.

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Dec
2010

Seroepidemiological studies implicate a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Moreover, N-nitroso compounds are known chemical carcinogens in preserved foodstuffs and cigarettes and have been implicated as risk factors contributing to the development of NPC. Here, NPC cell lines latently infected with EBV, NA and HA, and the corresponding EBV-negative NPC cell lines, NPC-TW01 and HONE-1, were used as the model system in this study.

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Feb
2010

About 30-50% of Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs) harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but the impact of EBV infection on clinical outcomes has been unclear. EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are presented in all EBV-infected cells, but their functions are still less understood.
EBER1 was transfected into two HL cell lines, KMH2 and L428, and microarrays were used to screen for EBER1-induced changes.

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Mar
2010

Stathmin is an important microtubule (MT)-destabilizing protein, and its activity is differently attenuated by phosphorylation at one or more of its four phosphorylatable serine residues (Ser-16, Ser-25, Ser-38, and Ser-63). This phosphorylation of stathmin plays important roles in mitotic spindle formation. We observed increasing levels of phosphorylated stathmin in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-harboring lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines during the EBV lytic cycle.

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Jul
2010

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We previously found that interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-1beta significantly increased in NPC tissues. This study investigated what EBV-encoded proteins were involved in such IL-1 production.

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Jul
2009

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can modify the cytokine expression profiles of host cells and determine the fate of those cells. Of note, expression of interleukin-13 (IL-13) may be detected in EBV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma and the natural killer (NK) cells of chronic active EBV-infected patients, but its biologic role and regulatory mechanisms are not understood. Using cytokine antibody arrays, we found that IL-13 production is induced in B cells early during EBV infection.

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May
2009

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an endemic malignancy prevalent in South East Asia. Epidemiological studies have associated this disease closely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Previous studies also showed that EBV reactivation is implicated in the progression of NPC.

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Feb
2009

The BGLF4 protein kinase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the conserved family of herpesvirus protein kinases which, to some extent, have a function similar to that of the cellular cyclin-dependent kinase in regulating multiple cellular and viral substrates. In a yeast two-hybrid screening assay, a splicing variant of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was found to interact with the BGLF4 protein. This interaction was defined further by coimmunoprecipitation in transfected cells and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down in vitro.

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Dec
2008

A selective epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, Gefitinib, has been clinically demonstrated to be effective for certain cancer cell types including lung cancer. Our previous study indicated that Gefitinib induced Fas/caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. However, the pathway relaying the signals of Gefitinib-induced cell death has not been fully elucidated.

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Dec
2008

Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), which counteract apoptosis by potently inhibiting caspase activation, are promising targets of new anti-tumor therapy. However, their roles in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated carcinoma, are not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the expression and regulation of IAPs in NPC.

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Aug
2008

The tumor suppressor gene p53 plays a central role in the maintenance of normal cell growth and genetic integrity, while its impact on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) life cycle remains elusive. We found that p53 is important for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced EBV lytic gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Restoration of p53 in p53-null, EBV-infected H1299 cells augments the potential for viral lytic cycle initiation.

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Apr
2008

Modification of human herpesvirus DNA polymerase processivity factors (PFs) by phosphorylation occurs frequently during viral lytic replication. However, functional regulation of the herpesvirus PFs through phosphorylation is not well understood. In addition to processivity, the PF BMRF1 of Epstein-Barr virus can function as a transactivator to activate the BHLF1 promoter within the lytic origin of replication (oriLyt), which is assumed to facilitate DNA replication through remodelling viral chromatin structure.

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Apr
2008

Histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACi) are common chemotherapeutic agents that stimulate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation; the detailed mechanism remains obscure. In this study, it is demonstrated that PKCdelta is required for induction of the EBV lytic cycle by HDACi. Inhibition of PKCdelta abrogates HDACi-mediated transcriptional activation of the Zta promoter and downstream lytic gene expression.

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Apr
2008

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated, undifferentiated type of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characterized by intensive leukocyte infiltration. Interaction between the infiltrating cells and the tumor cells has been considered crucial for NPC development. Recruitment of the infiltrates can be directed by certain chemokines present in the NPC tissues.

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Apr
2008

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and has high metastatic potential. Discoidin domain receptors (DDR1, DDR2) are receptor-type tyrosine kinases activated by collagen. Their ability to induce expression of matrix metalloproteinase is related with tumor invasion.

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Aug
2007

The retinoid acid (RA) sufficient air-liquid interface (ALI) cell culture model, but not the classical submerged single layer (SSL) cell culture model, can achieve ciliary differentiation of nasal epithelial cells. Because gap junction mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) may contribute to differentiation in numerous cell types, this study compared the extent of GJIC and the expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43) in nasal epithelial cells in both SSL and ALI cultures.
Cell morphology was examined via optical and scanning electron microscope, and the number of cells with ciliary beating were counted.

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Apr
2007

Nasal epithelial cells are constitutively equipped with all Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are essential for innate immunity. Both mRNA and protein levels of TLR3 expression increased in more differentiated nasal epithelial cells. Considering that the ligand for TLR3 is viral dsRNA, this result is in good accordance with previous reports demonstrating that more differentiated airway epithelial cells have increased resistance to rhinovirus infection.

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Jun
2007

The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of breast cancer has been of long-standing interest to the field. Breast epithelial cells can be infected by EBV through direct contact with EBV-bearing lymphoblastoid cells, and EBV infection has recently been shown to confer breast cancer cells an increased resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we established EBV-infected breast cancer MCF7 and BT474 cells and demonstrated that EBV infection promotes tumorigenic activity of breast cancer cells.

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Jan
2007

Nonkeratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is 100% associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and divided into two subtypes (WHO types II and III) based on histology. We tested whether these subtypes can be distinguished at the molecular genetic level using an algorithm that analyzes sets of related genes (gene set enrichment analysis). We found that a class of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG), frequently associated with the antiviral response, was significantly activated in type III versus type II NPC.

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Mar
2007

Rta, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded immediate-early protein, governs the reactivation of the viral lytic program by transactivating a cascade of lytic gene expression. Cellular transcription factors such as Sp1, ATF2, E2F, and Akt have been demonstrated to mediate Rta transactivation of lytic genes. We report herein that Rta associates with another potent transcription factor, tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), to promote the activation of EBV late genes.

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Oct
2006

BHRF1, an early gene product of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is structurally and functionally homologous to Bcl-2, a cellular anti-apoptotic protein. BHRF1 has been shown to protect cells from apoptosis induced by numerous external stimuli. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an epithelial cancer associated closely with EBV infection.

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Aug
2006

Early growth response 1 (Egr-1) is a cellular transcription factor involved in diverse biologic functions. Egr-1 has been associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, but it is still unknown whether any EBV protein regulates Egr-1 expression. In this study, we first showed that EBV reactivation is involved in upregulation of Egr-1 and that Egr-1 can be induced by Zta, an EBV lytic transactivator.

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Dec
2006

Computed radiography (CR) has many advantages such as filmless operations, efficiency, and convenience. Furthermore, it is easier to integrate with the picture archiving and communication systems. Another important advantage is that CR images generally have a wider dynamic range than conventional screen film.

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