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Author: Christian Behl (86)


Feb
2018

The ability of cells to rearrange their metabolism plays an important role in compensating the energy shortage and may provide cell survival. Our study focuses on identifing the important adaptational changes under the conditions of oxygen and glucose reduction. Employing mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in combination with biochemistry and microscopy techniques we identified metabolites, proteins and biomolecular pathways alterations in primary human IMR90 fibroblasts upon energy deficits.

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Dec
1969

Neuronal degeneration following traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to intracellular accumulation of dysfunctional proteins and organelles. Autophagy may serve to facilitate degradation to overcome protein debris load and therefore be an important pro-survival factor. On the contrary, clearing may serve as pro-death factor by removal of essential or required proteins involved in pro-survival cascades.

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Nov
2017

Beyond Amyloid - Widening the View on Alzheimer's Disease.

J Neurochem 2017 Nov 20;143(4):394-395. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
Christian Behl, Christine Ziegler
For 25 years, the amyloid cascade hypothesis, based on the finding that mutations in the amyloid precursor protein are closely linked to familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), dominated the research on this disease. Recent failures of clinical anti-amyloidogenic trials, however, substantially support the reasoning (i) that the pathomechanisms that trigger familial AD, namely the generation, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid beta, cannot necessarily be extrapolated to sporadic cases and (ii) that amyloid beta represents a prominent histopathological feature in AD but not its exclusive causative factor. In autumn 2016, the Volkswagen Foundation hosted the Herrenhausen Symposium 'Beyond Amyloid - Widening the View on Alzheimer's Disease' in Hannover, Germany, to bring together current knowledge on cellular and molecular processes that contribute to AD pathogenesis independent of or alongside with the amyloid biochemistry.

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Oct
2017

Amyloid in Alzheimer's Disease: Guilty Beyond Reasonable Doubt?

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2017 Oct 18;38(10):849-851. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
Christian Behl
Recently failed antiamyloidogenic trials call for an objective reassessment of the dominating amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ongoing efforts focusing on amyloid β protein (Aβ), its deposition, and its removal need to be complemented by more intensive research in new directions. Those may either integrate amyloid pathology or will propose pathogenetic routes independent of Aβ in the search for the causes of AD.

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Dec
1969

In neurons, but also in all other cells the complex proteostasis network is monitored and tightly regulated by the cellular protein quality control (PQC) system. Beyond folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and their refolding upon misfolding the PQC also manages the disposal of aberrant proteins either by the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery or by the autophagic-lysosomal system. Aggregated proteins are primarily degraded by a process termed selective macroautophagy (or aggrephagy).

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Dec
1969

Macroautophagy is a conserved degradative pathway and its deterioration is linked to disturbances in cellular proteostasis and multiple diseases. Here, we show that the RAB GTPase RAB18 modulates autophagy in primary human fibroblasts. The knockdown of RAB18 results in a decreased autophagic activity, while its overexpression enhances the degradative pathway.

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Dec
2016

The maintenance of cellular proteostasis is dependent on molecular chaperones and protein degradation pathways. Chaperones facilitate protein folding, maturation, and degradation, and the particular fate of a misfolded protein is determined by the interaction of chaperones with co-chaperones. The co-factor CHIP (C-terminus of HSP70-inteacting protein, STUB1) ubiquitinates chaperone substrates and directs proteins to the cellular degradation systems.

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Nov
2016

Maintenance of intracellular proteostasis is essential for neuronal function, and emerging data support the view that disturbed proteostasis plays an important role in brain aging and the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). sAPPalpha (sAPPα), the extracellularly secreted N-terminal alpha secretase cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), has an established function in neuroprotection. Recently, we provided evidence that membrane-bound holo-APP functionally cooperates with sAPPα to mediate neuroprotection via activation of the Akt survival signaling pathway and sAPPα directly affects proteostasis.

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Aug
2016

Breaking BAG: The Co-Chaperone BAG3 in Health and Disease.

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2016 Aug 6;37(8):672-88. Epub 2016 May 6.
Christian Behl
Human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins form a family of antiapoptotic proteins that currently consists of six members (BAG1-6) all sharing the BAG protein domain from which the name arises. Via this domain, BAG proteins bind to the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), thereby acting as a co-chaperone regulating the activity of Hsp70. In addition to their antiapoptotic activity, all human BAG proteins have distinct functions in health and disease, and BAG3 in particular is the focus of many investigations.

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Dec
1969

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition).

Autophagy 2016 ;12(1):1-222
Daniel J Klionsky, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Akihisa Abe, Md Joynal Abedin, Hagai Abeliovich, Abraham Acevedo Arozena, Hiroaki Adachi, Christopher M Adams, Peter D Adams, Khosrow Adeli, Peter J Adhihetty, Sharon G Adler, Galila Agam, Rajesh Agarwal, Manish K Aghi, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Patricia V Aguilar, Julio Aguirre-Ghiso, Edoardo M Airoldi, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Emmanuel T Akporiaye, Mohamed Al-Rubeai, Guillermo M Albaiceta, Chris Albanese, Diego Albani, Matthew L Albert, Jesus Aldudo, Hana Algül, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Iraide Alloza, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Beceril, Emad S Alnemri, Covadonga Alonso, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Dario C Altieri, Silvia Alvarez, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Sandro Alves, Giuseppina Amadoro, Atsuo Amano, Consuelo Amantini, Santiago Ambrosio, Ivano Amelio, Amal O Amer, Mohamed Amessou, Angelika Amon, Zhenyi An, Frank A Anania, Stig U Andersen, Usha P Andley, Catherine K Andreadi, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Alberto Anel, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Manuela Antonioli, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Saveria Aquila, Katia Aquilano, Koichi Araki, Eli Arama, Agustin Aranda, Jun Araya, Alexandre Arcaro, Esperanza Arias, Hirokazu Arimoto, Aileen R Ariosa, Jane L Armstrong, Thierry Arnould, Ivica Arsov, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Valerie Askanas, Eric Asselin, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Sally S Atherton, Julie D Atkin, Laura D Attardi, Patrick Auberger, Georg Auburger, Laure Aurelian, Riccardo Autelli, Laura Avagliano, Maria Laura Avantaggiati, Limor Avrahami, Suresh Awale, Neelam Azad, Tiziana Bachetti, Jonathan M Backer, Dong-Hun Bae, Jae-Sung Bae, Ok-Nam Bae, Soo Han Bae, Eric H Baehrecke, Seung-Hoon Baek, Stephen Baghdiguian, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna, Hua Bai, Jie Bai, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Rena Balzan, Rajkumar Banerjee, Gábor Bánhegyi, Haijun Bao, Benoit Barbeau, Maria D Barrachina, Esther Barreiro, Bonnie Bartel, Alberto Bartolomé, Diane C Bassham, Maria Teresa Bassi, Robert C Bast, Alakananda Basu, Maria Teresa Batista, Henri Batoko, Maurizio Battino, Kyle Bauckman, Bradley L Baumgarner, K Ulrich Bayer, Rupert Beale, Jean-François Beaulieu, George R Beck, Christoph Becker, J David Beckham, Pierre-André Bédard, Patrick J Bednarski, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Georg Mn Behrens, Kevin E Behrns, Eloy Bejarano, Amine Belaid, Francesca Belleudi, Giovanni Bénard, Guy Berchem, Daniele Bergamaschi, Matteo Bergami, Ben Berkhout, Laura Berliocchi, Amélie Bernard, Monique Bernard, Francesca Bernassola, Anne Bertolotti, Amanda S Bess, Sébastien Besteiro, Saverio Bettuzzi, Savita Bhalla, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Sujit K Bhutia, Caroline Biagosch, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Viktor Billes, Claudia Bincoletto, Baris Bingol, Sara W Bird, Marc Bitoun, Ivana Bjedov, Craig Blackstone, Lionel Blanc, Guillermo A Blanco, Heidi Kiil Blomhoff, Emilio Boada-Romero, Stefan Böckler, Marianne Boes, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Lawrence H Boise, Alessandra Bolino, Andrea Boman, Paolo Bonaldo, Matteo Bordi, Jürgen Bosch, Luis M Botana, Joelle Botti, German Bou, Marina Bouché, Marion Bouchecareilh, Marie-Josée Boucher, Michael E Boulton, Sebastien G Bouret, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan Brady, Vania Mm Braga, Claudio Brancolini, Gerhard H Braus, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Lisa A Brennan, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Marie-Agnès Bringer, Marisa Brini, Glauber C Brito, Bertha Brodin, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, Karen Brown, Hal E Broxmeyer, Alain Bruhat, Patricia Chakur Brum, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Shilpa Buch, Alastair M Buchan, Hikmet Budak, Dmitry V Bulavin, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Yan Burelle, Robert E Burke, Margit Burmeister, Peter Bütikofer, Laura Caberlotto, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jingjing Cai, Qian Cai, Sara Calatayud, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Grant R Campbell, Matthew Campbell, Silvia Campello, Robin Candau, Isabella Caniggia, Lavinia Cantoni, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Michele Caraglia, Claudio Cardinali, Sandra Morais Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Laura A Carleton, Cathleen R Carlin, Silvia Carloni, Sven R Carlsson, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Leticia Am Carneiro, Oliana Carnevali, Serena Carra, Alice Carrier, Bernadette Carroll, Caty Casas, Josefina Casas, Giuliana Cassinelli, Perrine Castets, Susana Castro-Obregon, Gabriella Cavallini, Isabella Ceccherini, Francesco Cecconi, Arthur I Cederbaum, Valentín Ceña, Simone Cenci, Claudia Cerella, Davide Cervia, Silvia Cetrullo, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Andrei S Chagin, Chee-Yin Chai, Gopal Chakrabarti, Georgios Chamilos, Edmond Yw Chan, Matthew Tv Chan, Dhyan Chandra, Pallavi Chandra, Chih-Peng Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ta Yuan Chang, John C Chatham, Saurabh Chatterjee, Santosh Chauhan, Yongsheng Che, Michael E Cheetham, Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Chun-Jung Chen, Gang Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guoqiang Chen, Hongzhuan Chen, Jeff W Chen, Jian-Kang Chen, Min Chen, Mingzhou Chen, Peiwen Chen, Qi Chen, Quan Chen, Shang-Der Chen, Si Chen, Steve S-L Chen, Wei Chen, Wei-Jung Chen, Wen Qiang Chen, Wenli Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Yau-Hung Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yin Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongshun Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yue-Qin Chen, Yujie Chen, Zhen Chen, Zhong Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher Hk Cheng, Hua Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Sara Cherry, Jason Chesney, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hsiang Cheng Chi, Sung-Gil Chi, Fulvio Chiacchiera, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Mario Chiariello, Marcello Chieppa, Lih-Shen Chin, Mario Chiong, Gigi Nc Chiu, Dong-Hyung Cho, Ssang-Goo Cho, William C Cho, Yong-Yeon Cho, Young-Seok Cho, Augustine Mk Choi, Eui-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Jayoung Choi, Mary E Choi, Seung-Il Choi, Tsui-Fen Chou, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Kuan-Chih Chow, Kamal Chowdhury, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Taehoon Chun, Hyewon Chung, Taijoon Chung, Yuen-Li Chung, Yong-Joon Chwae, Valentina Cianfanelli, Roberto Ciarcia, Iwona A Ciechomska, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Mara Cirone, Sofie Claerhout, Michael J Clague, Joan Clària, Peter Gh Clarke, Robert Clarke, Emilio Clementi, Cédric Cleyrat, Miriam Cnop, Eliana M Coccia, Tiziana Cocco, Patrice Codogno, Jörn Coers, Ezra Ew Cohen, David Colecchia, Luisa Coletto, Núria S Coll, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Katherine L Cook, Graham H Coombs, Cynthia D Cooper, J Mark Cooper, Isabelle Coppens, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Marco Corazzari, Ramon Corbalan, Elisabeth Corcelle-Termeau, Mario D Cordero, Cristina Corral-Ramos, Olga Corti, Andrea Cossarizza, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Susan L Cotman, Ana Coto-Montes, Sandra Cottet, Eduardo Couve, Lori R Covey, L Ashley Cowart, Jeffery S Cox, Fraser P Coxon, Carolyn B Coyne, Mark S Cragg, Rolf J Craven, Tiziana Crepaldi, Jose L Crespo, Alfredo Criollo, Valeria Crippa, Maria Teresa Cruz, Ana Maria Cuervo, Jose M Cuezva, Taixing Cui, Pedro R Cutillas, Mark J Czaja, Maria F Czyzyk-Krzeska, Ruben K Dagda, Uta Dahmen, Chunsun Dai, Wenjie Dai, Yun Dai, Kevin N Dalby, Luisa Dalla Valle, Guillaume Dalmasso, Marcello D'Amelio, Markus Damme, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Catherine Dargemont, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Biplab Dasgupta, Srikanta Dash, Crispin R Dass, Hazel Marie Davey, Lester M Davids, David Dávila, Roger J Davis, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson, Paula Daza, Jackie de Belleroche, Paul de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, José de la Fuente, Luisa De Martino, Antonella De Matteis, Guido Ry De Meyer, Angelo De Milito, Mauro De Santi, Wanderley de Souza, Vincenzo De Tata, Daniela De Zio, Jayanta Debnath, Reinhard Dechant, Jean-Paul Decuypere, Shane Deegan, Benjamin Dehay, Barbara Del Bello, Dominic P Del Re, Régis Delage-Mourroux, Lea Md Delbridge, Louise Deldicque, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Yizhen Deng, Joern Dengjel, Melanie Denizot, Paul Dent, Channing J Der, Vojo Deretic, Benoît Derrien, Eric Deutsch, Timothy P Devarenne, Rodney J Devenish, Sabrina Di Bartolomeo, Nicola Di Daniele, Fabio Di Domenico, Alessia Di Nardo, Simone Di Paola, Antonio Di Pietro, Livia Di Renzo, Aaron DiAntonio, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Ines Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Chad A Dickey, Robert C Dickson, Marc Diederich, Paul Digard, Ivan Dikic, Savithrama P Dinesh-Kumar, Chan Ding, Wen-Xing Ding, Zufeng Ding, Luciana Dini, Jörg Hw Distler, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Kostyantyn Dmytruk, Renwick Cj Dobson, Volker Doetsch, Karol Dokladny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Massimo Donadelli, X Charlie Dong, Xiaonan Dong, Zheng Dong, Terrence M Donohue, Kelly S Doran, Gabriella D'Orazi, Gerald W Dorn, Victor Dosenko, Sami Dridi, Liat Drucker, Jie Du, Li-Lin Du, Lihuan Du, André du Toit, Priyamvada Dua, Lei Duan, Pu Duann, Vikash Kumar Dubey, Michael R Duchen, Michel A Duchosal, Helene Duez, Isabelle Dugail, Verónica I Dumit, Mara C Duncan, Elaine A Dunlop, William A Dunn, Nicolas Dupont, Luc Dupuis, Raúl V Durán, Thomas M Durcan, Stéphane Duvezin-Caubet, Umamaheswar Duvvuri, Vinay Eapen, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Arnaud Echard, Leopold Eckhart, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Ludwig Eichinger, Tobias Eisenberg, Avital Eisenberg-Lerner, N Tony Eissa, Wafik S El-Deiry, Victoria El-Khoury, Zvulun Elazar, Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, Chris Jh Elliott, Enzo Emanuele, Urban Emmenegger, Nikolai Engedal, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jorrit M Enserink, Ralf Erdmann, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Rajaraman Eri, Jason L Eriksen, Andreja Erman, Ricardo Escalante, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Thomas J Evans, Mario Fabri, Gemma Fabrias, Cinzia Fabrizi, Antonio Facchiano, Nils J Færgeman, Alberto Faggioni, W Douglas Fairlie, Chunhai Fan, Daping Fan, Jie Fan, Shengyun Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Mathias Faure, Francois B Favier, Howard Fearnhead, Massimo Federici, Erkang Fei, Tania C Felizardo, Hua Feng, Yibin Feng, Yuchen Feng, Thomas A Ferguson, Álvaro F Fernández, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Jose C Fernandez-Checa, Arsenio Fernández-López, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Olivier Feron, Elisabetta Ferraro, Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder, Laszlo Fesus, Ralph Feuer, Fabienne C Fiesel, Eduardo C Filippi-Chiela, Giuseppe Filomeni, Gian Maria Fimia, John H Fingert, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Filomena Fiorito, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Flavio Flamigni, Oliver Florey, Salvatore Florio, R Andres Floto, Marco Folini, Carlo Follo, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Alessandro Fraldi, Rodrigo Franco, Arnaud Francois, Aurélie François, Lisa B Frankel, Iain Dc Fraser, Norbert Frey, Damien G Freyssenet, Christian Frezza, Scott L Friedman, Daniel E Frigo, Dongxu Fu, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Yoshio Fujitani, Yuuki Fujiwara, Mikihiro Fujiya, Mitsunori Fukuda, Simone Fulda, Carmela Fusco, Bozena Gabryel, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Sehamuddin Galadari, Gad Galili, Inmaculada Galindo, Maria F Galindo, Giovanna Galliciotti, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Luca Galluzzi, Vincent Galy, Noor Gammoh, Sam Gandy, Anand K Ganesan, Swamynathan Ganesan, Ian G Ganley, Monique Gannagé, Fen-Biao Gao, Feng Gao, Jian-Xin Gao, Lorena García Nannig, Eleonora García Véscovi, Marina Garcia-Macía, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, Abhishek D Garg, Pramod Kumar Garg, Ricardo Gargini, Nils Christian Gassen, Damián Gatica, Evelina Gatti, Julie Gavard, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Liang Ge, Pengfei Ge, Shengfang Ge, Po-Wu Gean, Vania Gelmetti, Armando A Genazzani, Jiefei Geng, Pascal Genschik, Lisa Gerner, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Eric Ghigo, Debabrata Ghosh, Anna Maria Giammarioli, Francesca Giampieri, Claudia Giampietri, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Derrick J Gibbings, Lara Gibellini, Spencer B Gibson, Vanessa Ginet, Antonio Giordano, Flaviano Giorgini, Elisa Giovannetti, Stephen E Girardin, Suzana Gispert, Sandy Giuliano, Candece L Gladson, Alvaro Glavic, Martin Gleave, Nelly Godefroy, Robert M Gogal, Kuppan Gokulan, Gustavo H Goldman, Delia Goletti, Michael S Goligorsky, Aldrin V Gomes, Ligia C Gomes, Hernando Gomez, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Dawit Ap Gonçalves, Ebru Goncu, Qingqiu Gong, Céline Gongora, Carlos B Gonzalez, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Ing Swie Goping, Carlos Gorbea, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Daphne R Goring, Adrienne M Gorman, Sharon M Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Shino Goto-Yamada, Cecilia Gotor, Roberta A Gottlieb, Illana Gozes, Devrim Gozuacik, Yacine Graba, Martin Graef, Giovanna E Granato, Gary Dean Grant, Steven Grant, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Douglas R Green, Alexander Greenhough, Michael T Greenwood, Benedetto Grimaldi, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Jean-Francois Groulx, Florian Gruber, Paolo Grumati, Tilman Grune, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Barbara Guerra, Carlos Guillen, Kailash Gulshan, Jan Gunst, Chuanyong Guo, Lei Guo, Ming Guo, Wenjie Guo, Xu-Guang Guo, Andrea A Gust, Åsa B Gustafsson, Elaine Gutierrez, Maximiliano G Gutierrez, Ho-Shin Gwak, Albert Haas, James E Haber, Shinji Hadano, Monica Hagedorn, David R Hahn, Andrew J Halayko, Anne Hamacher-Brady, Kozo Hamada, Ahmed Hamai, Andrea Hamann, Maho Hamasaki, Isabelle Hamer, Qutayba Hamid, Ester M Hammond, Feng Han, Weidong Han, James T Handa, John A Hanover, Malene Hansen, Masaru Harada, Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic, J Wade Harper, Abdel Halim Harrath, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Udo Hasler, Peter Hasselblatt, Kazuhisa Hasui, Robert G Hawley, Teresa S Hawley, Congcong He, Cynthia Y He, Fengtian He, Gu He, Rong-Rong He, Xian-Hui He, You-Wen He, Yu-Ying He, Joan K Heath, Marie-Josée Hébert, Robert A Heinzen, Gudmundur Vignir Helgason, Michael Hensel, Elizabeth P Henske, Chengtao Her, Paul K Herman, Agustín Hernández, Carlos Hernandez, Sonia Hernández-Tiedra, Claudio Hetz, P Robin Hiesinger, Katsumi Higaki, Sabine Hilfiker, Bradford G Hill, Joseph A Hill, William D Hill, Keisuke Hino, Daniel Hofius, Paul Hofman, Günter U Höglinger, Jörg Höhfeld, Marina K Holz, Yonggeun Hong, David A Hood, Jeroen Jm Hoozemans, Thorsten Hoppe, Chin Hsu, Chin-Yuan Hsu, Li-Chung Hsu, Dong Hu, Guochang Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Hongbo Hu, Ming Chang Hu, Yu-Chen Hu, Zhuo-Wei Hu, Fang Hua, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Huey-Lan Huang, Kuo-How Huang, Kuo-Yang Huang, Shile Huang, Shiqian Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Yi-Ran Huang, Yong Huang, Yunfei Huang, Tobias B Huber, Patricia Huebbe, Won-Ki Huh, Juha J Hulmi, Gang Min Hur, James H Hurley, Zvenyslava Husak, Sabah Na Hussain, Salik Hussain, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Thomas Is Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Yuzuru Imai, Carol Imbriano, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Renato V Iozzo, Nancy Y Ip, Javier E Irazoqui, Pablo Iribarren, Yoshitaka Isaka, Aleksandra J Isakovic, Harry Ischiropoulos, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Mohammad Ishaq, Hiroyuki Ishida, Isao Ishii, Jane E Ishmael, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Erika Isono, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Koji Itahana, Eisuke Itakura, Andrei I Ivanov, Anand Krishnan V Iyer, José M Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Valentina Izzo, Marja Jäättelä, Nadia Jaber, Daniel John Jackson, William T Jackson, Tony George Jacob, Thomas S Jacques, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Ashish Jain, Nihar Ranjan Jana, Byoung Kuk Jang, Alkesh Jani, Bassam Janji, Paulo Roberto Jannig, Patric J Jansson, Steve Jean, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Niels Jessen, Eui-Bae Jeung, Kailiang Jia, Lijun Jia, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Liwen Jiang, Teng Jiang, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Ying Jiang, Yongjun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Cheng Jin, Hongchuan Jin, Lei Jin, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Umesh Kumar Jinwal, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail Vw Johnson, James D Johnson, Eric Jonasch, Chris Jones, Leo Ab Joosten, Joaquin Jordan, Anna-Maria Joseph, Bertrand Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Dianwen Ju, Jingfang Ju, Hsueh-Fen Juan, Katrin Juenemann, Gábor Juhász, Hye Seung Jung, Jae U Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Heinz Jungbluth, Matthew J Justice, Barry Jutten, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Bertrand Kaeffer, Katarina Kågedal, Alon Kahana, Shingo Kajimura, Or Kakhlon, Manjula Kalia, Dhan V Kalvakolanu, Yoshiaki Kamada, Konstantinos Kambas, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Mustapha Kandouz, Chanhee Kang, Rui Kang, Tae-Cheon Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Marc Kantorow, Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos, Orsolya Kapuy, Vassiliki Karantza, Md Razaul Karim, Parimal Karmakar, Arthur Kaser, Susmita Kaushik, Thomas Kawula, A Murat Kaynar, Po-Yuan Ke, Zun-Ji Ke, John H Kehrl, Kate E Keller, Jongsook Kim Kemper, Anne K Kenworthy, Oliver Kepp, Andreas Kern, Santosh Kesari, David Kessel, Robin Ketteler, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, Bilon Khambu, Muzamil Majid Khan, Vinoth Km Khandelwal, Sangeeta Khare, Juliann G Kiang, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Arianna L Kim, Cheol Hyeon Kim, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Eung Kweon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Kwang Woon Kim, Michael D Kim, Moon-Moo Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Soo-Youl Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Tomonori Kimura, Jason S King, Karla Kirkegaard, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Shuji Kishi, Yasuo Kitajima, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Yasushi Kitaoka, Kaio Kitazato, Rudolf A Kley, Walter T Klimecki, Michael Klinkenberg, Jochen Klucken, Helene Knævelsrud, Erwin Knecht, Laura Knuppertz, Jiunn-Liang Ko, Satoru Kobayashi, Jan C Koch, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo, Ulrich Koenig, Young Ho Koh, Katja Köhler, Sepp D Kohlwein, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Dexin Kong, Hee Jeong Kong, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Benjamin T Kopp, Tamas Korcsmaros, Laura Korhonen, Viktor I Korolchuk, Nadya V Koshkina, Yanjun Kou, Michael I Koukourakis, Constantinos Koumenis, Attila L 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Ida J van der Klei, Luc Jw van der Laan, Wouter G van Doorn, Marjolein van Egmond, Kenneth L van Golen, Luc Van Kaer, Menno van Lookeren Campagne, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Isabel Varela-Nieto, M Helena Vasconcelos, Radovan Vasko, Demetrios G Vavvas, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Guillermo Velasco, Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Tibor Vellai, Edo Vellenga, Mikkel Holm Vendelbo, Kartik Venkatachalam, Natascia Ventura, Salvador Ventura, Patrícia St Veras, Mireille Verdier, Beata G Vertessy, Andrea Viale, Michel Vidal, Helena L A Vieira, Richard D Vierstra, Nadarajah Vigneswaran, Neeraj Vij, Miquel Vila, Margarita Villar, Victor H Villar, Joan Villarroya, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Giovanni Vitale, Dan T Vogl, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Karin von Schwarzenberg, Daniel E Voth, Valérie Vouret-Craviari, Kristina Vuori, Jatin M Vyas, Christian Waeber, Cheryl Lyn Walker, Mark J Walker, Jochen Walter, Lei Wan, Xiangbo Wan, Bo Wang, Caihong Wang, Chao-Yung Wang, Chengshu Wang, Chenran Wang, Chuangui Wang, Dong Wang, Fen Wang, Fuxin Wang, Guanghui Wang, Hai-Jie Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Hongmin Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jing Wang, Junjun Wang, Mei Wang, Mei-Qing Wang, Pei-Yu Wang, Peng Wang, Richard C Wang, Shuo Wang, Ting-Fang Wang, Xian Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Xin Wang, Xuejun Wang, Yan Wang, Yanming Wang, Ying Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Yu Wang, Yu Tian Wang, Yuqing Wang, Zhi-Nong Wang, Pablo Wappner, Carl Ward, Diane McVey Ward, Gary Warnes, Hirotaka Watada, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Kei Watase, Timothy E Weaver, Colin D Weekes, Jiwu Wei, Thomas Weide, Conrad C Weihl, Günther Weindl, Simone Nardin Weis, Longping Wen, Xin Wen, Yunfei Wen, Benedikt Westermann, Cornelia M Weyand, Anthony R White, Eileen White, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Joëlle Wiels, Franziska Wild, Manon E Wildenberg, Tom Wileman, Deepti Srinivas Wilkinson, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Chris Williams, Katherine Williams, Peter R Williamson, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Steven S Witkin, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Thomas Wollert, Ernst J Wolvetang, Esther Wong, G William Wong, Richard W Wong, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Elizabeth A Woodcock, Karen L Wright, Chunlai Wu, Defeng Wu, Gen Sheng Wu, Jian Wu, Junfang Wu, Mian Wu, Min Wu, Shengzhou Wu, William Kk Wu, Yaohua Wu, Zhenlong Wu, Cristina Pr Xavier, Ramnik J Xavier, Gui-Xian Xia, Tian Xia, Weiliang Xia, Yong Xia, Hengyi Xiao, Jian Xiao, Shi Xiao, Wuhan Xiao, Chuan-Ming Xie, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Maria Xilouri, Yuyan Xiong, Chuanshan Xu, Congfeng Xu, Feng Xu, Haoxing Xu, Hongwei Xu, Jian Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Jinxian Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Yangqing Xu, Ye Xu, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Ziheng Xu, Yu Xue, Takahiro Yamada, Ai Yamamoto, Koji Yamanaka, Shunhei Yamashina, Shigeko Yamashiro, Bing Yan, Bo Yan, Xianghua Yan, Zhen Yan, Yasuo Yanagi, Dun-Sheng Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Liu Yang, Minghua Yang, Pei-Ming Yang, Peixin Yang, Qian Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Xuesong Yang, Yi Yang, Ying Yang, Zhifen Yang, Zhihong Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Pamela J Yao, Xiaofeng Yao, Zhenyu Yao, Zhiyuan Yao, Linda S Yasui, Mingxiang Ye, Barry Yedvobnick, Behzad Yeganeh, Elizabeth S Yeh, Patricia L Yeyati, Fan Yi, Long Yi, Xiao-Ming Yin, Calvin K Yip, Yeong-Min Yoo, Young Hyun Yoo, Seung-Yong Yoon, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Ken H Young, Huixin Yu, Jane J Yu, Jin-Tai Yu, Jun Yu, Li Yu, W Haung Yu, Xiao-Fang Yu, Zhengping Yu, Junying Yuan, Zhi-Min Yuan, Beatrice Yjt Yue, Jianbo Yue, Zhenyu Yue, David N Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Tania Zaglia, Zahra Zakeri, Vincent Zecchini, Jinsheng Zeng, Min Zeng, Qi Zeng, Antonis S Zervos, Donna D Zhang, Fan Zhang, Guo Zhang, Guo-Chang Zhang, Hao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hongbing Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jiangwei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Li Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xiangnan Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yanjin Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yunjiao Zhang, Mei Zhao, Wei-Li Zhao, Xiaonan Zhao, Yan G Zhao, Ying Zhao, Yongchao Zhao, Yu-Xia Zhao, Zhendong Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Dexian Zheng, Xi-Long Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Guang-Zhou Zhou, Guofei Zhou, Huiping Zhou, Shu-Feng Zhou, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hongxin Zhu, Hua Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Wenhua Zhu, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Yuhua Zhu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Xiaohong Zhuang, Elio Ziparo, Christos E Zois, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Susu M Zughaier

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Dec
1969

Autophagy is mainly regulated by post-translational and lipid modifications of ATG proteins. In some scenarios, the induction of autophagy is accompanied by increased levels of certain ATG mRNAs such as MAP1LC3B/LC3B, ATG5 or ATG12. However, little is known about the regulation of ATG protein synthesis at the translational level.

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Dec
1969

Macroautophagy is a conserved degradative pathway in which a double-membrane compartment sequesters cytoplasmic cargo and delivers the contents to lysosomes for degradation. Efficient formation and maturation of autophagic vesicles, so-called phagophores that are precursors to autophagosomes, and their subsequent trafficking to lysosomes relies on the activity of small RAB GTPases, which are essential factors of cellular vesicle transport systems. The activity of RAB GTPases is coordinated by upstream factors, which include guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RAB GEFs) and RAB GTPase activating proteins (RAB GAPs).

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Jan
2016

Selective autophagy regulates the abundance of specific cellular components via a specialized arsenal of factors, termed autophagy receptors, that target protein complexes, aggregates, and whole organelles into lysosomes. Autophagy receptors bind to LC3/GABARAP proteins on phagophore and autophagosome membranes, and recognize signals on cargoes to deliver them to autophagy. Ubiquitin (Ub), a well-known signal for the degradation of polypeptides in the proteasome, also plays an important role in the recognition of cargoes destined for selective autophagy.

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Oct
2015

The two main receptors of the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1R) and 2 (CB2R), were described in the early 1990s. Since then, different physiological functions have been revealed that are linked to the activity of these two G-protein-coupled receptors. CB1R and CB2R activities influence signal cascades, which are known to play a role in the regulation of the cellular "self-digestion" process called autophagy.

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Jul
2015

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive paralysis due to the loss of primary and secondary motor neurons. Mutations in the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene are associated with familial ALS and to date numerous hypotheses for ALS pathology exist including impairment of the blood-spinal cord barrier. In transgenic mice carrying mutated SOD1 genes, a disrupted blood-spinal cord barrier as well as decreased levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 were detected.

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Feb
2015

Low-frequency magnetic fields (LF-MF) generated by power lines represent a potential environmental health risk and are classified as possibly carcinogenic by the World Health Organization. Epidemiological studies indicate that LF-MF might propagate neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We conducted a comprehensive analysis to determine whether long-term exposure to LF-MF (50 Hz, 1 mT) interferes with disease development in established mouse models for AD and ALS, namely APP23 mice and mice expressing mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), respectively.

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Dec
1969

Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old animals, and adult rat hippocampus and cortex subjected or not subjected to cerebral ischemia.

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Dec
1969

Macroautophagy is a degradative pathway that sequesters and transports cytosolic cargo in autophagosomes to lysosomes, and its deterioration affects intracellular proteostasis. Membrane dynamics accompanying autophagy are mostly elusive and depend on trafficking processes. RAB GTPase activating proteins (RABGAPs) are important factors for the coordination of cellular vesicle transport systems, and several TBC (TRE2-BUB2-CDC16) domain-containing RABGAPs are associated with autophagy.

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May
2015

Oxidative stress is an early hallmark in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. However, the critical biochemical effector mechanisms of oxidative neurotoxicity have remained surprisingly elusive. In screening various peroxides and potential substrates of oxidation for their effect on neuronal survival, we observed that intramembrane compounds were significantly more active than aqueous or amphiphilic compounds.

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Dec
1969

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major age-associated form of dementia characterized by gradual cognitive decline. Aberrant cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) is thought to play an important role in the pathology of this disease. Two principal AβPP processing pathways exist: amyloidogenic cleavage of AβPP resulting in production of the soluble N-terminal fragment sAβPPβ, amyloid-β (Aβ), which accumulates in AD brain, and the AβPP intracellular domain (AICD) sAβPPα, p3 and AICD are generated in the non-amyloidogenic pathway.

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Nov
2014

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) has been initially described as the receptor for Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the central nervous system (CNS), mediating retrograde synaptic signaling of the endocannabinoid system. Beside its expression in various CNS regions, CB1 is ubiquituous in peripheral tissues, where it mediates, among other activities, the cell's energy homeostasis. We sought to examine the role of CB1 in the context of the evolutionarily conserved autophagic machinery, a main constituent of the regulation of the intracellular energy status.

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Dec
1969

The standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 has well-described antioxidative activities and effects on different cytoprotective signaling pathways. Consequently, a potential use of EGb 761 in neurodegenerative diseases has been proposed. A common characteristic feature of a variety of such disorders is the pathologic formation of protein aggregates, suggesting a crucial role for protein homeostasis.

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Jan
2015

Senescence is a prominent solid tumor response to therapy in which cells avoid apoptosis and instead enter into prolonged cell cycle arrest. We applied a quantitative proteomics screen to identify signals that lead to therapy-induced senescence and discovered that Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (Bag3) is up-regulated after adriamycin treatment in MCF7 cells. Bag3 is a member of the BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with Hsp70.

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Jul
2014

Redox control of proteins that form disulfide bonds upon oxidative challenge is an emerging topic in the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of protein function. We have investigated the role of the neuronal calcium sensor protein visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) as a novel redox sensor in a cellular system. We have found oxidative stress to trigger dimerization of VILIP-1 within a cellular environment and identified thioredoxin reductase as responsible for facilitating the remonomerization of the dimeric protein.

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Jan
2014

Parkinson's disease is an age-associated disorder characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective vulnerability of this subset of neurons are, however, not fully understood. Employing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary mesencephalic neurons, we here demonstrate a significant increase in cytosolic calcium after inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by means of MPP(+), which is a well-established environmental toxin-based in vitro model of Parkinson's disease.

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Dec
2013

In the aging population of Germany the consequences of Dementia for the society and the health care sector are complex and solutions require a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of the two-day interdisciplinary expert conference was to consider dementia from different perspectives, to identify dementia-related problems and to discuss integrative solutions under consideration of complementary therapies. In different working groups the experts developed solutions and recommendations with regards to political need, health care and future research priorities.

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Feb
2014

Mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for a subset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases presumably by the acquisition of as yet unknown toxic properties. Additional overexpression of wild-type SOD1 in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice did not improve but rather accelerated the disease course. Recently, it was documented that the presence of wild-type SOD1 (SOD(WT)) reduced the aggregation propensity of mutant SOD1 by the formation of heterodimers between mutant and SOD1(WT) and that these heterodimers displayed at least a similar toxicity in cellular and animal models.

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Nov
2013

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β deposition in amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation, neuronal loss, and cognitive deficits. Cannabinoids display neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects and affect memory acquisition. Here, we studied the impact of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) deficiency on the development of AD pathology by breeding amyloid precursor protein (APP) Swedish mutant mice (APP23), an AD animal model, with CB1-deficient mice.

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Dec
1969

The neuroendocrinology of female sex hormones is of great interest for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. In fact, estrogens and estrogen receptors (ERs) exert neuromodulatory and neuroprotective functions. Here we investigated potential targets of the ER subtype alpha that may mediate neuroprotection and focused on direct modulators and downstream executors of apoptosis.

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Jan
2013

Aggregation of misfolded proteins and the associated loss of neurons are considered a hallmark of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Optineurin is present in protein inclusions observed in various neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeld-Jacob disease and Pick's disease. Optineurin deletion mutations have also been described in ALS patients.

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Apr
2012

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.

Autophagy 2012 Apr;8(4):445-544
Daniel J Klionsky, Fabio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Frédéric Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sergio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahová, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramon Corbalan, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Joseé Hébert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kagedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-Jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Roza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-Lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos López-Otín, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Peter Lőw, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Frédéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfe, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Régnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, José L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stephane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, Maria S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Strålfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, FengFeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding.

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Aug
2012

Despite decades of research in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a real understanding of its molecular pathophysiology and treatments relevant to the day-to-day lives of patients remain out of reach. Research has, with good reason, focused on certain key pathways and potential mechanisms, but sometimes this has been at the expense of work on other theories, which may be slowing down progress in this field. Interesting theories at present include oxidative stress and caloric restriction.

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Aug
2012

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one key medical challenge of the aging society and despite a great amount of effort and a huge collection of acquired data on molecular mechanisms that are associated with the onset and progression of this devastating disorder, no causal therapy is in sight. The two main hypotheses of AD, the amyloid cascade hypothesis and the Tau hypothesis, are still in the focus of AD research. With aging as the accepted main risk factor of the most important non familial and late onset sporadic forms of AD, it is now mandatory to discuss more intensively aspects of cellular aging and aging biochemistry and its impact on neurodegeneration.

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Apr
2012

The roles of amyloid precursor protein (APP) family members in normal brain function are poorly understood. Under physiological conditions the majority of APP appears to be processed along the non-amyloidogenic pathway leading to the formation of the secreted N-terminal APP fragment sAPPα. This cleavage product of APP has been implicated in several physiological processes such as neuroprotection, synaptic plasticity, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis.

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Dec
2011

Macroautophagy is a catabolic process by which the cell degrades cytoplasmic components through the lysosomal machinery. While initially acknowledged as a rather unspecific bulk degradation process, growing lines of evidence indicate the selectivity of macroautophagy pathways in the removal of misfolded or aggregated proteins. How such substrates are recognized and specifically targeted to the macroautophagy machinery has become a hotspot of investigation, and recent evidence suggests that here molecular chaperones and co-chaperones play a central role.

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Jul
2011

There is a reciprocal change in the expression of two members of the BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogen) family, BAG1 and BAG3, during cellular aging and under acute stress ("BAG1-BAG3-switch"). BAG3 was recently described as a mediator of a novel macroautophagy pathway that uses the specificity of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) to misfolded proteins and also involves other protein partners, such as HSPB8. Also crucial for induction and execution of autophagy are sequestosome-1/p62 (SQSTM1/p62) and LC3, an autophagosome-associated protein.

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Apr
2011

Mitochondrially encoded proteins in long-lived animals exhibit a characteristic anomaly on the amino acid usage level: they abstain from the use of cysteine in a lifespan-dependent fashion. Here, we have further investigated this phenomenon by analyzing respiratory chain complex subunits individually. We find that complex I cysteine depletion is the almost exclusive carrier of the cysteine-lifespan correlation, whereas complex IV cysteine depletion is uniform in all aerobic animals, unrelated to longevity, but even more pronounced than complex I cysteine depletion in the longest-lived species.

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Feb
2011

Increasing evidence indicates the existence of selective autophagy pathways, but the manner in which substrates are recognized and targeted to the autophagy system is poorly understood. One strategy is transport of a particular substrate to the aggresome, a perinuclear compartment with high autophagic activity. In this paper, we identify a new cellular pathway that uses the specificity of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) to misfolded proteins as the basis for aggresome-targeting and autophagic degradation.

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Oct
2010

Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders, conventional antioxidant strategies have yet been of limited success. We have employed transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing DsRed2 in dopaminergic neurons and CFP pan-neuronally, to characterize in larval and adult animals the effects of rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP(+)) on the dopaminergic system. Investigating the antioxidant phenothiazine and different derived antipsychotic drugs, it was found that free phenothiazine exerted strong neuroprotection at the cellular level and resulted in a better performance in behavioral assays, whereas apomorphine and other dopamine agonists only rescued adult locomotor parameters.

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May
2010

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles as signaling molecules in the regulation of a variety of biological processes. On the other hand, chronic oxidative stress exerted by ROS is widely considered a causative factor in aging. Therefore, cells need to be able to adapt to a chronic oxidative challenge and do so to a certain cell-type-specific extent.

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Jan
2010

Protein stability under changing conditions is of vital importance for the cell and under the control of a fine-tuned network of molecular chaperones. Aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases are directly associated with enhanced protein instability. Employing C.

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Feb
2010

The role of the endothelial contractile apparatus in the process of brain edema formation after brain trauma is not characterized. Phosphorylation of myosin light chains by myosin light chain kinases (MLCK) activates endothelial contractile elements and results in a rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. This may enhance post-traumatic blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

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Nov
2009

Chronic oxidative stress has been causally linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. As sensitivity for oxidative stress greatly differs between brain regions and neuronal cell types, specific cellular mechanisms of adaptation to chronic oxidative stress should exist. Our objective was to identify molecular mechanisms of adaptation of neuronal cells after applying chronic sublethal oxidative stress.

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Nov
2009

Aggregation of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a hallmark of a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. The expression of wild-type SOD1 [SOD(hWT)] surprisingly exacerbates the phenotype of mutant SOD1 in vivo. Here we studied whether SOD1(hWT) may affect mutant SOD1 aggregation by employing fluorescence microscopy techniques combined with lifetime-based Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET).

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Oct
2009

The unsolved relationship of brain aging and late-onset Alzheimer disease.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2009 Oct 24;1790(10):1124-32. Epub 2009 Jul 24.
Andreas Kern, Christian Behl
Late-onset Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia and is strongly associated with age. Today, around 24 million people suffer from dementia and with aging of industrial populations this number will significantly increase throughout the next decades. An effective therapy that successfully decelerates or prevents the progressive neurodegeneration does not exist.

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Jul
2009

Strong evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be causally involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. We have employed human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells and rat primary mesencephalic neurons to assess the protective potential of three novel bisarylimine antioxidants on dopaminergic cell death induced by complex I inhibition or glutathione depletion. We have found that exceptionally low concentrations (EC(50) values approximately 20 nM) of these compounds (iminostilbene, phenothiazine, and phenoxazine) exhibited strong protective effects against the toxicities of MPP(+), rotenone, and l-buthionine sulfoximine.

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Sep
2009

CRH is a major central stress mediator, but also a potent neuroprotective effector. The mechanisms by which CRH mediates its neuroprotective actions are largely unknown. Here, we describe that the gap junction molecule connexin43 (Cx43) mediates neuroprotective effects of CRH toward experimentally induced oxidative stress.

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Apr
2009

The Hsc/Hsp70 co-chaperones of the BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) protein family are modulators of protein quality control. We examined the specific roles of BAG1 and BAG3 in protein degradation during the aging process. We show that BAG1 and BAG3 regulate proteasomal and macroautophagic pathways, respectively, for the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins.

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Feb
2009

Development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease is strongly age-associated. The impairment of calcium homeostasis is considered to be a key pathological event leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. However, the exact impact of aging on calcium homeostasis in neurons remains largely unknown.

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