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Author: Christiane A Opitz (26)


Jan
2018

Multimodal imaging combines complementary platforms for spatially resolved tissue analysis that are poised for application in life science and personalized medicine. Unlike established clinical in vivo multimodality imaging, automated workflows for in-depth multimodal molecular ex vivo tissue analysis that combine the speed and ease of spectroscopic imaging with molecular details provided by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) are lagging behind. Here, we present an integrated approach that utilizes non-destructive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI for analysing single-slide tissue specimen.

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Dec
2017

The ubiquitous moldthreatens immunosuppressed patients as inducer of lethal invasive aspergillosis.conidia are airborne and reach the alveoli, where they encounter alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Previous studies reported the importance of the surfactant-producing AEC II duringinfectionexperiments using cell lines.

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Jul
2017

Metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan (trp) is a key endogenous immunosuppressive pathway restricting inflammatory responses. Tryptophan metabolites promote regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation and suppress proinflammatory T helper cell (Th)1 and Th17 phenotypes. It has been shown that treatment with natural and synthetic tryptophan metabolites can suppress autoimmune neuroinflammation in preclinical animal models.

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Dec
1969

Kynurenine formation by tryptophan-catabolic indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in tumor immune evasion and inhibition of IDO1 is efficacious in preclinical models of breast cancer. As the response of breast cancer to immune checkpoint inhibitors may be limited, a better understanding of the expression of additional targetable immunomodulatory pathways is of importance. We therefore investigated the regulation of IDO1 expression in different breast cancer subtypes.

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Dec
1969

The development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is linked to functional changes in synovial fibroblasts (SF) and local infiltration of T lymphocytes. Fibroblasts possess the capacity to suppress T cell responses, although the molecular mechanisms of this suppression remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to define the mechanisms by which noninflammatory SF modulate Th cell responses and to determine the immunosuppressive efficacy of RASF.

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Dec
1969

Tryptophan metabolism is a key process that shapes the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The two rate-limiting enzymes that mediate tryptophan depletion, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), have moved into the focus of research and inhibitors targeting IDO and TDO have entered clinical trials. Local tryptophan depletion is generally viewed as the crucial immunosuppressive mechanism.

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Jan
2017

The catabolism of tryptophan to immunosuppressive and neuroactive kynurenines is a key metabolic pathway regulating immune responses and neurotoxicity. The rate-limiting step is controlled by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). IDO is expressed in antigen presenting cells during immune reactions, hepatic TDO regulates blood homeostasis of tryptophan and neuronal TDO influences neurogenesis.

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Dec
2015

Malignant gliomas and other types of tumors generate a local immunosuppressive microenvironment, which prohibits an effective anti-tumor immune response and promotes tumor growth. Along with others, we have recently demonstrated that catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) is an important mechanism mediating tumor-associated immunosuppression particularly in gliomas. The pathways regulating TDO in tumors, however, are poorly understood.

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Dec
2015

NAD, as well as its phosphorylated form, NADP, are best known as electron carriers and co-substrates of various redox reactions. As such they participate in approximately one quarter of all reactions listed in the reaction database KEGG. In metabolic pathway analysis, the total amount of NAD is usually assumed to be constant.

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Jan
2015

Tryptophan catabolism is increasingly recognized as a key and druggable molecular mechanism active in cancer, immune, and glioneural cells and involved in the modulation of antitumor immunity, autoimmunity and glioneural function. In addition to the pivotal rate limiting enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, expression of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) has recently been described as an alternative pathway responsible for constitutive tryptophan degradation in malignant gliomas and other types of cancer. In addition, TDO has been implicated as a key regulator of neurotoxicity involved in neurodegenerative diseases and ageing.

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Feb
2014

Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors have entered clinical trials based on their ability to restore anti-tumor immunity in preclinical studies. However, the mechanisms leading to constitutive expression of IDO in human tumors are largely unknown. Here we analyzed the pathways mediating constitutive IDO expression in human cancer.

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Dec
2013

Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors characterized by profound local immunosuppression. While the remarkable plasticity of perivascular cells - resembling mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) - in malignant gliomas and their contribution to angiogenesis is increasingly recognized, their role as potential mediators of immunosuppression is unknown. Here we demonstrate that FACS-sorted malignant glioma-derived pericytes (HMGP) were characterized by the expression of CD90, CD248, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β).

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Sep
2013

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of acute inflammatory lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This disruption may precede and facilitate the infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells. The signaling events that lead to this BBB disruption are incompletely understood but appear to involve dysregulation of tight-junction proteins such as claudins.

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Jun
2013

Quinolinic acid is a product of tryptophan degradation and may serve as a precursor for NAD(+), an important enzymatic cofactor for enzymes such as the DNA repair protein PARP. Pathologic accumulation of quinolinic acid has been found in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer and Huntington disease, where it is thought to be toxic for neurons by activating the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and inducing excitotoxicity. Although many tumors including gliomas constitutively catabolize tryptophan, it is unclear whether quinolinic acid is produced in gliomas and whether it is involved in tumor progression.

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Oct
2011

Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by environmental xenobiotic toxic chemicals, for instance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as embryogenesis, transformation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. But the identity of an endogenous ligand activating the AHR under physiological conditions in the absence of environmental toxic chemicals is still unknown. Here we identify the tryptophan (Trp) catabolite kynurenine (Kyn) as an endogenous ligand of the human AHR that is constitutively generated by human tumour cells via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), a liver- and neuron-derived Trp-degrading enzyme not yet implicated in cancer biology.

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Sep
2011

3,4-dimethoxycinnamonyl-anthranilic acid (tranilast) is an orally available anti-allergic drug with structural and functional homologies to immunosuppressive catabolites of the essential amino acid tryptophan and broad anti-inflammatory properties. It has recently been shown to be effective in animal models of multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, two autoimmune diseases that are mediated by auto-aggressive Th1-polarized CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here we demonstrate potent suppressive effects of tranilast on the function of naïve human CD4+ T cells.

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Dec
1969

1-methyl-D-tryptophan (1-D-MT) is currently being used in clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors with the aim of inhibiting indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-mediated tumor immune escape. IDO is expressed in tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes and degrades tryptophan (trp) to create an immunsuppressive micromilieu both by depleting trp and by accumulating immunosuppressive metabolites of the kynurenine (kyn) pathway. Here we show that proliferation of alloreactive T-cells cocultured with IDO1-positive human cancer cells paradoxically was inhibited by 1-D-MT.

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May
2010

Due to their immunosuppressive properties, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a promising tool for cell-based therapies of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Mouse MSC (mMSC) have been used extensively to characterize and optimize route of administration, motility, cellular targets, and immunosuppressive mechanisms in mouse models of autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Tryptophan (trp) catabolism by indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a chief endogenous metabolic pathway that tightly regulates unwanted immune responses through depletion of trp and generation of immunosuppressive kynurenines (kyn).

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Apr
2009

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) display unique suppressive properties on T-cell immunity, thus representing an attractive vehicle for the treatment of conditions associated with harmful T-cell responses such as organ-specific autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are primarily expressed on antigen-presenting cells and recognize conserved pathogen-derived components. Ligation of TLR activates multiple innate and adaptive immune response pathways to eliminate and protect against invading pathogens.

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Oct
2007

Recent studies have highlighted the importance of paracrine growth factors as mediators of pro-angiogenic effects by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but little is known about the release of lipid-based factors like endocannabinoids by EPCs. In the current study, the release of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol by distinct human EPC sub-types was measured using HPLC/tandem mass-spectrometry. Anandamide release was highest by adult blood colony-forming EPCs at baseline and they also demonstrated increased 2-arachidonoylglycerol release with TNF-alpha stimulation.

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Mar
2007

Due to its immunosuppressive properties, the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has become a promising target in the experimental treatment of human malignant gliomas. Here, we report that the antifibrotic drug 5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-(1H)-pyridone (pirfenidone, PFD) elicits growth-inhibitory effects and reduces TGF-beta2 protein levels in human glioma cell lines. This reduction in TGF-beta2 is biologically relevant since PFD treatment reduces the growth inhibition of TGF-beta-sensitive CCL-64 cells mediated by conditioned media of glioma cells.

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Dec
1969

Many sarcomeric proteins in the myocardium alter their isoform pattern during perinatal development to adjust to the intensified pump function of the postnatal heart. These changes also involve the giant protein titin/connectin. Here we show by low-percentage polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis that developmentally regulated switching of cardiac titin/connectin size occurs in the hearts of mouse, rat, pig, and chicken.

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Nov
2005

The active and passive contractile performance of skeletal muscle fibers largely depends on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform and the stiffness of the titin spring, respectively. Open questions concern the relationship between titin-based stiffness and active contractile parameters, and titin's importance for total passive muscle stiffness. Here, a large set of adult rabbit muscles (n = 37) was studied for titin size diversity, passive mechanical properties, and possible correlations with the fiber/MHC composition.

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Apr
2004

Before birth, the compliance of the heart is limited predominantly by extracardiac constraint. Reduction of this constraint at birth requires that myocardial compliance be determined mainly by the heart's own constituents. Because titin is a principal contributor to ventricular passive tension (PT), we studied the expression and mechanics of cardiac-titin isoforms during perinatal rat heart development.

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Dec
1969

The giant muscle protein titin has become a focus of research interests in the field of muscle mechanics due to its importance for passive muscle stiffness. Here we summarize research activities leading to current understanding of titin's mechanical role in the sarcomere. We then show how low-porosity polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, optimised for resolving megadalton proteins, can identify differences in titin-isoform expression in the hearts of 10 different vertebrate species and in several skeletal muscles of the rabbit.

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Oct
2003

The giant protein titin functions as a molecular spring in muscle and is responsible for most of the passive tension of myocardium. Because the titin spring is extended during diastolic stretch, it will recoil elastically during systole and potentially may influence the overall shortening behavior of cardiac muscle. Here, titin elastic recoil was quantified in single human heart myofibrils by using a high-speed charge-coupled device-line camera and a nanonewtonrange force sensor.

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