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Author: Christiane Montag (15)


Jun
2018

To examine the impact of coercive interventions (CI) on patients' evaluations of psychiatric hospitals as adversaries versus allies.
Self-constructed interviews were conducted relating to quantitative and subjective aspects of coercion and the attitude towards psychiatry of 79 patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders. The Coercion Experience Scale (CES) and the Admission Experience Survey (AES) were used to establish the subjective impact of CI.

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Sep
2017

Metacognition, the capacity 'to think about thinking' and thus to reflect and to master interpersonal problems on a mentalistic basis, is often impaired among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and has been suggested as a potential treatment target. However, little is known about the reliability of its measurement and links with related phenomena. The aim of this study was to validate a German translation of the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS-A) as a measure to assess metacognition from free narratives of patients' personally relevant episodes and relationships.

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Sep
2017

This study explores patients' preferences and measures of prevention of coercive methods in psychiatric treatment.Structured interviews of 90 patients with psychotic disorders were undertaken, most of whom had previously experienced coercive methods.Participants saw preventive potential in a wider availability of individual non-pharmacological therapy, improvement of staff professional competence and communication skills, high staff-to-patient ratios and retreat facilities.

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Aug
2016

Long-term cannabis use may confer cognitive deficits and increased risk of psychosis. However, the relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia is complex. In particular, little is known about the effects of chronic cannabis use on the attention-related electric brain response in schizophrenia.

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Dec
1969

This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning.

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Dec
2014

Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated.

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Dec
1969

The nonapeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in social cognition, empathy, emotion and stress regulation in humans. Previous studies reported associations between OXT and OXTR genetic polymorphisms and risk for disorders characterized by impaired socio-emotional functioning, such as schizophrenia and autism. Here we investigate the influence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the OXTR gene on a measure of socio-emotional functioning in schizophrenic patients.

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Jun
2012

Dysfunctional activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is one of the core features in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Neuroimaging studies indicate orbitofrontal hyperactivation during the resting state as well as during symptom provocation, whereas orbitofrontal hypoactivation has been reported during tasks designed to dissociate specific cognitive processes. Combined magnetoencephalic and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies show early involvement of the OFC in stimulus processing in healthy subjects.

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Sep
2013

Dysfunctions of the "social brain" belong to the core features of schizophrenia. The neurohormone oxytocin (OXT), mediated through its specific receptor (OXTR), is involved in the regulation of social behaviour and social cognition. Previous research has suggested a role of OXT system genes in disorders of social reciprocity.

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Apr
2012

Alterations of theory of mind (ToM) and empathy were implicated in the formation of psychotic experiences, and deficits in psychosocial functioning of schizophrenia patients. Inspired by concepts of neurocognitive endophenotypes, the existence of a distinct, potentially neurobiologically based social-cognitive vulnerability marker for schizophrenia is a matter of ongoing debate. The fact that previous research on social-cognitive deficits in individuals at risk yielded contradictory results may partly be due to an insufficient differentiation between qualitative aspects of ToM.

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Apr
2011

In schizophrenia, impairments of theory of mind (ToM) may be due to excessive ('overmentalizing') or defective ('undermentalizing') attribution of mental states. However, most ToM tests differentiate neither between 'overmentalizing' and 'undermentalizing' nor between cognitive and affective ToM in schizophrenia. This study aimed at differentiating these aspects of ToM in 80 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and 80 matched healthy controls using the 'Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition' (MASC).

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Jun
2010

Deficits in social cognition, e.g. theory of mind (ToM) represent core characteristics involved in the etiology of psychopathological symptoms and an important predictor of social competence.

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Dec
1969

Dysfunctions in theory of mind and empathic abilities have been suggested as core symptoms in major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Since self monitoring, perspective taking and empathy have been linked to prefrontal (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function, neurotransmitter variations in these areas may account for normal and pathological variations of these functions. Converging evidence indicates an essential role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in psychiatric diseases with pronounced deficits in empathy.

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May
2005

The impact of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) on anxiety-related behavior and related cerebral activation has facilitated the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety. However, the influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype on hippocampal neuronal development and neurochemistry, which is relevant to anxiety behavior, has not been investigated. In 38 healthy subjects, absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were measured as a main surrogate parameter for hippocampal neurochemistry on a 3-T scanner.

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