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Author: Christoph Beglinger (152)


Dec
1969

Sleeve gastrectomy is increasingly used in the treatment of morbid obesity, but its long-term outcome vs the standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure is unknown.
To determine whether there are differences between sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in terms of weight loss, changes in comorbidities, increase in quality of life, and adverse events.
The Swiss Multicenter Bypass or Sleeve Study (SM-BOSS), a 2-group randomized trial, was conducted from January 2007 until November 2011 (last follow-up in March 2017).

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Oct
2017

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain.

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Aug
2017

Morbidly obese patients exhibit impaired secretion of gut hormones that may contribute to the development of obesity. After bariatric surgery there is a dramatic increase in gut hormone release. In this study, gastric and duodenal tissues were endoscopically collected from lean, and morbidly obese subjects before and 3 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

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Sep
2017

The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety.

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Dec
1969

Extracellular vesicle (EV) production is a universal feature of metazoan cells as well as prokaryotes (bMVs - bacterial microvesicles). They are small vesicles with phospholipid membrane carrying proteins, DNA and different classes of RNAs and are heavily involved in intercellular communication acting as vectors of information to target cells. For the last decade, the interest in EV research has exponentially increased though thorough studies of their roles in various pathologies that was not previously possible due to technical limitations.

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Dec
1969

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is performed almost as often in Europe as laparoscopic Roux-Y-Gastric Bypass (LRYGB). We present the 3-year interim results of the 5-year prospective, randomized trial comparing the 2 procedures (Swiss Multicentre Bypass Or Sleeve Study; SM-BOSS).
Initially, 217 patients (LSG, n = 107; LRYGB, n = 110) were randomized to receive either LSG or LRYGB at 4 bariatric centers in Switzerland.

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Dec
1969

The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients. Their physiological roles as classical endocrine and as locally acting signals are discussed.

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Dec
1969

The effects of altered gastric emptying on glucose absorption and kinetics are not well understood in nondiabetic obese adults. The aim of this work was to develop a physiology-based model that can characterize and compare interactions among gastric emptying, glucose absorption, and glycemic control in nondiabetic obese and lean healthy adults. Dynamic glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying (measured with breath test) data from 12 nondiabetic obese and 12 lean healthy adults were available until 180 min after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 10, 25, and 75 g of glucose.

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Dec
1969

Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated in relation to peptide release.

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Aug
2016

After laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), many patients suffer from dumping syndrome. Oral glucose tolerance tests are usually carried out with 50-75 g of glucose. The aim of this study was to examine whether minimal glucose loads of 10 g and 25 g induce a reliable secretion of satiation peptides without dumping symptoms after LRYGB.

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Oct
2016

Depending on their protein content, single meals can rapidly influence the uptake of amino acids into the brain and thereby modify brain functions. The current study investigates the effects of two different amino acids on the human gut-brain system, using a multimodal approach, integrating physiological and neuroimaging data. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, L-tryptophan, L-leucine, glucose and water were administered directly into the gut of 20 healthy subjects.

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Dec
1969

Taste perception is one of the most important primary oral reinforcers, driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible.
In the present pilot study, we determined the effects of five taste qualities "bitter" (quinine), "sweet" (glucose), "sour" (citric acid), "salty" (NaCl) and "umami" (monosodium glutamate, MSG) on working memory processing using functional MRI and their effect on plasma insulin and glucose levels.

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Sep
2016

A blood test for early detection of colorectal cancer is a valuable tool for testing asymptomatic individuals and reducing colorectal cancer-related mortality. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a novel blood test able to differentiate patients with colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps (AP) from individuals with a negative colonoscopy.
A case-control, multicenter clinical study was designed to collect blood samples from patients referred for colonoscopy or surgery.

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Jun
2016

With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies.

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Dec
1969

The changes in blood glucose concentrations that result from an oral glucose challenge are dependent on the rate of gastric emptying, the rate of glucose absorption and the rate of insulin-driven metabolism that include the incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The rate of insulin-driven metabolism is clearly altered in obese subjects, but it is controversial which of these factors is predominant. We aimed to quantify gastric emptying, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and glucose responses, as well as incretin hormone secretions in obese subjects and healthy controls during increasing glucose loads.

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Mar
2016

The recommended minimum withdrawal time for screening colonoscopy is 6 minutes. Adenoma detection rates (ADRs) increase with longer withdrawal times. We aimed to compare withdrawal times and ADRs of endoscopists unaware of being monitored vs.

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Dec
1969

Sleep disturbance is associated with the development of obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis in murine models. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation oscillates in a circadian rhythm regulated by clock genes, light-dark cycle and feeding time in mice. The role of the sleep-wake cycle in the pathogenesis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is indeterminate.

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Dec
2015

Gastric emptying (GE) is delayed in a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have shown before that altered release of gastrointestinal hormones may contribute to GE disturbances, but overall effects of disease activity remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate GE in patients with IBD during active disease and following therapy.

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Dec
1969

Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.

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Nov
2015

This study aimed to characterise lean and obese phenotypes according to diet and body composition, and to compare fasting and postprandial appetite and metabolic profiles following a high-fat test meal. A total of ten lean (BMI40 and 30 kg/m2) high-fat consumers (OHF; >40 % energy from fat) were recruited. Before and following the test meal (4727 kJ (1130 kcal), 77 % fat, 20 % carbohydrate (CHO) and 3 % protein), fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), RER, RMR and subjective appetite ratings (AR) were measured for 6 h.

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Dec
1969

The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem.

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Dec
1969

Previous research has revealed that glucose and fructose ingestion differentially modulate release of satiation hormones. Recent studies have begun to elucidate brain-gut interactions with neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the neural mechanism underlying different behavioral and physiological effects of glucose and fructose are unclear. In this paper, we have used resting state functional MRI to explore whether acute glucose and fructose ingestion also induced dissociable effects in the neural system.

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Jan
2015

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are characterized by periods of symptomatic relapse and remission. Diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease has so far been based on clinical evaluation, serum parameters, radiology and endoscopy. Faecal markers such as calprotectin or lactoferrin have emerged as new diagnostic tools to detect and monitor intestinal inflammation.

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Feb
2015

Non-invasive monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease is an unmet clinical need as patients in clinical remission may have residual mucosal inflammation preceding clinical relapse.
We aimed to assess the value of fecal calprotectin and standardized clinical activity scoring to monitor disease activity in ulcerative colitis under medical treatment.
Forty-one patients with ulcerative colitis were included in a prospective observational study.

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Feb
2015

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic-inflammatory immune-mediated disease of the esophagus. The most common symptoms of eosinophilic esophagitis are dysphagia for solids and bolus obstruction. Approximately half of the patients complain about spontaneously occurring chest pain.

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Oct
2014

IBD: Faecal calprotectin testing--the need for better standardization.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Oct 9;11(10):583-4. Epub 2014 Sep 9.
Emanuel Burri, Christoph Beglinger
Measurement of faecal calprotectin concentration is increasingly used to assess disease activity in patients with IBD. Lasson et al. have now demonstrated that calprotectin concentrations in faeces of patients with mild or moderate left-sided or extensive ulcerative colitis vary considerably and have questioned the long-term stability of calprotectin when stored at room temperature.

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Dec
1969

The structured IBD Ahead 'Optimised Monitoring' programme was designed to obtain the opinion, insight and advice of gastroenterologists on optimising the monitoring of Crohn's disease activity in four settings: (1) assessment at diagnosis, (2) monitoring in symptomatic patients, (3) monitoring in asymptomatic patients, and (4) the postoperative follow-up. For each of these settings, four monitoring methods were discussed: (a) symptom assessment, (b) endoscopy, (c) laboratory markers, and (d) imaging. Based on literature search and expert opinion compiled during an international consensus meeting, recommendations were given to answer the question 'which diagnostic method, when, and how often'.

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Aug
2014

Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits eating in healthy, overweight, and diabetic subjects.
The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39)NH2 (ex9-39) was used to further explore the role of GLP-1 as an endogenous satiation signal.
Two double-blind, 4-way crossover studies were performed, each of which included 10 healthy men.

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Sep
2014

The role of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones in the pathophysiology of obesity is unclear, although they are involved in the regulation of satiation and glucose metabolism. To (i) examine glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, ghrelin, and glucagon responses to a meal in obese adolescents and to (ii) test which GI peptides are associated with insulin resistance are presented.
A total of 16 obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 97th percentile for age and gender) and 14 control (BMI between 25th and 75th percentiles) adolescents were included.

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Nov
2014

Among patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) in whom a first rescue therapy has failed, a second line salvage treatment can be considered to avoid colectomy.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of second or third line rescue therapy over a one-year period.
Response to single or sequential rescue treatments with infliximab (5mg/kg intravenously (iv) at week 0, 2, 6 and then every 8weeks), ciclosporin (iv 2mg/kg/daily and then oral 5mg/kg/daily) or tacrolimus (0.

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Nov
2014

Anemia is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hepcidin, a key mediator in this anemia, is up-regulated by high iron levels and inflammation, and serum levels are elevated in IBD. However, the extent of inflammatory activity and iron deficiency for the regulation of hepcidin is not known.

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May
2014

To determine calprotectin release before and after colorectal cancer operation and compare it to tumor and histopathological parameters.
The study was performed on patients with diagnosed colorectal cancer admitted for operation. Calprotectin was measured in a single stool sample before and three months after the operation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

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Mar
2014

European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (EPAGE) criteria have been developed to increase diagnostic yield, but their predictive value is limited. We investigated the incremental diagnostic value of faecal calprotectin to EPAGE criteria.
In a post-hoc analysis of a prospective study, EPAGE criteria were applied to 298 of 575 (51.

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Oct
2014

It has been proposed that green tea extract may have a beneficial impact on cognitive functioning, suggesting promising clinical implications. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this putative cognitive enhancing effect of green tea extract still remain unknown.
This study investigates whether the intake of green tea extract modulates effective brain connectivity during working memory processing and whether connectivity parameters are related to task performance.

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Apr
2014

The gastrointestinal tract plays a key role in feelings of satiation. It is known that there is a reciprocal interaction between the stomach and intestine, but it is not known which factors are of gastric origin and which are intestinal. This three-step study therefore sought to provide illumination on satiation parameters with respect to body mass.

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Dec
1969

The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are gastrointestinal peptide hormones regulating postprandial insulin release from pancreatic β-cells. GLP-1 agonism is a treatment strategy in Type 2 diabetes and is evaluated in Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of incretins in its pathophysiology is insufficiently understood.

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Feb
2014

The use of fecal calprotectin as a biomarker in gastrointestinal disease.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Feb 18;8(2):197-210. Epub 2013 Dec 18.
Emanuel Burri, Christoph Beglinger
Abdominal discomfort including pain, bloating and diarrhea is common. It often arises from functional gastrointestinal disorders but may indicate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Calprotectin is an abundant neutrophil protein that is released during inflammation.

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Aug
2013

[Inflammatory bowel disease].

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2013 Aug;102(17):1046-52
Nicola Patuto, Christoph Beglinger
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) show an increase of prevalence in Switzerland. Industrialization and urbanisation correlate with an increase of incidence. IBD are the result of a continuum of interactions between genetic factors, the intestinal microbial flora, the immune system as well as environmental factors.

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Dec
2013

Increased delivery of bile acid salts (BA) to distal L-cells and altered TGR5 receptor activation may contribute to the early and substantial increases in gut peptide secretion seen after bariatric surgery. To further elucidate a potential role of BA in the secretion of GLP-1 and PYY, we analyzed plasma BA concentrations in 14 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy in a prospective, randomized 1-year trial.
Patients received a standard test meal and blood was collected before and after eating, prior to, and 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after surgery.

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Apr
2013

To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count > 250/μL ascites.
In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain.

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Feb
2013

The correlation between noninvasive markers with endoscopic activity according to the modified Baron Index in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between endoscopic activity and fecal calprotectin (FC), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin, platelets, blood leukocytes, and the Lichtiger Index (clinical score).
UC patients undergoing complete colonoscopy were prospectively enrolled and scored clinically and endoscopically.

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Feb
2013

Fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin are sensitive markers of mucosal inflammation. We compared three different assays in their ability to identify patients with organic intestinal disease.
In a post-hoc analysis of a prospective study, we examined 405 unselected patients with abdominal complaints referred for endoscopy to the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland.

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Dec
1969

The monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) based on clinical symptoms and activity scores alone has major drawbacks. Despite clinical remission, in many patients with ongoing low-grade inflammation and activity scores, there is a tendency to underestimate IBD activity as parameters depend on the subjective symptoms of the patients. C-reactive protein might identify patients with low-grade inflammation, especially in Crohn's disease, but sensitivity remains limited.

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Oct
2012

To characterize the profiles of alveolar hypoventilation during colonoscopies performed under sedoanalgesia with a combination of alfentanil and either midazolam or propofol.
Consecutive patients undergoing routine colonoscopy were randomly assigned to sedation with either propofol or midazolam in an open-labeled design using a titration scheme. All patients received 4 μg/kg per body weight alfentanil for analgesia and 3 L of supplemental oxygen.

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Oct
2012

The effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on gastric acid secretion (GAS) is poorly defined in children.
To determine whether H.

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Oct
2012

The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of standardized video clips compared with still images in the diagnostic accuracy of remote sonographic interpretation.
We compared the remote interpretation of sonographic examinations acquired with a standardized video clip approach to examinations performed with still images alone in 60 patients with various hepatic and extrahepatic pathologies.
The use of video clips improved the diagnostic accuracy of sonographic studies interpreted remotely compared with the use of still images (p < 0.

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Oct
2012

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, dose-escalating, single-center study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of multiple once-daily (qd) subcutaneous (sc) doses of pasireotide in healthy male subjects. Subjects received pasireotide 50, 200, or 600 μg sc qd for 14 days and placebo in separate sequences. Thirty-three subjects were randomized.

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