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Author: Christoph Richter (47)


Jan
2018

Lithium augmentation (LA) of antidepressants is a first-line therapy in treatment-resistant depression. Immunomodulatory effects of lithium have been described. The cytokine hypothesis of depression postulates that cytokines play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression.

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Sep
2017

Lithium augmentation of antidepressants is an effective strategy in treatment-resistant depression. The proteohormone ghrelin is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of treatment response with the course of ghrelin levels during lithium augmentation.

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Oct
2016

Biological and technical systems operate in a rich multimodal environment. Due to the diversity of incoming sensory streams a system perceives and the variety of motor capabilities a system exhibits there is no single representation and no singular unambiguous interpretation of such a complex scene. In this work we propose a novel sensory processing architecture, inspired by the distributed macro-architecture of the mammalian cortex.

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Sep
2016

Meta-analytical data show lithium augmentation (LA) as an effective treatment strategy in major depression. Weight-gain is a common side effect of LA. The proteohormone leptin is discussed to be involved in the pathophysiology of weight gain induced by psychopharmacological treatment.

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Apr
2016

Charge transfer dynamics in fully operational dye sensitised solar cells consisting of an electrolyte or organic spiroOMeTAD in contact with a highly porous electrodeposited ZnO film sensitised with a monolayer of the indoline dye DN216 were observed using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. From the temporal evolution of spectral signatures assigned with the help of spectroelectrochemical experiments to the population and depopulation of initial, transient and final states, a model was completed for the multistep injection of photoexcited electrons from the molecular absorber to the ZnO acceptor. Injection was found to occur via three different paths with three characteristic rates: directly from the dye's lowest unoccupied molecular orbital into the ZnO conduction band (200 fs) and via intermediate molecular dominated and surface dominated hybrid states (2 ps and 10 ps, respectively).

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Feb
2016

The present study aimed to assess (1) the amount of inpatient and day clinic DBT treatment places for patients with borderline personality disorder and (2) the relationship between supply and demand in a given study region. Survey of inpatient and day clinic facilities in the German DBT network. 42 inpatient units and day clinics responded, representing 75 % of the DBT network members contacted.

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Jul
2015

The superconductor at the LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface provides a model system for the study of two-dimensional superconductivity in the dilute carrier density limit. Here we experimentally address the pairing mechanism in this superconductor. We extract the electron-phonon spectral function from tunneling spectra and conclude, without ruling out contributions of further pairing channels, that electron-phonon mediated pairing is strong enough to account for the superconducting critical temperatures.

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Jan
2016

The aim of this study was to identify if psychological distress may contribute to treatment outcome in alcohol-addicted patients during a follow-up period of 5 months after detoxification.
As part of a prospective, multicenter, randomized study in relapse prevention, patients' levels of psychological distress were assessed using the Symptome Checklist (SCL-90-R). At study inclusion, all patients were detoxified and showed no more withdrawal symptoms.

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Apr
2015

Dye-sensitized solar cells based on a mesoporous ZnO substrate were sensitized with the indoline derivatives DN91, DN216 and DN285. The chromophore is the same for each of these dyes. They differ from each other in the length of an alkyl chain, which provides a second anchor to the ZnO surface and prolongs cell lifetime.

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Jan
2015

Porous ZnO/EosinY films have been electrochemically deposited by oxygen reduction in the presence of a zinc salt from EosinY-containing aqueous solutions, with either chloride or perchlorate as the counter anion. EosinY was removed and the films were sensitised by D149. These electrodes were used for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs), and charge transport in the porous network was studied by intensity modulated current/voltage spectroscopy (IMVS/IMPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under illumination.

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May
2014

New cantilever probes for combined scanning electrochemical microscopy-atomic force microscopy (SECM-AFM) have been batch-fabricated, and their application to high resolution electrochemical-topographical imaging has been demonstrated. The conical probes yield outstanding quality Faradaic current maps alongside subnm level topographical information as exemplified by the electrochemical imaging of exfoliated graphene and graphite samples. Current mapping reveals significant heterogeneities in the electroactivity of these carbon surfaces that do not directly correlate to topographical features, suggesting the presence of adsorbed chemical contaminants or intrinsic impurities.

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Dec
2013

In recent years, lithium has proved an effective augmentation strategy of antidepressants in both acute and treatment-resistant depression. Neuroprotective and procognitive effects of lithium have been evidenced. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a key role in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric disorders.

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Dec
2013

The ability to control materials properties through interface engineering is demonstrated by the appearance of conductivity at the interface of certain insulators, most famously the {001} interface of the band insulators LaAlO3 and TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 (STO; refs 1, 2). Transport and other measurements in this system show a plethora of diverse physical phenomena. To better understand the interface conductivity, we used scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy to image the magnetic field locally generated by current in an interface.

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Apr
2014

Investigation of the clinical effectiveness of dialectical behavioral therapy in a day clinic setting (DBT-DC) for borderline personality disorders (BPD), and impact of medication and daily costs.
In a prospective, naturalistic, open and uncontrolled design BPD patients were enclosed in a 12-week DBT-DC. This DBT-program was certified by the German network of DBT.

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Jan
2013

We investigate the ultrafast dynamics of the photoinduced electron transfer between surface-adsorbed indoline D149 dye and porous ZnO as used in the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. Transient absorption spectroscopy was conducted on the dye in solution, on solid state samples and for the latter in contact to a I(-)/I(3)(-) redox electrolyte typical for dye-sensitized solar cells to elucidate the effect of each component in the observed dynamics. D149 in a solution of 1:1 acetonitrile and tert-butyl alcohol shows excited-state lifetimes of 300±50 ps.

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Aug
2012

Antiepileptics have been shown to reduce alcohol intake or to prevent relapse in patients with alcoholism.
To investigate if the new antiepileptic levetiracetam (LEV) prevents relapse after detoxification compared with placebo in patients with alcohol dependence.
Two hundred one patients were included in the prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial.

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Aug
2012

The objective of this study was to collect preliminary data on the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in attenuating the severity of alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification treatment in alcohol dependence.
Forty-two alcohol-dependent patients with an alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) were included in the prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial during inpatient alcohol detoxification. For 6 days, participants either received pregabalin or placebo according to a fixed dose schedule starting with 300 mg/day.

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Dec
2010

Treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) with benzodiazepines is limited by risk of abuse, intoxication, respiratory problems, and liver toxicity. Alternatives such as carbamazepine and valproate may also have safety problems, such as hepatotoxicity or central nervous adverse effects. We therefore investigated the safety and efficacy of levetiracetam (LV), a newer antiepileptic with a potentially favorable adverse-effect profile, for the treatment of AWS.

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Apr
2009

Relaxin is upregulated and plays a compensatory role in human heart failure. We therefore determined the safety of and dose response to human relaxin in stable patients with heart failure. Sixteen patients were treated with open-label intravenous relaxin in three sequential dose cohorts and monitored hemodynamically during the 24-h infusion and postinfusion periods.

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Apr
2009

Relaxin is upregulated in human heart failure (HF). Animal and clinical data suggest beneficial hemodynamic and renal effects from vasodilation. We determined safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamic effects of human Relaxin in stable HF.

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Oct
2009

gamma-Hydroxybutyrat (GHB) is used medically for narcolepsy and as a narcotic. It is also a rare illegal drug. In this case report the development of a GHB-dependency against the background of a primary alcohol dependency is described.

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Nov
2008

Cardiac resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is an effective therapy for chronic heart failure with beneficial hemodynamic effects leading to a reduction of morbidity and mortality. The responder rates, however, are low. There are various and contentious echocardiographic parameters of myocardial asynchrony.

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Aug
2008

Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogen, is upregulated in pulmonary tissue during endotoxemia and contributes markedly to endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension. It is, however, unknown whether the ET receptors, ET(A) and ET(B), are differentially regulated in endotoxemic pulmonary vasculature and how this may impact on pulmonary vascular tone. To investigate this topic, we used isolated perfused lungs, pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs), and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the rat.

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Nov
2007

Doped EuO is an attractive material for the fabrication of proof-of-concept spintronic devices. Yet for decades its use has been hindered by its instability in air and the difficulty of preparing and patterning high-quality thin films. Here, we establish EuO as the pre-eminent material for the direct integration of a carrier-concentration-matched half-metal with the long-spin-lifetime semiconductors silicon and GaN, using methods that transcend these difficulties.

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Sep
2007

CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (CD25(+) Treg cells) direct the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance by active suppression of autoaggressive T-cell populations. However, the molecules mediating the anergic state and regulatory function of CD25(+) Treg cells are still elusive. Using differential proteomics, we identified galectin-10, a member of the lectin family, as constitutively expressed in human CD25(+) Treg cells, while they are nearly absent in resting and activated CD4(+) T cells.

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Apr
2007

The vasodilator adrenomedullin (AM) is up-regulated in pulmonary hypertension, and inhaled AM is beneficial in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AM on pulmonary endothelin-1 (ET-1). In normoxic isolated rat lungs (IRL) and rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (RPAEC), the calcitonin gene-related peptide type-1 receptor (CGRP1R) antagonist human (h)CGRP(8-37) decreased ET-1 secretion, and the AM receptor antagonist hAM(22-52) had no effect.

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Oct
2006

This was a retrospective study to examine the efficacy, practicability and medical safety of a combination of tiapride and unretarded (fast acting formula) carbamazepine in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. In five hospitals using this combination for treatment of alcohol withdrawal, 540 patients who had been treated with this combination were identified. An intensive evaluation of patients files and charts was performed.

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Feb
2007

Mast cells are able to produce a huge panel of mediators including the Th2-type cytokine IL-9, which is considered to be a key mediator for the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, but detailed information on the regulation of IL-9 transcription in mast cells has been scarce. Herein we provide evidence that the erythroid/myeloid transcription factor GATA-1, which is not expressed in Th2 cells, is a potent activator of IL-9 expression in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Furthermore, in mast cells, but not in Th2 cells, production of IL-9 is sensitive to inhibition of p38 MAP kinase.

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Aug
2004

Data on thrombolytic therapy disclose benefits from thrombolytic therapy in patients with massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Previously published case reports have described the successful use of tenecteplase under these conditions.
Four patients with massive and submassive PE received a weight-optimized dosing regimen of tenecteplase, administered as an intravenous bolus.

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Aug
2004

Peripheral arterial occlusions are associated with high morbidity. Thrombolysis has become established as effective treatment in clinical practice. Tenecteplase is a new thrombolytic agent that offers advantages over existing drugs with respect to mechanism of action and adverse effects.

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Jan
2005

The phenotype of NFATc2(-/-) c3(-/-) (double knockout [DKO]) mice implies a disturbed regulation of T cell responses, evidenced by massive lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoaggressive phenomena. The population of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from DKO mice lacks regulatory capacity, except a small subpopulation that highly expresses glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene (GITR) and CD25. However, neither wild-type nor DKO CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are able to suppress proliferation of DKO CD4(+) CD25(-) T helper cells.

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Oct
2004

When rat liver mitochondria are allowed to cycle Ca(2+) and are incubated in the presence of the pro-oxidant menadione, they undergo swelling, membrane potential (DeltaPsi) collapse, and ion release. These effects, which are inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA), are fully consistent with the opening of the so-called permeability transition pore. However, when Ca(2+) cycling is abolished by EGTA, the mitochondria remain energized (DeltaPsi collapse and swelling are avoided), but Ca(2+) efflux, promoted by the chelating agent, is stimulated by menadione.

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Aug
2004

In previous studies (the RITZ project), tezosentan, an intravenous (i.v.)-balanced dual endothelin (ET-A/B) antagonist, in doses of 50 and 100 mg/h, improved the hemodynamics but not the clinical outcome of patients with acute heart failure (AHF).

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Jul
2004

CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells play a central role regarding the maintenance of peripheral tolerance via suppression of autoaggressive CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and Th1 cells. In this study we demonstrate that CD25+ Treg cells can also suppress the differentiation of murine conventional CD4+ T cells toward Th2 cells in a contact-dependent manner. However, the cytokine production and proliferation of established Th2 cells could not be inhibited by freshly isolated CD25+ Treg cells, whereas a strong inhibition of differentiated Th2 cells by in vitro preactivated CD25+ Treg cells could be observed.

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May
2004

Down-regulation of autoreactive T cell responses in vivo includes cell-contact-dependent as well as contact-independent mechanisms. Infectious tolerance is a contact-dependent mechanism used by naturally occurring CD25(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) to confer suppressive activity upon conventional CD4(+) T cells thereby generating secondary T helper suppressor cells(Th(sup)), which inhibit T cell activation via soluble mediators. Here, we describe two distinct subsets of human Tregs, characterized by expression of either the alpha(4)beta(7) integrin or the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin.

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Nov
2003

Streptolysin O (SLO), a major virulence factor of pyogenic streptococci, binds to cholesterol in the membranes of eukaryotic cells and oligomerizes to form large transmembrane pores. While high toxin doses are rapidly cytocidal, low doses are tolerated because a limited number of lesions can be resealed. Here, we report that at sublethal doses, SLO activates primary murine bone marrow-derived mast cells to degranulate and to rapidly induce or enhance the production of several cytokine mRNAs, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha).

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Mar
2003

Singlet-oxygen generation was measured in solutions containing equilibrium mixtures of the retinal lipofuscins, 2-[2, 6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)- 1E,3E,5E,7Eoctatetraenyl]-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-[4-methyl-6(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium (A2E) and double bond isomer of A2E (iso-A2E), using steady-state irradiation and using cholesterol as a singlet-oxygen trap. The amount of singlet oxygen generated by equilibrium mixtures of A2E and iso-A2E was compared with that generated by tetraphenylporphine (TPP) under the same conditions. Studies were carried out in ethanol-d6, acetone-d6, 80% cyclohexane-d(12)-20% acetone-d6 (vol/vol) and hexafluorobenzene.

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Jan
2003

We have recently demonstrated that relaxin (RLX) acts as compensatory mediator in human heart failure. RLX inhibits the stimulation of endothelin-1, the most potent vasoconstrictor in heart failure. Upregulation of the endothelin type-B receptor (ET(B)), which mediates endothelin-1 clearance and endothelial release of NO, represents a pivotal mode of RLX action.

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Dec
2002

The peptide urotensin-II (U-II) has been described as most potent vasoconstrictor identified so far, but plasma values in humans and its role in cardiovascular pathophysiology are unknown. We investigated circulating urotensin-II and its potential role in human congestive heart failure (CHF). We enrolled control individuals (n=13; cardiac index [CI], 3.

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Oct
2002

Recently, we demonstrated that the control of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox balance and oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) through to supply NADPH for antioxidant systems. NO donors such as S-nitrosothiols, diethylamine NONOate, spermine NONOate, and 3-morpholinosydnomine N-ethylcarbamide (SIN-1)/superoxide dismutase inactivated ICDH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The inhibition of ICDH by S-nitrosothiol was partially reversed by thiol, such as dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol.

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Jul
2002

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects about one fifth of the population older than 65 years and is one of the main causes of poor vision in the elderly in industrialized nations. The endogenous lipophilic and cationic compound N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) is suspected to cause the dry form of the disease, which currently cannot be treated. The authors recently reported that A2E induces apoptosis in several cell types including porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells, detaches pro-apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, and inhibits cytochrome c oxidase.

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Jul
2002

The photoreceptors in the retina, designed to initiate the cascade of events which link the incoming light to the sensation of 'vision', are susceptible to damage by light, particularly blue light. The damage can lead to cell death and diseases. The turnover of retinal, an essential element of the visual process, is the basis of the events that lead to damage.

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Apr
2002

Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous product of tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We have previously reported that IDO is present in mammalian lenses, and xanthurenic acid is accumulated in the lenses with aging. Here, we studied the involvement of xanthurenic acid in the human lens epithelial cell physiology.

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Apr
2002

Friedreich ataxia is an inherited disorder caused by decreased expression of frataxin protein. Increasing evidence suggests that this protein might detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of human frataxin increases cellular antioxidant defense via activation of glutathione peroxidase and elevation of reduced thiols, thereby reducing the incidence of malignant transformation induced by ROS, as observed by soft agar assays and tumour formation in nude mice.

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