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Author: Christophe Prehaud (19)


Dec
1969

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease and infections generally lead to a fatal encephalomyelitis in both humans and animals. In South Africa, domestic (dogs) and the wildlife (yellow mongoose) host species maintain the canid and mongoose rabies variants respectively. In this study, pathogenicity differences of South African canid and mongoose rabies viruses were investigated in a murine model, by assessing the progression of clinical signs and survivorship.

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Dec
1969

In the field of live viral vaccines production, there is an unmet need for in vitro tests complying a 3R approach (Refine, Replace and Reduce the use of animal experimentation) to replace the post-licensing safety tests currently assayed in animals. Here, we performed a pilot study evaluating whether virulence of rabies virus, RABV, can be forecast by an in vitro test of neurite outgrowth. The rationale to use neurite outgrowth as a read-out for this test is based on the salient property of the cytoplasmic domain of the G-protein (Cyto-G) of virulent RABV strains - not of attenuated RABV strains - to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro.

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Oct
2017

The biomedical applications of antibody engineering are developing rapidly and have been expanded to plant expression platforms. In this study, we have generated a novel antibody molecule in planta for targeted delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus for which there is no effective treatment after entry into the central nervous system.

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Dec
2012

PTEN phosphatase is a tumor suppressor controlling notably cell growth, proliferation and survival. The multisite phosphorylation of the PTEN C-terminal tail regulates PTEN activity and intracellular trafficking. The dynamical nature of such regulatory events represents a crucial dimension for timing cellular decisions.

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Aug
2012

PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and MAST2 (microtubule-associated serine and threonine kinase 2) interact with each other through the PDZ domain of MAST2 (MAST2-PDZ) and the carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) PDZ domain-binding site (PDZ-BS) of PTEN. These two proteins function as negative regulators of cell survival pathways, and silencing of either one promotes neuronal survival. In human neuroblastoma cells infected with rabies virus (RABV), the C-terminal PDZ domain of the viral glycoprotein (G protein) can target MAST2-PDZ, and RABV infection triggers neuronal survival in a PDZ-BS-dependent fashion.

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Oct
2011

PTPN4, a human tyrosine phosphatase, protects cells against apoptosis. This protection could be abrogated by targeting the PDZ domain of this phosphatase with a peptide mimicking the C-terminal sequence of the G protein of an attenuated rabies virus strain. Here, we demonstrate that glioblastoma death is triggered upon intracellular delivery of peptides, either from viral origin or from known endogenous ligands of PTPN4-PDZ, such as the C terminus sequence of the glutamate receptor subunit GluN2A.

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Jan
2010

The capacity of a rabies virus to promote neuronal survival (a signature of virulence) or death (a marker of attenuation) depends on the cellular partners recruited by the PDZ-binding site (PDZ-BS) of its envelope glycoprotein (G). Neuronal survival requires the selective association of the PDZ-BS of G with the PDZ domains of two closely related serine-threonine kinases, MAST1 and MAST2. Here, we found that a single amino acid change in the PDZ-BS triggered the apoptotic death of infected neurons and enabled G to interact with additional PDZ partners, in particular the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN4.

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Oct
2009

We wanted to develop a therapeutic approach against rabies disease by targeting the lyssavirus transcription/replication complex. Because this complex (nucleoprotein N-RNA template processed by the L polymerase and its cofactor, the phosphoprotein P) is similar to that of other negative-strand RNA viruses, we aimed to design broad-spectrum antiviral drugs that could be used as a complement to postexposure vaccination and immunotherapy. Recent progress in understanding the structure/function of the rabies virus P, N, and L proteins predicts that the amino-terminal end of P is an excellent target for destabilizing the replication complex because it interacts with both L (for positioning onto the N-RNA template) and N (for keeping N soluble, as needed for viral RNA encapsidation).

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Jun
2009

Most of microbes hijack the cellular machinery to their advantage by interacting with specific target of the host cell. Glycoprotein of rabies virus is a key factor controlling the homeostasis of infected neuronal cells and proteins belonging to the human microtubule associated serine threonine kinase family have been identified as potential cellular partners. As a first step towards its structural study, we have assigned the backbone and side chain nuclei resonances of the PDZ domain (PSD-95, Discs Large, ZO-1) of MAST205 in complex with the C-terminal residues of the glycoprotein of rabies virus.

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Feb
2009

Human neurons express the innate immune response receptor, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). TLR3 levels are increased in pathological conditions such as brain virus infection. Here, we further investigated the production, cellular localisation, and function of neuronal TLR3 during neuronotropic rabies virus (RABV) infection in human neuronal cells.

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Jun
2008

Rabies virus is the etiological agent of an acute encephalitis, which in absence of post exposure treatment is fatal in almost all cases. Virus lethality rests on its ability to evade the immune response. In this study, we analyzed the role of the immuno-inhibitory molecule B7-H1 in this virus strategy.

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Apr
2007

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G and E are nonclassical human MHC class I molecules. They may promote tolerance leading to virus and tumor immune escape. We recently described that the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic virus inducing chronic infection and neuron latency, and rabies virus (RABV), a neuronotropic virus triggering acute neuron infection, up-regulate HLA-G expression in human neurons (NT2-N).

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Dec
1969

Inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis, and during microbial infections of the nervous system. Glial cells were thought to be the main contributor for cytokine and chemokine production and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression in the brain. Here, we report that human neurons express TLR-3, a major receptor in virus-mediated innate immune response.

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Dec
2005

HLA-G is a nonclassical human major histocompatibility complex class I molecule. It may promote tolerance, leading to acceptance of the semiallogeneic fetus and tumor immune escape. We show here that two viruses-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neuronotropic virus inducing acute infection and neuron latency; and rabies virus (RABV), a neuronotropic virus triggering acute neuron infection-upregulate the neuronal expression of several HLA-G isoforms, including HLA-G1 and HLA-G5, the two main biologically active isoforms.

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Oct
2005

To study the capacity of human neurons to mount innate immunity responses to viral infections, we infected cells of a human postmitotic neuron-derivative cell line, NT2-N, with rabies virus (RABV) and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1). Changes in neuronal gene expression were analyzed by use of Affymetrix microarrays. Applying a twofold cutoff, RABV increased the transcription of 228 genes, and HSV-1 increased the transcription of 263 genes.

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Dec
2003

This study sought to identify the RV protein that causes apoptosis. For this purpose, we first compared the ability of G and N proteins of a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic strain to trigger apoptosis of Jurkat rtTA by using an inducible Tet-on expression system. Then we analyzed apoptosis induced by a reverse genetic-engineered recombinant rabies virus in which the G gene from a nonpathogenic strain was replaced by its pathogenic strain counterpart.

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Oct
2003

We showed that, unlike pathogenic rabies virus (RV) strain CVS, attenuated RV strain ERA triggers the caspase-dependent apoptosis of human cells. Furthermore, we observed that the induction of apoptosis is correlated with a particular virus antigen distribution: the overexpression of the viral G protein on the cell surface, with continuous localization on the cytoplasmic membrane, and large cytoplasmic inclusions of the N protein. To determine whether one of these two major RV proteins (G and N proteins) triggers apoptosis, we constructed transgenic Jurkat T-cell lines that drive tetracycline-inducible gene expression to produce the G and N proteins of ERA and CVS individually.

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May
2002

The full-length nucleoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV; 482 amino acid residues) was expressed as a His-tagged recombinant protein (His-CCHFV rNP) in the baculovirus system. The His-CCHFV rNP was efficiently expressed in insect cells and purified by Ni(2+) column chromatography. Using this substrate, an immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed.

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Feb
2002

A HeLa cell line continuously expressing recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP) of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was established by transfection with an expression vector containing the cDNA of CCHFV NP (pKS336-CCHFV-NP). These cells were used as antigens for indirect immunofluorescence (IF) to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies to CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of this IF technique were examined by using serum samples and were compared to those of the IF technique using CCHFV-infected Vero E6 cells (authentic antigen).

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