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Author: Christopher A Chaddock (15)


Dec
1969

Bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with altered regional brain function during the performance of cognitive tasks. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental risk factors for BPD to these changes has not yet been quantified. We sought to address this issue in a functional neuroimaging study of people who varied in their risk for BPD.

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Dec
1969

Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood.

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Dec
1969

Background. Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have both been associated with reduced microstructural white matter integrity using, as a proxy, fractional anisotropy (FA) detected using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Genetic susceptibility for both illnesses has also been positively correlated in recent genome-wide association studies with allele A (adenine) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 of the ZNF804A gene.

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Apr
2016

Animal models suggest that the development of psychosis involves hyperactivity in the hippocampus that drives increased activity in the midbrain and basal ganglia. The authors examined this hypothesis by measuring resting perfusion in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and midbrain in people at high risk of psychosis.
Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging was used to measure resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 52 individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in 27 healthy volunteers.

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Aug
2015

Deficits in motivational salience processing have been related to psychotic symptoms and disturbances in dopaminergic neurotransmission. We aimed at exploring changes in salience processing and brain activity during different stages of psychosis and antipsychotic medication effect.
We used fMRI during the Salience Attribution Task to investigate hemodynamic differences between 19 healthy controls (HCs), 34 at-risk mental state (ARMS) individuals and 29 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), including a subgroup of 17 FEP without antipsychotic medication (FEP-UM) and 12 FEP with antipsychotic medication (FEP-M).

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Mar
2015

Little is known about the neurobiological factors that determine functional outcome in people at high risk for psychosis. We use multimodal neuroimaging to investigate whether cortical responses during a cognitive task and thalamic glutamate levels were associated with subsequent functional outcome. Sixty subjects participated: 27 healthy controls (CTRL) and 33 at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis.

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Nov
2014

Alterations in brain glutamate levels may be associated with psychosis risk, but the relationship to clinical outcome in at-risk individuals is unknown. Glutamate concentration was measured in the left thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 75 participants at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and 56 healthy controls. The severity of attenuated positive symptoms and overall functioning were assessed.

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Jul
2013

Using positron emission tomography (PET), we previously observed increases in 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) uptake in the striatum of subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, indicating elevated presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity. The purpose of this study was to test if this finding would be replicated in a second UHR cohort.
(18)F-DOPA PET was used to estimate dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum of an entirely new cohort of 26 individuals at UHR for psychosis (14 males, mean±SD age = 22.

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Nov
2013

The "aberrant salience" model proposes that psychotic symptoms first emerge when chaotic brain dopamine transmission leads to the attribution of significance to stimuli that would normally be considered irrelevant. This is thought to occur during the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders, but this prediction has not been tested previously. In the present study, we tested this model in 18 healthy volunteers and 18 unmedicated individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis.

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Jul
2012

White matter abnormalities have been implicated in the aetiology of major depressive disorder; however, the relationship between the severity of symptoms and white matter integrity is currently unclear.
To investigate white matter integrity in people with major depression and healthy controls, and to assess its relationship with depressive symptom severity.
Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired from 66 patients with recurrent major depression and a control group of 66 healthy individuals matched for age, gender and IQ score, and analysed with tract-based spatial statistics.

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Sep
2013

The genes for the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the D-Amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA or G72) have been independently implicated in the risk for schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder and/or their related intermediate phenotypes. DAT and G72 respectively modulate central dopamine and glutamate transmission, the two systems most robustly implicated in these disorders. Contemporary studies have demonstrated that elevated dopamine function is associated with glutamatergic dysfunction in psychotic disorders.

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Sep
2012

Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated both dysfunction of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the dopamine system in psychosis, but the relationship between them is unclear. We addressed this issue by measuring MTL activation and striatal dopaminergic function in individuals with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), respectively.
Thirty-four subjects (20 ARMS and 14 Controls), matched for age, gender, digit span performance, and premorbid IQ, were scanned using fMRI, while performing a verbal encoding and recognition task, and using 18F-DOPA PET.

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Mar
2011

22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common genetic condition associated with learning disability and high risk for psychiatric illness, in particular schizophrenia. Previous neuroimaging studies in children and adults with 22q11DS have uncovered a number of abnormalities, but have not differentiated between features relating to cognitive impairment and features relating to risk for schizophrenia. This structural MRI study compares adolescents with 22q11DS (n=14) to adolescents with idiopathic learning disability (n=13) and to typically-developing controls (n=14).

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Jan
2011

Preterm birth is associated with a range of neurodevelopmental deficits, including corpus callosum (CC) abnormalities, which persist into late adolescence and early adulthood. A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) is associated with cognition and brain structure and may play a role in neurodevelopment. It is not known whether this polymorphism is associated with CC morphometry in individuals born preterm.

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Jun
2009

Subtle abnormalities in frontal white matter have been reported in bipolar disorder.
To assess whether impaired integrity of white matter tracts is associated with bipolar disorder and genetic liability for the disorder.
A total of 19 patients with psychotic bipolar I disorder from multiply affected families, 21 unaffected first-degree relatives and 18 comparison individuals (controls) underwent diffusion tensor imaging.

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