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Author: Christopher K Fairley (379)


Feb
2018

Internet-based STI testing programmes may overcome barriers posed by in-clinic testing, though uptake could reflect social gradients. The role these services play in comparison to clinical testing services is unknown. We compared experiences of testing barriers between STI clinic clients to clients of GetCheckedOnline.

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Mar
2018

Female sex workers in Australia have achieved some of the lowest documented prevalences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmissible infections globally but rates overall are increasing in Australia and warrant closer investigation.
We constructed a retrospective cohort using repeat testing data extracted from a network of 42 sexual health clinics. Poisson and Cox regression were used to determined trends in incidence and risk factors for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and infectious syphilis among female sex workers.

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Mar
2018

We examined the proportion of anogenital warts in men who have sex with men attending a sexual health center. Anal warts were most common in younger men who have sex with men (5.8% for age <21 years) and became less common with age (2.

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Feb
2018

High levels of macrolide resistance and increasing fluoroquinolone resistance are found in Mycoplasma genitalium in many countries. We evaluated pristinamycin for macrolide-resistant M. genitalium in a sexual health center in Australia.

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Feb
2018

To help inform screening guidelines, we estimated the proportion of asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) with oropharyngeal chlamydia.
An audit of asymptomatic MSM attending a sexual health service from March 2015 to April 2016 was conducted. They each had an oropharyngeal swab that was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis by transcription-mediated nucleic acid amplification.

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Dec
1969

Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota.

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Dec
2017

We assessed trends in HIV testing outcomes during a period of clinic-based initiatives introduced to increase HIV testing among gay and bisexual men (GBM) attending sexual health clinics (SHCs) in New South Wales (NSW). A cohort of 25,487 HIV-negative GBM attending 32 SHCs in NSW (2009-2015) was classified into six sub-groups each year based on client-type (new/existing), risk-status (low/high-risk), and any recent HIV testing. Poisson regression methods were used to assess HIV testing outcomes in sub-groups of GBM.

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Jan
2017

Previous studies have shown that men who have sex with men (MSM) who use smartphone dating applications (apps) are at higher risk of gonorrhoea, but not HIV. We have hypothesised that kissing may be a risk factor for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. We measured differences in kissing practices among MSM who use different methods to find male casual sexual partners (CSPs).

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Dec
2017

Drug-resistantare now a global public health threat. Direct transmission of antibiotic-resistant gonococci between individuals has been proposed as a driver for the increased transmission of resistance, but direct evidence of such transmission is limited. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has superior resolution to investigate outbreaks and disease transmission compared with traditional molecular typing methods such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) andmultiantigen sequence (NG-MAST).

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Nov
2017

Syphilis infections continue to increase among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many countries, with rates often higher among HIV-positive MSM. There is limited understanding of the risk and determinants of syphilis transmission between men. We aimed to examine the concordance of early syphilis infection between male sexual partners and clinical factors associated with transmission.

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Dec
2017

Direct acting antivirals are expected to drastically reduce the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). However, rates of HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection in this group remain uncertain in Australia. We assessed trends in HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection among HIV-positive individuals, and evaluated factors associated with HCV re-testing and incident infection.

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Feb
2018

The rate of gonorrhoea is rising and is much higher in men who have sex with men (MSM) than heterosexuals. The purpose of this review was to describe research supporting a new paradigm of transmission of gonorrhoea in MSM and interventions that may result from this.
Evidence is accumulating that gonorrhoea in MSM is transmitted differently than previously thought and that asymptomatic sites of infection may play a major role in the persistent of gonorrhoea at a population level.

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Nov
2017

The objective of this study was to examine the associations between clinicians' self-reported sampling technique and the detection rate of gonorrhoea at the oropharynx and anorectum using a highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT).
We analysed oropharyngeal and anorectal gonorrhoea swab results among men who have sex with men attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between March 2015 and December 2016. Swabs were tested by NAAT using the Aptima Combo 2 transcription-mediated amplification assay due to its high sensitivity.

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Mar
2018

Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study investigates the impacts of hepatitis co-infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes and hepatotoxicity in PLHIV. The cohort study included 1984 PLHIV.

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Dec
2016

Anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (AIN2) and AIN grade 3 (AIN3) are commonly grouped together as high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). We assessed risk factors for HSIL-AIN2 and HSIL-AIN3 in a cohort of homosexual men.
At the baseline visit in the Study for the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC), all men completed a questionnaire and underwent anal swabbing for cytology and HPV genotyping, followed by high resolution anoscopy.

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Dec
1969

Data on the likelihood of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in sexual contacts, particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM), are needed to form an evidence base for guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of patients attending a sexual health clinic in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, during 2008-2016. We calculated the proportion of contacts with M.

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Oct
2017

There are limited data on the patterns of early sexual behaviours among Australian teenage heterosexual boys. This study describes the nature and onset of early sexual experiences in this population through a cross-sectional survey.
A cross-sectional survey between 2014 and 2015 SETTING: Major sexual health clinics and community sources across Australia PARTICIPANTS: Heterosexual men aged 17-19 years RESULTS: There were 191 men in the study with a median age of 19.

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Dec
1969

Studies of sexual partnerships can further our understanding of the sexual transmission of chlamydia, which is important for informing public health interventions and clinical management. The aim of this study was to ascertain among heterosexual dyads the proportion concordantly infected with chlamydia and factors associated with infection between partners.
This study was conducted at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between January 2006 and March 2015.

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Dec
2017

We used transmission-dynamic modeling to estimate the added effectiveness of vaccinating multiple cohorts of females (12-26 years) in Australia compared with the theoretical introduction of routine-only (12-13 years) vaccination. Our results suggest that vaccinating multiple cohorts produced markedly faster direct/herd effects, and it added benefits that last for 20-70 years. Furthermore, the number needed to vaccinate to prevent 1 anogential warts (AGW) case or cervical cancer (CC) was similar for routine + catch-up (AGW = 9.

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Oct
2017

To investigate treatment efficacy of two treatments for rectal chlamydial infection.
We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with rectal chlamydial infection between 2009 and 2015 in Adelaide, Australia. Patients were treated with either azithromycin (1 g single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice a day for 10 days) and returned for repeat testing 14 to 180 days after treatment commenced.

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Oct
2017

Use of alcohol-containing mouthwash has been found to have an inhibitory effect against pharyngeal gonorrhoea. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported mouthwash use and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection among men who have sex with men (MSM).
A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 23, 2015, and June 30, 2015 among MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia.

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Oct
2017

Gonorrhoea notifications are rapidly rising in men who have sex with men (MSM). We developed a model to assess mouthwash as a novel intervention for gonorrhoea control.
We developed a model of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) transmission to explain anatomic site-specific prevalence of gonorrhoea among MSM.

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Sep
2017

Human papillomavirus (HPV) surveillance is important to monitor the effectiveness of national HPV vaccination programmes. Positivity of HPV in urine in men varies with different sampling methods. We aimed to determine the positivity for detection of HPV-6/11 in urine samples among men in relation to the position of genital warts and circumcision status.

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Nov
2017

Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007 to 2016.
We examined the time from HIV infection to virological suppression in MSM who were first diagnosed at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2007 and 2016.
Retrospective cohort.

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Dec
2017

China has strengthened its primary care workforce and implemented a wide network of community health centres (CHCs). However, STI testing and management are not currently included in the 'Essential Package of Primary Health Care in China'. Legislation change to encourage STI service delivery would be important, but it is also critical to determine if there are also provider-related opportunities and barriers for implementing effective STI programmes through CHCs if future legislation were to change.

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Oct
2017

For transgender women, genital adjustment surgery involves removal of the natal reproductive organs and creation of a neovagina, vulva and clitoris. We conducted a review of the medical literature in order to summarise the issues that can affect the health of the neovagina in the long term, and to make recommendations on how to manage these issues.

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Dec
1969

Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a globally recognized health threat; new strategies are needed to enhance AMR surveillance. The Northern Territory of Australia is unique in that 2 different first-line therapies, based primarily on geographic location, are used for gonorrhea treatment. We tested 1,629 N.

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Sep
2017

We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for young (15-26) men who have sex with men (MSM).
We developed a compartmental model to project HPV epidemic trajectories in MSM for three vaccination scenarios: a boys program, a targeted program for young MSM only and the combination of the two over 2017-2036. We assessed the gain in quality-adjusted-life-years (QALY) in 190,000 Australian MSM.

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Mar
2018

The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of Fanconi Syndrome (FS) in a cohort of patients taking tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Clinical records and laboratory investigations from patients receiving TDF between 2002 and 2016 were extracted. FS was defined as normoglycaemic glycosuria and proteinuria and at least one other marker of renal dysfunction.

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Jun
2017

HPV causes ~90% of anal cancer and HPV16 is the type most commonly associated with anal cancer. Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at greatly increased risk. We investigated patterns of vaccine-preventable anal HPV in older GBM.

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Aug
2017

WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have prioritised five areas that represent particular challenges in STI treatment and control.

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Jan
2018

'Fuckbuddies' are a type of regular sexual partner with whom men have ongoing sexual contact, generally in the absence of romantic attachment. We surveyed 989 men who have sex with men (MSM) at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, with the aim of determining the frequency of 'fuckbuddy' partnerships among sexual health clinic attendees and assessing their sexual risk. The majority (60%) of 1139 regular partnerships were described as 'fuckbuddies'.

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Nov
2017

The aim of this study was to examine the willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM) to change their behaviours to potentially reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea transmission and acquisition.
A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, between March and September 2015. Participants were asked how likely they would change their behaviours to reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea.

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Dec
1969

Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmissible infections in men who have sex with men (MSM). Gonorrhoea rates have increased substantially in recent years. There is concern that increasing gonorrhoea prevalence will increase the likelihood of worsening antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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Oct
2016

We investigated whether men who have sex with men (MSM) would use mouthwash daily to prevent pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Ten MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre were asked to use a Listerinealcohol-containing mouthwash daily for 14 days in August 2015. Mouthwash was used at least once daily for 133 of 140 person-days (95% of days; 95% confidence interval 90-98%).

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Oct
2016

Australian-born women aged ≤32 years were eligible for the free female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program introduced in 2007. A total of 1165 heterosexual couples attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2011 and 2014 were included in this analysis. Findings showed the odds of having penile warts was 0.

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Oct
2016

Assortative mixing patterns have become a new and important focus in HIV/sexually transmissible infection (STI) research in recent years. There are very limited data on sexual mixing patterns, particularly in an Australian population.
Male-female and male-male partnerships attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between 2011 and 2014 were included.

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Jul
2017

Repeat chlamydia detection after treatment is common, and there is concern that treatment failure may be a cause.
Within a randomized trial, we established a prospective cohort of 600 participants with anogenital chlamydia diagnoses (200 each of women, heterosexual men, and men who have sex with men [MSM]). Participants were invited for repeat testing at 3 months and to complete a behavioral survey at 4 months.

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Jun
2017

Improved partner notification (PN) after HIV diagnosis could help control HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, there is little evidence exploring what this experience is like for Australian MSM and how achievable it is in the era of the Internet and smartphones. Fifteen of 39 invited MSM recently diagnosed with HIV undertook a semistructured interview about PN.

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Dec
1969

The HIV care cascade is increasingly used to evaluate HIV treatment programs at the population level. However, the cascade indicators lack the ability to show changes over time, which reduces their utility to guide health policy. Alternatives have been proposed but are complex or result in a delay in results.

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Dec
1969

Azithromycin is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital chlamydia infection although the standard 1gram dose sometimes fails to eradicate the infection (treatment failure). One hypothesis proposed for treatment failure has been insufficient levels of the antibiotic at the site of infection. We developed an assay using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure azithromycin concentration in high-vaginal swabs and monitor how concentration changes over time following routine azithromycin treatment.

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Aug
2017

Syphilis rates have increased markedly among men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally. We examined trends in syphilis testing and detection of early syphilis among MSM in Australia.
Serial cross-sectional analyses on syphilis testing and diagnoses among MSM attending a national sentinel network of 46 clinics in Australia between 2007 and 2014.

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Dec
1969

Escalating resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin is being reported for Mycoplasma genitalium in the Asia-Pacific region. Analyzing 140 infections, we found pretreatment fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations in parC (13.6%) and gyrA (5%).

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