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Author: Chung Hang J Choi (18)


Dec
1969

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent an emerging class of biomarkers for studying and understanding biological events; the development of viable tools for detecting or monitoring the intracellular expression levels of specific miRNAs is of great interest to life scientists and biomedical engineers. Here, we describe the fabrication of a novel class of core-shell nanoprobes that comprise a gold nanoparticle core and a polydopamine (PDA) shell. Our nanoprobes can be used to specifically track the expression profiles of two miRNA markers of osteogenic differentiation (i.

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Apr
2016

The objective of this study was to fabricate dasatinib-loaded nanoparticles and evaluate their efficacy in inhibiting cellular processes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) related to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), for which there are no approved pharmacological approaches. We successfully encapsulated dasatinib, a poorly soluble multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor which has great potential for the treatment of PVR, into nanoparticles prepared from micellation of PEG-b-PCL. The size of the nanomicelles was approximately 55nm with a narrow distribution.

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Oct
2015

By grafting multiple DNA strands onto one terminus of a polyester chain, a DNA-brush block copolymer that can assemble into micelle structure is constructed. These micelle spherical nucleic acids have a density of nucleic acids that is substantively higher than linear DNA block copolymer structures, which makes them effective cellular transfection and intracellular gene regulation agents.

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Sep
2015

The sequence-dependent cellular uptake of spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugates (SNAs) is investigated. This process occurs by interaction with class A scavenger receptors (SR-A) and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. It is known that linear poly(guanine) (poly G) is a natural ligand for SR-A, and it has been proposed that interaction of poly G with SR-A is dependent on the formation of G-quadruplexes.

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Jun
2015

The capability of monitoring the differentiation process in living stem cells is crucial to the understanding of stem cell biology and the practical application of stem-cell-based therapies, yet conventional methods for the analysis of biomarkers related to differentiation require a large number of cells as well as cell lysis. Such requirements lead to the unavoidable loss of cell sources and preclude real-time monitoring of cellular events. In this work, we report the detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) in living human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by using polydopamine-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@PDA NPs).

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Nov
2014

The evolution of crystallite size and microstrain in DNA-mediated nanoparticle superlattices is dictated by annealing temperature and the flexibility of the interparticle bonds. This work addresses a major challenge in synthesizing optical metamaterials based upon noble metal nanoparticles by enabling the crystallization of large nanoparticles (100 nm diameter) at high volume fractions (34% metal).

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May
2014

Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) nanoparticle conjugates are a class of bionanomaterials that are extremely potent in many biomedical applications. Their unique ability to enter multiple mammalian cell types as single-entity agents arises from their novel three-dimensional architecture, which consists of a dense shell of highly oriented oligonucleotides chemically attached typically to a gold nanoparticle core. This architecture allows SNAs to engage certain cell surface receptors to facilitate entry.

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Jan
2014

Exosomes are a class of naturally occurring nanomaterials that play crucial roles in the protection and transport of endogenous macromolecules, such as microRNA and mRNA, over long distances. Intense effort is underway to exploit the use of exosomes to deliver synthetic therapeutics. Herein, transmission electron microscopy is used to show that when spherical nucleic acid (SNA) constructs are endocytosed into PC-3 prostate cancer cells, a small fraction of them (<1%) can be naturally sorted into exosomes.

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Aug
2013

Nanoparticles can be combined with nucleic acids to programme the formation of three-dimensional colloidal crystals where the particles' size, shape, composition and position can be independently controlled. However, the diversity of the types of material that can be used is limited by the lack of a general method for preparing the basic DNA-functionalized building blocks needed to bond nanoparticles of different chemical compositions into lattices in a controllable manner. Here we show that by coating nanoparticles protected with aliphatic ligands with an azide-bearing amphiphilic polymer, followed by the coupling of DNA to the polymer using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as copper-free azide-alkyne click chemistry), nanoparticles bearing a high-density shell of nucleic acids can be created regardless of nanoparticle composition.

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May
2013

Intracellular delivery of nucleic acids as gene regulation agents typically requires the use of cationic carriers or viral vectors, yet issues related to cellular toxicity or immune responses hamper their attractiveness as therapeutic candidates. The discovery that spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), polyanionic structures comprised of densely packed, highly oriented oligonucleotides covalently attached to the surface of nanoparticles, can effectively enter more than 50 different cell types presents a potential strategy for overcoming the limitations of conventional transfection agents. Unfortunately, little is known about the mechanism of endocytosis of SNAs, including the pathway of entry and specific proteins involved.

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Aug
2013

Patients with advanced solid malignancies were enrolled to an open-label, single-arm, dose-escalation study, in which CRLX101 was administered intravenously over 60 min among two dosing schedules, initially weekly at 6, 12, and 18 mg/m(2) and later bi-weekly at 12, 15, and 18 mg/m(2). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined at 15 mg/m(2) bi-weekly, and an expansion phase 2a study was completed. Patient samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) assessments.

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May
2012

Systemic delivery of siRNA to solid tumors remains challenging. In this study, we investigated the systemic delivery of a siRNA nanoparticle targeting ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2), and evaluated its intratumoral kinetics, efficacy and mechanism of action. Knockdown of RRM2 by an RNAi mechanism strongly inhibited cell growth in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines.

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Feb
2012

Despite being engineered to avoid renal clearance, many cationic polymer (polycation)-based siRNA nanoparticles that are used for systemic delivery are rapidly eliminated from the circulation. Here, we show that a component of the renal filtration barrier--the glomerular basement membrane (GBM)--can disassemble cationic cyclodextrin-containing polymer (CDP)-based siRNA nanoparticles and, thereby, facilitate their rapid elimination from circulation. Using confocal and electron microscopies, positron emission tomography, and compartment modeling, we demonstrate that siRNA nanoparticles, but not free siRNA, accumulate and disassemble in the GBM.

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Apr
2011

Nanoparticles are being investigated for numerous medical applications and are showing potential as an emerging class of carriers for drug delivery. Investigations on how the physicochemical properties (e.g.

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Apr
2010

Therapeutics that are designed to engage RNA interference (RNAi) pathways have the potential to provide new, major ways of imparting therapy to patients. Long, double-stranded RNAs were first shown to mediate RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the potential use of RNAi for human therapy has been demonstrated by the finding that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs; approximately 21-base-pair double-stranded RNA) can elicit RNAi in mammalian cells without producing an interferon response. We are at present conducting the first in-human phase I clinical trial involving the systemic administration of siRNA to patients with solid cancers using a targeted, nanoparticle delivery system.

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Jan
2010

PEGylated gold nanoparticles are decorated with various amounts of human transferrin (Tf) to give a series of Tf-targeted particles with near-constant size and electrokinetic potential. The effects of Tf content on nanoparticle tumor targeting were investigated in mice bearing s.c.

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Jul
2009

IT-101, a cyclodextrin polymer-based nanoparticle containing camptothecin, is in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. Multiorgan pharmacokinetics and accumulation in tumor tissue of IT-101 is investigated by using PET. IT-101 is modified through the attachment of a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-Tris-acetic acid ligand to bind (64)Cu(2+).

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