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Author: Claude Sabeta (24)


Dec
1969

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease and infections generally lead to a fatal encephalomyelitis in both humans and animals. In South Africa, domestic (dogs) and the wildlife (yellow mongoose) host species maintain the canid and mongoose rabies variants respectively. In this study, pathogenicity differences of South African canid and mongoose rabies viruses were investigated in a murine model, by assessing the progression of clinical signs and survivorship.

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Dec
1969

In the field of live viral vaccines production, there is an unmet need for in vitro tests complying a 3R approach (Refine, Replace and Reduce the use of animal experimentation) to replace the post-licensing safety tests currently assayed in animals. Here, we performed a pilot study evaluating whether virulence of rabies virus, RABV, can be forecast by an in vitro test of neurite outgrowth. The rationale to use neurite outgrowth as a read-out for this test is based on the salient property of the cytoplasmic domain of the G-protein (Cyto-G) of virulent RABV strains - not of attenuated RABV strains - to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro.

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Mar
2017

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease with veterinary and public health significance, particularly in Africa and Asia. The current knowledge of the epidemiology of rabies in Mozambique is limited because of inadequate sample submission, constrained diagnostic capabilities and a lack of molecular epidemiological research. We wanted to consider the direct, rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT) as an alternative to the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) for rabies diagnosis at the diagnostic laboratory of the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL), Directorate of Animal Science, Maputo, Mozambique.

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Jan
2017

Mokola virus (MOKV) is a rabies-related lyssavirus and appears to be exclusive to the African continent. Only 24 cases of MOKV, which includes two human cases, have been reported since its identification in 1968. MOKV has an unknown reservoir host and current commercial vaccines do not confer protection against MOKV.

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Dec
2016

The natural evolution of rabies virus (RABV) provides a potent example of multiple host shifts and an important opportunity to determine the mechanisms that underpin viral emergence. Using 321 genome sequences spanning an unprecedented diversity of RABV, we compared evolutionary rates and selection pressures in viruses sampled from multiple primary host shifts that occurred on various continents. Two major phylogenetic groups, bat-related RABV and dog-related RABV, experiencing markedly different evolutionary dynamics were identified.

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Dec
1969

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that has no effective treatment after onset of illness. However the disease can be prevented effectively by prompt administration of post exposure prophylaxis which includes administration of passive immunizing antibodies (Rabies Immune Globulin, RIG). Currently, human RIG suffers from many restrictions including limited availability, batch-to batch inconsistencies and potential for contamination with blood-borne pathogens.

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Dec
1969

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that causes an estimated 60,000 human deaths annually. The main burden lies on developing countries in Asia and Africa, where surveillance and disease detection is hampered by absence of adequate laboratory facilities and/or the difficulties of submitting samples from remote areas to laboratories. Under these conditions, easy-to-use tests such as immunochromatographic assays, i.

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Oct
2015

South African rabies viruses (RABVs) from dogs and jackals (canid viruses) are highly related and most likely originated from a single progenitor. RABV is the cause of most global human rabies cases. The complete genome sequences of 3 RABVs from South Africa and Zimbabwe are reported here.

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Sep
2014

There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation.

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Sep
2014

The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited.

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Jul
2014

Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) currently comprises administration of rabies vaccine together with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) of either equine or human origin. In the developing world, RIG preparations are expensive, often in short supply, and of variable efficacy. Therefore, we are seeking to develop a monoclonal antibody cocktail to replace RIG.

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Dec
1969

Mokola virus (MOKV) appears to be exclusive to Africa. Although the first isolates were from Nigeria and other Congo basin countries, all reports over the past 20 years have been from southern Africa. Previous phylogenetic studies analyzed few isolates or used partial gene sequence for analysis since limited sequence information is available for MOKV and the isolates were distributed among various laboratories.

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Apr
2013

Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control.

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Apr
2012

Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RABV) occur worldwide in wild carnivore and domestic dog populations and pose threats to wildlife conservation and public health. In Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, anthrax is endemic and generates carcasses frequently fed on by an unusually dense population of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas). Using serology, phylogenetic analyses (on samples obtained from February 2009-July 2010), and historical mortality records (1975-2011), we assessed jackal exposure to Bacillus anthracis (BA; the causal bacterial agent of anthrax), CDV, and RABV.

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Sep
2011

The generation of a new panel of 21 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with the P protein of Mokola virus (MOKV) is described. Through competitive ELISA and immunoblotting analyses, these MAbs were classified into several groups. Consistent with prior studies on lyssavirus P protein antigenic structure, many of the sites recognized by these Mabs appear to correspond to sites identified previously.

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Nov
2010

Dog rabies has commonly been associated with the eastern and southern border areas in Mpumalanga province, and the Nkomazi district in the east has been most affected. In other parts of the province, canid rabies has been under control for many years; however, in 2008, dog rabies spread to other parts of the province and resulted in a widespread outbreak. The objective of this study was to genetically characterize rabies viruses in an attempt to determine the source of this recent outbreak.

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Feb
2010

Isolations of Mokola virus (MOKV) are rare, but in South Africa and Zimbabwe this genotype 3 lyssavirus variant has been occasionally found in domestic mammals (cats and a dog) with a total of 17 virus isolates (South Africa 10, Zimbabwe 7) having been recovered during the past 30 years. We report the identification of a MOKV isolate involved in a human contact in Grahamstown (Eastern Cape, South Africa) and a genetic comparison with previously characterized isolates. This reported MOKV case was in a previously immunized cat.

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Jun
2009

The Free State (FS) province of the Republic of South Africa is associated with endemic rabies in the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. Historically, this mongoose rabies virus biotype occasionally spilled over into domestic dogs, but the canid rabies virus biotype of southern Africa did not occur here, until recently. We report on the recent spread of canine rabies by means of a molecular epidemiological study that was performed on a cohort of 69 rabies viruses collected from dogs in FS province between 1995 and 2007.

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Dec
2007

The incidence of dog rabies in Limpopo Province, South Africa, increased from 5 cases in 2004 to 100 in 2006. Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006. Twelve of these case-patients were identified retrospectively because the diagnosis of rabies was not considered: 6 of these patients consulted a traditional healer, 6 had atypical manifestations with prominent abdominal symptoms, and 6 of 7 patients tested had elevated liver enzyme activity.

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Sep
2007

We recently identified 2 Mokola viruses from domestic mammals (a dog and a cat) in South Africa. These cases occurred 8 years after the last reported case of infection with this virus. Our findings emphasize the endemicity of rabies-related lyssaviruses in South Africa and the need to better understand the epidemiology of Mokola viruses.

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Dec
2006

A genotype 2 lyssavirus, Lagos bat virus (LBV), was isolated from a terrestrial wildlife species (water mongoose) in August 2004 in the Durban area of the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. The virus isolate was confirmed as LBV by antigenic and genetic characterization, and the mongoose was identified as Atilax paludinosus by mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated sequence homology with previous LBV isolates from South African bats.

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Mar
2006

Three more isolates of Lagos bat virus were recently recovered from fruit bats in South Africa after an apparent absence of this virus for 13 years. The sporadic occurrence of cases is likely due to inadequate surveillance programs for lyssavirus infections among bat populations in Africa.

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Jan
2006

A panel of 37 rabies virus isolates were collected and studied, originating mainly from the northern and central regions of Namibia, between 1980 and 2003.
These virus isolates demonstrated a high degree of genetic similarity with respect to a 400 bp region of the nucleoprotein gene, with the virus isolates originating from kudu antelope (n = 10) sharing 97.2-100% similarity with jackal isolates, and 97-100% similarity with those isolated from domestic dogs.

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