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Author: Claudia Suenderhauf (13)


Dec
1969

There is strong evidence for abnormal salience processing in patients with psychotic experiences. In particular, there are indications that the degree of aberrant salience processing increases with the severity of positive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this relationship by means of brain imaging.

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Dec
1969

Several magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported reductions in hippocampal volume in patients with psychosis. It is unclear whether structural abnormalities predate illness onset. We conducted a detailed, systematic literature search for studies reporting hippocampal volume in subjects with clinical high-risk, compared to healthy controls.

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Oct
2016

Depending on their protein content, single meals can rapidly influence the uptake of amino acids into the brain and thereby modify brain functions. The current study investigates the effects of two different amino acids on the human gut-brain system, using a multimodal approach, integrating physiological and neuroimaging data. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, L-tryptophan, L-leucine, glucose and water were administered directly into the gut of 20 healthy subjects.

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Oct
2016

This study aims to expand our understanding of the mechanisms of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in the Göttingen minipig to aid a knowledge-driven selection of the optimal species for preclinical pharmaceutical research.
The pharmacokinetics of seven reference compounds (antipyrine, atenolol, cimetidine, diazepam, hydrochlorothiazide, midazolam and theophylline) was investigated after intravenous and oral dosing in minipigs. Supportive in vitro data were generated on hepatocellularity, metabolic clearance in hepatocytes, blood cell and plasma protein binding and metabolism routes.

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Dec
1969

Taste perception is one of the most important primary oral reinforcers, driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible.
In the present pilot study, we determined the effects of five taste qualities "bitter" (quinine), "sweet" (glucose), "sour" (citric acid), "salty" (NaCl) and "umami" (monosodium glutamate, MSG) on working memory processing using functional MRI and their effect on plasma insulin and glucose levels.

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Dec
1969

Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and strongly disabling neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by cognitive decline, positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms respond well to antipsychotic medication and psycho-social interventions, in contrast to negative symptoms and neurocognitive impairments. Cognitive deficits have been linked to a poorer outcome and hence specific cognitive remediation therapies have been proposed.

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Oct
2014

Onset and rate of gastric emptying are important determinants of drug absorption after oral dosing. Therefore, robust estimates of these parameters are needed in physiologically based absorption models to predict reliably plasma concentration time profiles. For human and some other laboratory animals, reasonable parameterization of gastric emptying has been established.

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Jan
2013

In today's pharmaceutical research and development, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling plays an important role in the design, evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic, toxicokinetic and formulation studies. PBPK models incorporate in vitro physicochemical and biochemical data in a physiologically based model framework to simulate in vivo exposure. The comparison of simulated concentrations to those measured in in vivo studies can be used to gain insights into compound behavior and to inform PBPK based human pharmacokinetic predictions.

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Aug
2012

Predicting blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is essential to drug development, as a molecule cannot exhibit pharmacological activity within the brain parenchyma without first transiting this barrier. Understanding the process of permeation, however, is complicated by a combination of both limited passive diffusion and active transport. Our aim here was to establish predictive models for BBB drug permeation that include both active and passive transport.

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Oct
2011

Chemical fingerprints encode the presence or absence of molecular features and are available in many large databases. Using a variation of the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) paradigm, we describe a binary classifier based on feature selection from fingerprints. We discuss the algorithm and possible cross-validation procedures.

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Feb
2011

Intestinal drug absorption in humans is a central topic in drug discovery. In this study, we use a broad selection of machine learning and statistical methods for the classification and numerical prediction of this key end point. Our data set is based on a selection of 458 small druglike compounds with FDA approval.

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Oct
2010

Brain microvascular endothelial cells are part of the blood-brain barrier and participate actively in immunological processes including cytokine-mediated inflammatory reactions. Using the human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, activation of JAK/STAT signaling pathways were studied in response to stimulation by cytokines. The phenotype of hCMEC/D3 cells was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis of cell adhesion factors (cluster of differentiation molecules CD31 and CD34) and the von Willebrand factor endothelial marker was detected by immunofluorescence.

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