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Author: Dah-Jyuu Wang (19)


Dec
2016

Breakdown of neuro-glial N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) metabolism results in the failure of developmental myelination, manifest in the congenital pediatric leukodystrophy Canavan disease caused by mutations to the sole NAA catabolizing enzyme aspartoacylase. Canavan disease is a major point of focus for efforts to define NAA function, with available evidence suggesting NAA serves as an acetyl donor for fatty acid synthesis during myelination. Elevated NAA is a diagnostic hallmark of Canavan disease, which contrasts with a broad spectrum of alternative neurodegenerative contexts in which levels of NAA are inversely proportional to pathological progression.

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Apr
2017

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is hypothesized to arise from imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission (E/I imbalance). Studies have demonstrated E/I imbalance in individuals with ASD and also corresponding rodent models. One neural process thought to be reliant on E/I balance is gamma-band activity (Gamma), with support arising from observed correlations between motor, as well as visual, Gamma and underlying GABA concentrations in healthy adults.

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Apr
2016

The aim of this study was to describe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) disease progression in the lower extremity muscles over 12 months using quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers, collected across three sites in a large cohort.
A total of 109 ambulatory boys with DMD (8.7 ± 2.

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Apr
2016

Choline depletion is seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency in spite of enzyme treatment and may result in liver, fatty acid, and muscle abnormalities. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of an easily absorbed choline-rich structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB™ [LXS]) to improve choline status.
Children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency were randomized to LXS or placebo in a 12-month double blind trial.

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Jan
2016

The NIH MRI Study of normal brain development sought to characterize typical brain development in a population of infants, toddlers, children and adolescents/young adults, covering the socio-economic and ethnic diversity of the population of the United States. The study began in 1999 with data collection commencing in 2001 and concluding in 2007. The study was designed with the final goal of providing a controlled-access database; open to qualified researchers and clinicians, which could serve as a powerful tool for elucidating typical brain development and identifying deviations associated with brain-based disorders and diseases, and as a resource for developing computational methods and image processing tools.

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Jun
2015

The objective of our study was to use proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) to quantitatively evaluate bone marrow infiltration by measuring the fat fraction (FF) and to compare the FF with semiquantitative bone marrow MRI scores and clinical status in children treated for type 1 Gaucher disease (GD).
Over a 2-year period, we prospectively evaluated 10 treated GD patients (six males, four females; median age, 15.1 years) and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects (five males, five females; median age, 15.

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Dec
1969

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder that results in functional deficits. However, these functional declines are often not able to be quantified in clinical trials for DMD until after age 7. In this study, we hypothesized that (1)H2O T2 derived using (1)H-MRS and MRI-T2 will be sensitive to muscle involvement at a young age (5-7 years) consistent with increased inflammation and muscle damage in a large cohort of DMD subjects compared to controls.

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Sep
2014

To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids on the lower extremity muscles in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
Transverse relaxation time (T2) and fat fraction were measured by MRI/MRS in lower extremity muscles of 15 boys with DMD (age 5.0-6.

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Jul
2014

The relationship between fat fractions (FFs) determined based on multiple TE, unipolar gradient echo images and (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was evaluated using different models for fat-water decomposition, signal-to-noise ratios, and excitation flip angles.
A combination of single-voxel proton spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) and gradient echo imaging was used to determine muscle FFs in both normal and dystrophic muscles. In order to cover a large range of FFs, the soleus and vastus lateralis muscles of 22 unaffected control subjects, 16 subjects with collagen VI deficiency (COL6), and 71 subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) were studied.

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Dec
1969

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is characterized by the accumulation of sulfatide sphingolipids in the brain and peripheral nerves. We report metabolite alterations recorded using multi-voxel proton spectroscopy of the brain in four children with MLD. The data revealed elevated myoinositol/creatine and lactate/creatine ratios as well as decreased N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios.

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Oct
2013

To validate a multicenter protocol that examines lower extremity skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy in terms of reproducibility of these measurements within and across centers.
This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, and informed consent was obtained from each participant or a guardian. Standardized procedures with MR operator training and quality assurance assessments were implemented, and data were acquired at three centers by using different 3-T MR imaging instruments.

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Dec
2012

Canavan disease is a hereditary leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the aspartoacylase gene (ASPA), leading to loss of enzyme activity and increased concentrations of the substrate N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the brain. Accumulation of NAA results in spongiform degeneration of white matter and severe impairment of psychomotor development. The goal of this prospective cohort study was to assess long-term safety and preliminary efficacy measures after gene therapy with an adeno-associated viral vector carrying the ASPA gene (AAV2-ASPA).

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Dec
1969

MLD is characterized by accumulation of sulfatides in the brain. Vitamin K regulates two enzymes in sphingolipid biosynthesis and warfarin is known to lower brain sulfatides in rats and mice. We hypothesized that warfarin may mitigate the MLD phenotype by reducing the formation of sulfatides.

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Dec
2011

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an invaluable tool to study brain development and in vivo metabolism of brain. MRS is a noninvasive method and also does not involve ionizing radiation. The spectral patterns obtained from MRS evaluation provide unique information about the neonatal brain in several disease processes including hypoxic-ischemic injury, white matter and metabolic disorders, seizure disorders, and brain tumors.

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Jul
2010

Our group has previously reported the first clinical application of lithium in a child affected by Canavan disease. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of lithium on N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) as well as other end points in a larger cohort. Six patients with clinical, laboratory and genetic confirmation of Canavan disease were recruited and underwent treatment with lithium.

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Mar
2008

GM2 gangliosidoses are a group of neuronal storage disorders caused by deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme hexosaminidase A. Clinically, the disease is marked by a relentless encephalopathy. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) provides in-vivo measurement of various brain metabolites including N-acetyl aspartate+N-acetyl aspartate glutamate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr).

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Apr
2003

A localized proton 2D double-quantum (DQ) spin-echo spectroscopy technique was implemented on 1.5 T clinical MRI scanners for the detection of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) in the brain. The 2D approach facilitates separation of peaks overlapping with GABA in 1D DQ-filtered (DQF) spectra.

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Jul
2002

This clinical protocol describes virus-based gene transfer for Canavan disease, a childhood leukodystrophy. Canavan disease, also known as Van Bogaert-Bertrand disease, is a monogeneic, autosomal recessive disease in which the gene coding for the enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA) is defective. The lack of functional enzyme leads to an increase in the central nervous system of the substrate molecule, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), which impairs normal myelination and results in spongiform degeneration of the brain.

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