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Author: Daniel Grenier (140)


Jan
2018

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) has a beneficial effect on several aspects of human health. The present study investigated the effects of highbush blueberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) on the virulence properties of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and macrophage-associated inflammatory responses.
PACs were isolated from frozen highbush blueberries using solid-phase chromatography.

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Feb
2018

Periodontal pathogens have been linked to oral and gastrointestinal (orodigestive) carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Treponema denticola (Td) is associated with severe periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease leading to tooth loss.

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Dec
1969

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important porcine bacterial pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent mainly responsible for sudden death, septic shock, and meningitis. However, serotype 2 strains are genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Though a multitude of virulence factors have been described for S.

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Nov
2017

Halitosis, also known as bad breath or oral malodour, is a condition affecting a large proportion of the population. Solobacterium moorei is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been specifically associated with halitosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of essential oils, more particularly cinnamon bark oil, on growth, biofilm formation, eradication and killing, as well as hydrogen sulfide (HS) production by S.

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Jul
2017

Streptococcus suis is one of the most important post-weaning porcine bacterial pathogens worldwide. The serotypes 2 and 9 are often considered the most virulent and prevalent serotypes involved in swine infections, especially in Europe. However, knowledge of the bacterial factors involved in the first steps of the pathogenesis of the infection remains scarce.

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Jun
2017

Periodontal diseases manifest by the formation of deep pockets between the gingiva and teeth where multispecies bacterial biofilms flourish, causing inflammation and bone loss. Epithelial cell receptor αvβ6 integrin that regulates inflammation by activating the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-β1, is highly expressed in healthy junctional epithelium that connects the gingiva to the tooth enamel. However, its expression is attenuated in human periodontal disease.

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Apr
2017

The routine use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to an increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens in animals that can potentially be transmitted to humans. In 2000, the World Health Organization identified resistance to antibiotics as one of the most significant global threats to public health and recommended that the use of antibiotics as additives in animal feed be phased out or terminated, particularly those used to treat human infections. Research is currently being carried out to identify alternative antimicrobial compounds for use in animal production.

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Mar
2017

Fusobacterium nucleatum plays a key role in creating the pathogenic subgingival biofilm that initiates destructive periodontitis. It is also a common resident of the human gastrointestinal tract and has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of green and black tea extracts as well as two of their bioactive components, EGCG and theaflavins, on the growth and virulence properties of F.

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Dec
1969

We report here the synthesis of isoquebecol, an unprecedented constitutional isomer of quebecol, a polyphenolic compound discovered in maple syrup. The methodology used to prepare isoquebecol involves, as key steps, the formation of a dibromoalkene from an α-ketoester precursor, followed by a double Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. The anti-inflammatory activity of isoquebecol was studied on macrophage cells by monitoring its ability to inhibit LPS-induced IL-6 secretion.

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Jan
2017

Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the lichen Stereocaulon paschale collected in Nunavik, Canada, led to the isolation and identification of two new dibenzofurans (1 and 3) and 11 known lichen metabolites. The structures of the new compounds were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and high-resolution mass spectrometric data. Herein, the first isolation of ascomatic acid dibenzofuran derivatives (1-3) from a whole lichen organism is reported.

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Dec
1969

Recently, we reported the purification and characterization of three distinct lantibiotics (named suicin 90-1330, suicin 3908, and suicin 65) produced by. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the three suicin lantibiotic gene clusters among serotype 2strains belonging to sequence type (ST) 25 and ST28, the two dominant STs identified in North America. The genomes of 102 strains were interrogated for the presence of suicin gene clusters encoding suicins 90-1330, 3908, and 65.

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Mar
2017

Elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with the active phases of tissue and bone destruction in periodontitis, an inflammatory disease characterized by a significant breakdown of tooth support. In the present study, we used a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture model of macrophages and gingival fibroblasts to investigate the ability of a green tea extract and its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to regulate the secretion of MMP-3, -8, and -9.
The 3D co-culture model was composed of gingival fibroblasts embedded in a type I collagen matrix overlaid with macrophages.

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Oct
2016

Fusobacterium nucleatum has been associated with both periodontal disease and inflammatory bowel disease. This Gram-negative bacterium possesses a high inflammatory potential that may contribute to the disease process. We hypothesized that green and black tea polyphenols attenuate the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages mediated by F.

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Nov
2016

Interactions between a bacterial pathogen and its potentially susceptible host are initiated with the colonization step. During respiratory/oral infection, the pathogens must compete with the normal microflora, resist defense mechanisms of the local mucosal immunity, and finally reach, adhere, and breach the mucosal epithelial cell barrier in order to induce invasive disease. This is the case during infection by the swine and zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, which is able to counteract mucosal barriers to induce severe meningitis and sepsis in swine and in humans.

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Jul
2016

Streptococcus suis is an important bacterial swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent. Recently, two surface proteins of S. suis, Fhb and Fhbp, have been described for their capacity to bind factor H-a soluble complement regulatory protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damages.

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May
2016

Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen that causes pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis. It is also an important zoonotic agent responsible of several outbreaks in China. S.

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Apr
2016

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent worldwide causing meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and septicemia. Among the 29 serotypes identified to date, serotype 2 is mostly isolated from diseased pigs. Although several virulence mechanisms have been characterized in S.

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Dec
1969

Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction.

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May
2016

A number of studies have brought evidence that green tea catechins may contribute to periodontal health. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of a green tea extract and its principal constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to potentiate the antibacterial effects of antibiotics (metronidazole, tetracycline) against Porphyromonas gingivalis, and to modulate the adherence to oral epithelial cells and expression of genes coding for virulence factors and the high temperature requirement A (HtrA) stress protein in P. gingivalis.

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Dec
1969

Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin that are considered as a promising alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics. Recently, our laboratory reported the purification and characterization of two lantibiotics, suicin 90-1330 and suicin 3908, produced by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (serotype 2). In this study, a novel bacteriocin produced by S.

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Jan
2016

Herein we report our results on the anti-inflammatory activity of quebecol, a polyphenolic compound discovered in maple syrup. Bioassays demonstrated that quebecol has an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced NF-κB activation and inhibits the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. We also prepared and tested precursors of quebecol and its derivatives corresponding to its substructures of interest, with the aim to study the structure-activity relationships.

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Nov
2015

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a major swine pathogen and zoonotic agent worldwide causing mainly meningitis and septicemia. Hyaluronate lyases are enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid, a major constituent of animal tissues, and have been reported as virulence factors in various bacterial species. Since the hyaluronate lyase of S.

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Dec
1969

Over the years, several studies have brought evidence suggesting that tea polyphenols, mostly from green tea, may have oral health benefits. Since few data are available concerning the beneficial properties of black tea and its theaflavin derivatives against periodontal disease, the objective of this study was to investigate their antibacterial activity as well as their ability to modulate interleukin-8 and human β-defensin (hBD) secretion in oral epithelial cells. Among the periodontopathogenic bacteria tested, Porphyromonas gingivalis was found to be highly susceptible to the black tea extract and theaflavins.

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Aug
2015

Blueberries contain significant amounts of flavonoids to which a number of beneficial health effects in humans have been associated. The present study investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) extract on the two main etiologic components of periodontitis, a multifactorial disorder affecting the supporting structures of the teeth.

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Dec
1969

Periodontitis that affects the underlying structures of the periodontium, including the alveolar bone, is a multifactorial disease, whose etiology involves interactions between specific bacterial species of the subgingival biofilm and the host immune components. In the present study, we investigated the effects of myricetin, a flavonol largely distributed in fruits and vegetables, on growth and virulence properties of Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as on the P. gingivalis-induced inflammatory response in host cells.

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Dec
1969

Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S.

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Dec
1969

The diisopentenyloxy quinolobactin derivative 3-methylbut-2-enyl-4-methoxy-8-[(3-methylbut-2-enyl)oxy] quinoline-2-carboxylate, also named as Ppc-1, has been initially isolated from the fruiting bodies of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pseudo-candidum. Given that few data are available in the literature concerning the biological properties of this compound, this study was undertaken to evaluate its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Ppc-1 exerted antibacterial activity on the Gram negative periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, while it had no such effect on the other bacterial species tested.

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Apr
2015

Streptococcus suis, more specifically serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent that causes severe infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia. In this study, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI) was used to investigate the protein expression profiles of 45 strains of S. suis serotype 2 that had previously been clustered by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) into three sequence types (ST1, ST25, and ST28) (n = 15 for each ST).

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Mar
2015

Solobacterium moorei is a volatile sulfide compound (VSC)-producing Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been associated with halitosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea extract and its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on growth and several halitosis-related properties of S. moorei.

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Jun
2015

The human antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37) possesses anti-inflammatory properties that may contribute to attenuating the inflammatory process associated with chronic periodontitis. Plant polyphenols, including those from cranberry and green tea, have been reported to reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion by host cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) and green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) act in synergy with LL-37 to reduce the secretion of inflammatory mediators by oral mucosal cells.

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Dec
1969

While Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, it can also be isolated from the tonsils of healthy animals that do not develop infections. We hypothesized that S. suis strains in healthy carrier pigs may have the ability to produce bacteriocins, which may contribute to preventing infections by pathogenic S.

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Feb
2015

Rhein is a major anthraquinone found in rhubarb root. As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to identify beneficial properties of this anthraquinone for periodontal disease, in this study, we investigated the ability of rhein to (i) exhibit antibacterial synergy towards the periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis when used in combination with metronidazole or polyphenols belonging to different families, and (ii) attenuate virulence factor gene expression in P. gingivalis.

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Dec
1969

Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo formulation). While many Kampo formulations have been reported to regulate inflammation and immune responses in oral mucosa, there is no evidence to show that TJ-84 has beneficial effects on oral mucositis, a disease resulting from increased cell death induced by chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In order to develop effective new therapeutic strategies for treating oral mucositis, we investigated (i) the mechanisms by which 5-FU induces the death of human gingival cells and (ii) the effects of TJ-84 on biological events induced by 5-FU.

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Dec
1969

Given the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens, antimicrobial peptides that can also modulate the immune response may be a novel approach for effectively controlling periodontal infections. In the present study, we used a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture model of gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts stimulated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) and cathelicidin (LL-37) and to determine whether these antimicrobial peptides can act in synergy. The 3D co-culture model composed of gingival fibroblasts embedded in a collagen matrix overlaid with gingival epithelial cells had a synergistic effect with respect to the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in response to LPS stimulation compared to fibroblasts and epithelial cells alone.

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Dec
1969

Treponema denticola is an important periodontal pathogen capable of tissue invasion. Its chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP) can degrade a number of basement membrane components in vitro, thus suggesting a contribution to tissue invasion by the spirochete. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of CTLP in chronic periodontitis tissues ex vivo.

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Jul
2014

The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent. Multilocus sequence typing allowed dividing S. suis serotype 2 into sequence types (STs).

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Sep
2014

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections (meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia) in pigs and is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Antibiotics have long been used in the swine industry for disease treatment/prevention and growth promoters. This pattern of utilization resulted in the spread of antibiotic resistance in S.

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Dec
1969

First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013. This second and final chapter of the report on the First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis follows on from Part 1, published in the April 2014, volume 9, issue 4 of Future Microbiology. S.

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Dec
1969

Periodontal diseases, which are inflammatory diseases of bacterial origin affecting the tooth-supporting tissues, are characterized by inflammation and destruction of gingival connective tissue and alveolar bone, and may lead to tooth loss. The aim of the study was to investigate Rokumigan, a Kampo Japanese traditional medicine made of six different plants, for its capacity to prevent biofilm formation by Fusobacterium nucleatum, to inhibit interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by mucosal cells, and to promote wound healing in a fibroblast model. Using a microplate colorimetric assay, Rokumigan prevented biofilm formation by F.

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Dec
1969

First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013 The first international workshop on Streptococcus suis, which is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent, took place in Beijing, jointly organized by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada and the National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC. The aim of the meeting was to gather together, for the first time, more than 80 researchers working on S. suis, from countries including China, Canada, Japan, The Netherlands, Germany, Thailand, the UK and Vietnam.

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Apr
2014

Swine influenza is a highly contagious viral infection in pigs affecting the respiratory tract that can have significant economic impacts. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is one of the most important post-weaning bacterial pathogens in swine causing different infections, including pneumonia. Both pathogens are important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex.

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Jun
2014

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia. Also recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent, it is responsible for outbreaks of human infections in Asian countries. Serotype 2 is the predominant isolate from diseased animals and humans.

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Dec
1969

Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S.

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Mar
2014

Continuing investigation of fractions from a supercritical fluid extract of Chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) roots has led to the isolation of 12 phenolic compounds, of which seven were described previously from this extract. In addition to these seven metabolites, four known components, 1-methoxyerythrabyssin II (4), 6,8-diprenylgenistein, gancaonin G (5), and isoglycyrol (6), and one new isoflavan, licorisoflavan C (7), were characterized from this material for the first time. Treatment of licoricidin (1) with palladium chloride afforded larger amounts of 7 and also yielded two new isoflavans, licorisoflavan D (8), which was subsequently detected in the licorice extract, and licorisoflavan E (9).

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Dec
1969

Streptococcus mutans, the predominant bacterial species associated with dental caries, can enter the bloodstream and cause infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to investigate S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells induced by human fibrinogen.

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Dec
2013

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S.

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Oct
2013

Auraptene is the most abundant naturally occurring geranyloxycoumarin. It is primarily isolated from plants in the Rutaceae family, many of which, like citrus fruits, are used as food in many countries. Auraptene is a biologically active secondary metabolite with valuable properties.

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Dec
1969

The cell-surface lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Treponema denticola possesses several biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the binding properties of T. denticola LOS to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, mucosal cells, and oral bacteria.

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Dec
2013

Kampos, commonly used in Japanese traditional medicine, are standardized herbal mixtures that have been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. We hypothesized that Kampos may have unidentified properties that may be beneficial in periodontitis, an inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting tissues.
The aim of our study was to investigate various Kampos and their natural ingredients for their effects on Porphyromonas gingivalis growth, adherence to epithelial cells and proteinase activity.

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