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Author: David Boyd (116)


Dec
2017

Since the first identification of the OXA-48 carbapenemase in 2001, Enterobacteriaceae harbouring OXA-48-like enzymes have been reported globally. Here, we applied WGS to characterize the molecular epidemiology of these bacterial isolates.
Enterobacteriaceae non-susceptible to carbapenems isolated from patients between 2011 and 2014 were voluntarily submitted to the Canadian National Microbiology Laboratory where they were screened for carbapenemase genes.

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Oct
2017

Acantopsis (Cobitidae) is revised based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. Four of the six available names, A. dialuzona, A.

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Oct
2017

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex and dynamic structure made up of an estimated 300 different proteins. The ECM is also a rich source of cytokines and growth factors in addition to numerous bioactive ECM degradation products that influence cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The ECM is constantly being remodeled during homeostasis and in a wide range of pathological contexts.

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May
2017

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates submitted to a reference laboratory from 2010 to 2015 were screened by PCR for seven common carbapenemase gene groups, namely, KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, GES, and NMC-A/IMI. Nineteen of the submitted isolates (1.7%) were found to harbor Ambler class A blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type carbapenemases.

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Nov
2017

Guatemala exhibits the sixth highest rate of child stunting worldwide, and stunting disproportionately affects Guatemala indigenous communities. In a country struggling to combat this result of malnutrition, early child nutrition is especially critical. Specifically, early initiation of breastfeeding is important for the development of newborn infants.

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Nov
2016

Influenza A virus (IAV) is an RNA virus that is cytotoxic to most cell types in which it replicates. IAV activates the host kinase RIPK3, which induces cell death via parallel pathways of necroptosis, driven by the pseudokinase MLKL, and apoptosis, dependent on the adaptor proteins RIPK1 and FADD. How IAV activates RIPK3 remains unknown.

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Nov
2016

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing globally; here we report on the investigation of CPE in Canada over a 5-year period. Participating acute care facilities across Canada submitted carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 to the National Microbiology Laboratory. All CPE were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibilities, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and had patient data collected using a standard questionnaire.

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Aug
2016

Diabetes is a growing burden in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicines (TMs) remain a primary form of healthcare in many settings. In Tanzania, TMs are frequently used to treat non-communicable diseases, yet little is known about TM practices for non-communicable diseases like diabetes.
Between December 2013 and June 2014, we assessed TM practices, including types, frequencies, reasons, and modes, among randomly selected community members.

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Jul
2016

Although approximately one half of Guatemalans are indigenous, the Guatemalan Maya account for 72% of the extremely poor within the country. While some biomedical services are available in these communities, many Maya utilise traditional medicine as a significant, if not primary, source of health care. While existing medical anthropological research characterises these modes of medicine as medically dichotomous or pluralistic, our research in a Maya community of the Western Highlands, Concepción Huista, builds on previous studies and finds instead a syncretistic, imbricated local health system.

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Jul
2016

Lentiviruses are able to establish persistent infection in their respective hosts despite a potent type-I interferon (IFN-I) response following transmission. A number of IFN-I-induced host factors that are able to inhibit lentiviral replication in vitro have been identified, and these studies suggest a role for IFN-induced factors as barriers to cross-species transmission. However, the ability of these factors to inhibit viral replication in vivo has not been well characterized, nor have the viral determinants that contribute to evasion or antagonism of the host IFN-I response.

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Feb
2016

The global dissemination of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM) gene among certain strains of bacteria has serious implications since the infections caused by such organisms pose a therapeutic challenge. Although the NDM gene has been detected in various parts of the world, this is the first report of its detection in the English-speaking Caribbean. The NDM producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from an Indian patient who had recently relocated to Jamaica.

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Jan
2016

One of the core goals of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) is to monitor major meat commodities for antimicrobial resistance. Targeted studies with methodologies based on core surveillance protocols are used to examine other foods, e.g.

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Oct
2015

The right to a healthy environment: A prescription for Canada.

Can J Public Health 2015 Oct 30;106(6):e353-4. Epub 2015 Oct 30.
David R Boyd
This invited commentary summarizes the need for stronger Canadian environmental laws and policies. The environmental burden of disease in Canada is substantial. In part this is due to environmental laws and policies that are significantly weaker and less effective than corresponding rules in other wealthy industrialized nations.

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Feb
2016

Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) are a serious emerging problem for health care facilities worldwide. Owing to their resistance to most antimicrobial therapies, CPOs are difficult to treat and pose a challenge for infection prevention and control. Since 2010, lab-based surveillance for CPOs and PCR-based testing were implemented in British Columbia (BC), Canada.

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Oct
2015

In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being recognized as a non-communicable disease (NCD) with high morbidity and mortality. In countries like Tanzania, people access many sources, including traditional medicines, to meet their healthcare needs for NCDs, but little is known about traditional medicine practices among people with CKD. Therefore, we sought to characterize these practices among community members with CKD in northern Tanzania.

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Oct
2015

Antibodies (Abs) specific for the V3 loop of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope neutralize most tier 1 and many tier 2 viruses and are present in essentially all HIV-infected individuals as well as immunized humans and animals. Vaccine-induced V3 Abs are associated with reduced HIV infection rates in humans and affect the nature of transmitted viruses in infected vaccinees, despite the fact that V3 is often occluded in the envelope trimer. Here, we link structural and experimental data showing how conformational alterations of the envelope trimer render viruses exceptionally sensitive to V3 Abs.

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Sep
2015

A trauma surgeon's journey.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2015 Sep;79(3):497-514
David R Boyd

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Oct
2015

SHIV/macaque model is critical for pre-clinical HIV-1 research. The ability of this model to predict efficacious intervention(s) in humans depends on how faithfully the model recapitulates key features of HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. Here, we provide insights for rationally designing SHIVs with transmitted HIV-1 variants for vaccine and prevention research.

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Sep
2015

To measure trauma-related distress and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an 8-week yoga intervention (YI) in reducing trauma-related symptoms and emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) among children living in orphanages in Haiti.
Case comparison with random assignment to YI or aerobic dance control (DC) plus a nonrandomized wait-list control (WLC) group.
Two orphanages for children in Haiti.

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Dec
1969

The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected.

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Dec
1969

Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region.
Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants.

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Apr
2015

A 29-year-old female transferred to a tertiary care hospital in Winnipeg, Canada, after a prolonged period of hospitalization in Nigeria was found to be colonized with a VIM-2-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and an OXA-181-producing Escherichia coli. Detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms from a rectal swab was accomplished by screening with chromogenic media, followed by confirmation with the Rapid CARB Screen kit (Rosco Diagnostica, Taastrup, Denmark). This case illustrates the need for clinical microbiology laboratories to have a protocol in place to screen patients for carbapenemase producers, even in countries where these organisms are rarely encountered.

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Apr
2015

MALDI-TOF MS detection of carbapenemase-activity in Gram-negative bacteria was compared against the Carba-NP assay. MALDI-TOF MS detected activity from 99% of the strains, from all types of carbapenemase (200/202), while Carba-NP assays detected activity from 85% (45/53) of the tested isolates and could not consistently identify OXA- or GES carbapenemase activity.

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Jun
2015

The usefulness of carbapenems for gram-negative infections is becoming compromised by organisms harboring carbapenemases, enzymes which can hydrolyze the drug. Currently KPC (class A), NDM (class B), and OXA-48 types (class D) are the most globally widespread carbapenemases. However, among the GES-type class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) there are variants that hydrolyze carbapenems, with blaGES-5 being the most common.

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Jan
2015

This study aimed to document clinical use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for chronic conditions in all TCM hospitals in a Chinese province and to recommend treatments most in need of evaluation for use in community health centers.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the summer of 2010. It included 119 of 132 TCM hospitals in Hubei Province, China.

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Jan
2015

Chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (SHIV) infection of macaques is commonly used to model HIV type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and pathogenesis in humans. Despite the fact that SHIVs encode SIV antagonists of the known macaque host restriction factors, these viruses require additional adaptation for replication in macaques to establish a persistent infection. Additional adaptation may be required in part because macaque CD4 (mCD4) is a suboptimal receptor for most HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) variants.

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Jul
2014

A case of osteomyelitis in an infant following a burn injury sustained in Pakistan caused by a GES-13-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (the first reported in Canada) and an OXA-48 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is described. The present case serves to highlight the importance of international travel as a risk factor for infection with carbapenemase-producing bacteria and the challenges in the laboratory detection of these organisms.

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Dec
2014

The purpose of this study was to compare acute countermovement jump (CMJ) responses after functional isometric (FI) and dynamic half (DH) squats. Ten strength-trained males (relative full back squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: 1.9 ± 0.

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Apr
2014

Given emerging concerns about the bioavailability and toxicity of anthropogenic platinum compounds emitted into the environment from sources including vehicle emission catalysts (VEC), the platinum species present in selected North American sourced fresh and road-aged VEC were determined by Pt and Cl X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure at the Pt L3 and L2 edges of the solid phase catalysts revealed mainly oxidic species in the fresh catalysts and metallic components dominant in the road-aged catalysts. In addition, some bimetallic components (Pt-Ni, Pt-Pd, Pt-Rh) were observed in the road-aged catalysts from supporting Ni-, Pd-, and Rh-K edge XAS studies.

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Dec
1969

HIV superinfection (reinfection) has been reported in several settings, but no study has been designed and powered to rigorously compare its incidence to that of initial infection. Determining whether HIV infection reduces the risk of superinfection is critical to understanding whether an immune response to natural HIV infection is protective. This study compares the incidence of initial infection and superinfection in a prospective seroincident cohort of high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya.

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Sep
2013

The Carba NP test was evaluated against a panel of 244 carbapenemase- and non-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. We confirmed the 100% specificity and positive predictive value of the test, but the sensitivity and negative predictive value were 72.5% and 69.

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Jun
2013

We report emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky in Canada during 2003-2009. All isolates had similar macrorestriction patterns and were multilocus sequence type ST198, which has been observed in Europe and Africa. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S.

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Jun
2013

We present a method for forming ordered rhodium nanostructures on a solid support. The approach makes use of a block copolymer to create and assemble rhodium chloride nanoparticles from solution onto a surface; subsequent plasma and thermal processing are employed to remove the polymer and fully convert the nanostructures to metallic rhodium. Films cast from a solution of the triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) dissolved in toluene with rhodium(III) chloride hydrate were capable of producing a monolayer of rhodium nanoparticles of uniform size and interparticle spacing.

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Feb
2013

Columnar thin films of undoped ceria were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The films, deposited on Pt-coated MgO(100) substrates, display a columnar microstructure with nanometer scale grain size and ~30% overall porosity. Through-plane (thickness mode) electrical conductivity was measured by AC impedance spectroscopy.

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Oct
2012

To determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid pR55 from a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that was isolated from a urinary tract infection in 1969 in a French hospital and compare it with those of contemporary emerging IncA/C plasmids.
The plasmid was purified and sequenced using a 454 sequencing approach. After draft assembly, additional PCRs and walking reads were performed for gap closure.

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Dec
2011

The standard measure of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) efficacy in treating exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA). CFA measurement involves 72-hour stool collection, which presents a logistical challenge because, although the test may be performed on an outpatient basis in clinical practice, hospitalization is needed if assurance of complete collection and 100% compliance is required, for example, in controlled situations such as clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate sparse stool sample collection as an alternative to complete 72-hour collection for measurement of stool fat in subjects with EPI.

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Aug
2011

New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a recently identified metallo-β-lactamase that confers resistance to carbapenems and all other β-lactam antibiotics, with the exception of aztreonam. NDM-1 is also associated with resistance to many other classes of antibiotics. The enzyme was first identified in organisms isolated from a patient in Sweden who had previously received medical treatment in India, but it is now recognized as endemic throughout India and Pakistan and has spread worldwide.

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Apr
2011

Clostridium difficile is an important pathogen in Canadian health care facilities, and infection prevention and control (IPC) practices are crucial to reducing C difficile infections (CDIs). We performed a cross-sectional study to identify CDI-related IPC practices in Canadian health care facilities.
A survey assessing facility characteristics, CDI testing strategies, CDI contact precautions, and antimicrobial stewardship programs was sent to Canadian health care facilities in February 2005.

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Jan
2011

Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates harboring New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) were isolated from a patient who had returned to Canada from India. The NDM-1 gene was found on closely related incompatibility group A/C type plasmids. The occurrence of NDM-1 in North America is a major public health concern.

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Jan
2011

Trauma systems origins in the United States.

J Trauma Nurs 2010 Jul-Sep;17(3):126-34; quiz 135-6
David R Boyd
The origins of the US Civilian Trauma and Emergency Medical Services Systems (EMSS) started in the 1970s are presented. The conceptual basis, strategic, and tactical implementation approaches used to establish the national program are described. The trauma and other clinical systems were extensions of proven clinical methods initially from cardiac and trauma units and deployed in new settings.

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