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Author: Davide Zanchi (15)


Dec
1969

Cognitive functions progressively deteriorate during aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aims at investigating differences in working memory performance as well as functional brain changes during the earliest stages of cognitive decline in health elderly individuals.
62 elderly individuals (41 females), including 41 controls (35 females) and 21 middle cognitive impairment subjects (6 females), underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and an fMRI examination in a N-back paradigm contrasting 2-back vs.

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Dec
2017

Stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are frequently used as cognitive enhancers in healthy people, whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is proposed to enhance mood and empathy in healthy subjects. However, comparative data on the effects of MPH and modafinil on negative emotions in healthy subjects have been widely missing. The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of MPH and modafinil on the neural correlates of fearful face processing using MDMA as a positive control.

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Dec
2017

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) is based on the assumption that the vascular response and the blood oxygenation level-dependent response are homogenous across the entire brain. However, this a priori hypothesis is not consistent with the well-known variability of cerebral vascular territories. To explore whether the RS networks are influenced by varied vascular speed in different vascular territories, we assessed the time-shift maps that give an estimate of the local timing of the vascular response and checked whether local differences in this timing have an impact on the estimates of RS networks.

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Oct
2017

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain.

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Sep
2017

The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety.

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Sep
2017

Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects.
Using a double-blind, within-subject, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine were administrated to 21 healthy subjects while performing a go/no-go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition.

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Mar
2017

Shoulder apprehension is more complex than a pure mechanical problem of the shoulder, creating a scar at the brain level that prevents the performance of specific movements. Surgery corrects for shoulder instability at the physical level, but a re-dislocation within the first year is rather common. Predicting which patient will be likely to have re-dislocation is therefore crucial.

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Dec
1969

In contrast to the idea that hippocampal and amygdala volume loss occur in late phases of neurodegeneration, recent contributions point to the relevance of preexisting structural deficits that are associated with aging and are independent of amyloid deposition in preclinical Alzheimer disease cases. The present work explores GM hippocampal and amygdala volumes in elderly controls displaying the first signs of cognitive decline. 455 subjects (263 females), including 374 controls (228 females) and 81 middle cognitive impairment subjects (35 females), underwent two neuropsychological evaluations (baseline and 18 months follow-up) and a MRI-T1 examination (only baseline).

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Feb
2017

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings indicate that shoulder apprehension is more complex than a pure mechanical problem of the shoulder, showing a direct modification in functional brain networks associated with motor inhibition and emotional regulation. The current study extends these findings by investigating further structural alterations in patients with shoulder apprehension compared to controls. 14 aged patients with shoulder apprehension (27.

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Dec
1969

Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters.

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Dec
1969

Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers.
First, we compared 29 females (28.

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Oct
2016

Depending on their protein content, single meals can rapidly influence the uptake of amino acids into the brain and thereby modify brain functions. The current study investigates the effects of two different amino acids on the human gut-brain system, using a multimodal approach, integrating physiological and neuroimaging data. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, L-tryptophan, L-leucine, glucose and water were administered directly into the gut of 20 healthy subjects.

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Dec
1969

Taste perception is one of the most important primary oral reinforcers, driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible.
In the present pilot study, we determined the effects of five taste qualities "bitter" (quinine), "sweet" (glucose), "sour" (citric acid), "salty" (NaCl) and "umami" (monosodium glutamate, MSG) on working memory processing using functional MRI and their effect on plasma insulin and glucose levels.

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Nov
2015

Although many smokers try to quit smoking, only about 20-25 percent will achieve abstinence despite 6 months or more of gold-standard treatment. This low success rate suggests long-term changes in the brain related to smoking, which remain poorly understood. We compared ex-smokers to both active smokers and non-smokers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore persistent modifications in brain activity and network organization.

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Dec
2015

Anterior shoulder apprehension is a commonly reported complaint in anterior shoulder instability, which may lead to patient morbidity and impede shoulder function. It is the result of a cognitively complex mechanism, which includes anxiety, salience, fear, and anticipation.
The aim of this prospective case-control study was to correlate five clinically established scores using functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activation patterns in patients with apprehension related to anterior shoulder instability.

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