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Author: Dinesh Talwar (63)


Jan
2018

Telomere biology, a key component of the hallmarks of ageing, offers insight into dysregulation of normative ageing processes that accompany age-related diseases such as cancer. Telomere homeostasis is tightly linked to cellular metabolism, and in particular with mitochondrial physiology, which is also diminished during cellular senescence and normative physiological ageing. Inherent in the biochemistry of these processes is the role of magnesium, one of the main cellular ions and an essential cofactor in all reactions that use ATP.

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Dec
1969


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Feb
2017

There is increasing evidence that the plasma concentration of vitamin D, carotenoids, zinc and selenium are associated with the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response. In order to examine whether other vitamins may be affected and whether red cell concentrations are less affected by systemic inflammation the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the systemic inflammatory response on red cell measurements of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and plasma concentration of vitamin C and E in a large cohort of patients referred for a nutritional screen.
Patients referred for nutritional assessment of B1 (n = 551), B2 (n = 251), B6 (n = 313), ascorbic acid (n = 494) and α-tocopherol (n = 395) concentrations.

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Dec
2016

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and there is an established association between vasculopathy affecting the kidney and eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel, rapid method for high-definition imaging of the retina and choroid. Its use in patients at high cardiovascular disease risk remains unexplored.

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Apr
2017

Critically ill patients experience metabolic disorders including hypercatabolic state and hyperglycaemia, and these are associated with poor outcome. Hyperglycaemia and asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) are reported to have significant influences on endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma ADMA and related arginine metabolism in patients with critical illness.

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Oct
2016

The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin, and its relationship with common serum biochemical measures of iron status including total iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, and ferritin. Retrospective interrogation of laboratory computer databases at 4 centers between 2006 and 2011 provided results from patients in which serum CRP and albumin had been measured together with iron studies (iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation, n = 16,522) and ferritin (n = 7,226). Analyte results were categorized into groups according to CRP and albumin.

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Sep
2016

Zinc-induced copper deficiency is a condition whose diagnosis is often delayed allowing severe and usually irreversible neurology symptoms to develop. Plasma copper concentrations are usually low and plasma zinc concentrations high. The aim of this study was to measure the predictive value of this combination of results as a means of facilitating its early diagnosis.

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Apr
2015

A new strategy has been developed for the oxidant- and base-free dehydrogenative coupling of N-heterocycles at mild conditions. Under the action of an iridium catalyst, N-heterocycles undergo multiple sp(3) CH activation steps, generating a nucleophilic enamine that reacts in situ with various electrophiles to give highly functionalized products. The dehydrogenative coupling can be cascaded with Friedel-Crafts addition, resulting in a double functionalization of the N-heterocycles.

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Apr
2016

The magnitude of systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by C-reactive protein (CRP), is a major factor associated with lower zinc and selenium. They may also be influenced by their binding proteins, such as albumin. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between plasma zinc, selenium and the systemic inflammatory response in a large cohort of patients referred for nutritional screen and also to examine these relationships in patients with critical illness.

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Dec
1969

Markers of the systemic inflammatory response, including C-reactive protein and albumin (combined to form the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score), as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts have been shown to be prognostic of survival in patients with cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic relationship between these markers of the systemic inflammatory response and all-cause, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in a large incidentally sampled cohort.
Patients (n = 160 481) who had an incidental blood sample taken between 2000 and 2008 were studied for the prognostic value of C-reactive protein (>10mg/l, albumin (>35mg/l), neutrophil (>7.

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Mar
2015

A cyclometalated iridium complex is shown to catalyse the transfer hydrogenation of various nitrogen heterocycles, including but not limited to quinolines, isoquinolines, indoles and pyridinium salts, in an aqueous solution of HCO2H/HCO2Na under mild conditions. The catalyst shows excellent functional-group compatibility and high turnover number (up to 7500), with catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mol % being feasible.

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Sep
2014

Cyclometalated iridium complexes are shown to be highly efficient and chemoselective catalysts for the transfer hydrogenation of a wide range of carbonyl groups with formic acid in water. Examples include α-substituted ketones (α-ether, α-halo, α-hydroxy, α-amino, α-nitrile or α-ester), α-keto esters, β-keto esters and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. The reduction was carried out at substrate/catalyst ratios of up to 50 000 at pH 4.

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Dec
1969

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) deficiencies are associated with several diseases. The magnitude of systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by C-reactive protein (CRP), is a major factor associated with lower 25(OH)D. Other aspects of the systemic inflammatory response may be important in determining plasma 25 (OH)D concentrations.

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Jan
2014

Cyclometalated iridium complexes are found to be versatile catalysts for the direct reductive amination (DRA) of carbonyls to give primary amines under transfer-hydrogenation conditions with ammonium formate as both the nitrogen and hydrogen source. These complexes are easy to synthesise and their ligands can be easily tuned. The activity and chemoselectivity of the catalyst towards primary amines is excellent, with a substrate to catalyst ratio (S/C) of 1000 being feasible.

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Apr
2014

The purpose of the study is to examine the value of both plasma and red cell trace element measurements when assessing nutritional status in patients with critical illness.
A total of 125 patients who were admitted to intensive care unit with evidence of systemic inflammatory response as per Bone's criteria were recruited. Venous blood samples were obtained from all on admission and, in 31 of the 125 patients, on approximately days 4 and 7.

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Aug
2013

Cyclometallated Cp*Ir(N^C)Cl complexes derived from N-aryl ketimines are highly active catalysts for the reduction of N-heterocycles under ambient conditions and 1 atm H2 pressure. The reaction tolerates a broad range of other potentially reducible functionalities and does not require the use of specialised equipment, additives or purified solvent.

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Jul
2013

The management of epilepsy in children is particularly challenging when seizures are resistant to antiepileptic medications, or undergo many changes in seizure type over time, or have comorbid cognitive, behavioral, or motor deficits. Despite efforts to classify such epilepsies based on clinical and electroencephalographic criteria, many children never receive a definitive etiologic diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is proving to be a highly effective method for identifying de novo variants that cause neurologic disorders, especially those associated with abnormal brain development.

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Jun
2013

The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score that uses thresholds of C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/L) and albumin (< 35 g/L), has been found to be independently prognostic of survival in patients with cancer. The objective of the current study was to establish whether the addition of a differential leukocyte count and a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurement enhanced the prognostic value of the mGPS.
A total of 12,119 patients who had an incidental blood sample taken between 2000 and 2007 for C-reactive protein, albumin, and a differential leukocyte count as well as a diagnosis of cancer made within 2 years were identified.

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Jul
2013

Patients with colorectal cancer who have a raised systemic inflammatory response before surgery have been shown to have poorer long-term and short-term outcomes. The presence of an ongoing systemic inflammatory response in these patients may be due to impaired cortisol production. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the perioperative systemic inflammatory response and endogenous cortisol production.

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Mar
2013

Reductive amination of various ketones and aldehydes by transfer hydrogenation under aqueous conditions has been developed, by using cyclometallated iridium complexes as catalysts and formate as hydrogen source. The pH value of the solution is shown to be critical for a high catalytic chemoselectivity and activity, with the best pH value being 4.8.

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Oct
2013

Plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity are commonly used as markers of selenium nutritional status. However, plasma selenium concentrations fall independently of selenium status during the acute phase response and GPx is analytically problematic. The assay for erythrocyte selenium is robust and concentrations are unaffected by the systemic inflammatory response.

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Jan
2013

Arterial stiffness and impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability contribute to the high risk for cardiovascular disease in CKD. Both asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO production, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) oppose the actions of NO, suggesting that ET-1 receptor antagonists may have a role in cardiovascular protection in CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, three-way crossover study in 27 patients with proteinuric CKD to compare the effects of the ET(A) receptor antagonist sitaxentan, nifedipine, and placebo on proteinuria, BP, arterial stiffness, and various cardiovascular biomarkers.

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Dec
1969

B vitamins have been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. It is therefore of interest that plasma B6 falls as part of the systemic inflammatory response (SIR), whereas red cell concentrations do not. The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) is a validated inflammation-based prognostic score that consists of a combination of albumin and C-reactive protein concentrations.

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Mar
2012

Individuals with severe, sporadic disorders of infantile onset represent an important class of disease for which discovery of the underlying genetic architecture is not amenable to traditional genetic analysis. Full-genome sequencing of affected individuals and their parents provides a powerful alternative strategy for gene discovery. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on a family quartet containing an affected proband and her unaffected parents and sibling.

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Jan
2012

Plasma concentrations of several trace elements and vitamins decrease because of the systemic inflammatory response. Thus, low values do not necessarily indicate deficiency.
The magnitude of this effect on plasma micronutrient concentrations was investigated to provide guidance on the interpretation of routine clinical results.

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Sep
2012

Nutritional therapy is the primary treatment for active pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) in the UK/Europe, improving disease activity and anthropometry. This study assessed changes in micronutrient status during exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN).
Seventeen children (male/female: 8/9; median age: 12.

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Sep
2011

Increasing chronological age is a risk factor for many types of cancer including colorectal. An understanding of the biology of aging and factors which regulate it may provide insight into cancer pathogenesis. The role of telomere biology in both the cancer and aging process could prove useful in this regard.

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Nov
2011

Components of the systemic inflammatory response, combined to form inflammation-based prognostic scores (modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Prognostic Index (PI), Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI)) have been associated with cancer specific survival. The aim of the present study was to compare the prognostic value of these scores.
Patients (n=27,031) who had an incidental blood sample taken between 2000 and 2007 for C-reactive protein, albumin, white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, as well as a diagnosis of cancer (Scottish Cancer Registry) were identified.

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May
2011

Studies indicate that low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with a range of disease processes, many of which are inflammatory. However, other lipid-soluble vitamins decrease during the systemic inflammatory response, and this response may confound the interpretation of plasma 25(OH)D.
The objective was to examine whether plasma 25(OH)D concentrations change during evolution of the systemic inflammatory response.

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May
2011

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease to which co-morbidity and associated conventional risk factors contribute. We hypothesised that arterial stiffness (AS) and endothelial dysfunction (ED), as surrogates of cardiovascular risk, would worsen as renal function declined even in patients without co-morbidity and that this would relate to emerging cardiovascular risk factors.
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), as a measure of AS, and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, as a measure of ED, were assessed in CKD patients without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus.

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Jun
2011

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations are increased in critically ill patients and may play a role in multiple organ failure. However, plasma ADMA concentrations during the development of the inflammatory response have not been documented. We measured plasma ADMA, as well as urinary excretion of its major metabolite dimethylamine, and nitrate as a marker of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, in a cohort of patients undergoing elective knee arthroplasty that is known to provoke a significant inflammatory response.

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Nov
2010

There is some evidence that the relationship between plasma and red cell vitamin B2 concentrations is perturbed in the critically ill patient. The aim of the present study was to examine the longitudinal interrelationships between riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in plasma and red cells in patients with critical illness.
Riboflavin, FMN and FAD concentrations were measured, by HPLC, in plasma and red cells in healthy subjects (n=119) and in critically ill patients (n=125) on admission and on follow-up.

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Jun
2010

Antioxidant vitamins are often described as having "independent" associations with risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We aimed to compare to what extent a range of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids are associated with adulthood and childhood markers of socioeconomic deprivation and to adverse lifestyle factors.
Socioeconomic and lifestyle measures were available in 1040 men and 1298 women from the MIDSPAN Family Study (30-59 years at baseline) together with circulating levels of vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene).

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Nov
2009

There is some evidence that the plasma vitamin E status is perturbed as part of systemic inflammatory response and correcting this with other plasma markers may not lead to reliable results. The aim of the present study was to examine the longitudinal inter-relationships between plasma and red blood cell vitamin alpha-tocopherol in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
alpha-tocopherol concentrations were measured, by HPLC, in plasma and red blood cells in normal subjects (n=67) and in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (n=82) on admission and on follow-up.

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Mar
2009

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis which has been implicated in the endothelial dysfunction. Methods for ADMA measurement often yield widely differing results, and few methods simultaneously offer satisfactory accuracy and precision. We describe a fully validated HPLC method for analysis of arginine and its methylated derivatives in human plasma using a novel internal standard.

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Nov
2008

Both the tumour growth and progression and the systemic inflammatory response have the potential to increase oxidative stress. We therefore examined the relationship between lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamins, lipid peroxidation, the systemic inflammatory response and survival in patients with primary operable (n = 53) and advanced inoperable (n = 53) colorectal cancer. Compared with those patients with primary operable colorectal cancer, patients with unresectable liver disease had significantly lower median concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (p < 0.

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Jul
2008

Evidence suggests that the relation between plasma and red cell vitamin B-6 concentrations is perturbed as part of the systemic inflammatory response in critically ill patients.
The aim was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal interrelations between pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) concentrations in plasma and red and white cells in patients with critical illness.
PLP and PL concentrations were measured by HPLC in plasma and red and white cells in normal subjects (n = 126) and critically ill patients (n = 96) on admission and on follow-up.

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Feb
2008

Measuring the nutritional status of trace elements in plasma is invalidated in the presence of a systemic inflammatory response. We examined the potential of erythrocytes to assess copper, zinc and selenium status in such situations.
Venous blood samples were withdrawn pre-operatively and at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h post-operatively from 11 patients (6 males and 5 females) who were admitted for elective knee arthroplasty.

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Feb
2008

The authors report a case series of presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) from India. Patients with progressive diminution of vision and having subretinal neovascularisation (SRNVM) were evaluated thoroughly to look for signs of POHS. Three patients had features suggestive of POHS, which to the best of the authors' knowledge is the first case series reported from India.

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Sep
2007

The plasma concentration of vitamin K(1) (phylloquinone) is the most reliable index for assessing vitamin K status. Our aim was to analytically validate an HPLC method for quantifying phylloquinone in plasma and to examine the effect of plasma triglyceride concentration on the phylloquinone reference interval. We also examined the effect of acute-phase response on phylloquinone concentration in plasma.

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Oct
2007

Panproctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis. The long-term nutritional consequences after pouch surgery are unknown. We have assessed the nutritional status of the essential trace elements-zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium-in patients several years (median, 10 (range, 2-15) years) after surgery.

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Oct
2007

The aim of the study was to compare the visual outcomes of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin and transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNVM) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).
Patients with subfoveal classic CNVM caused by ARMD attending vitreo-retinal services at a tertiary care setup were included in this nonrandomized, open label, prospective, clinical, comparative pilot trial.
Standardized refraction, visual acuity testing, evaluation of fundus and serial color photography and fundus fluorescein angiography were carried out to evaluate the effects of treatment in 32 eyes each undergoing either PDT or TTT.

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Oct
2005

The aim of the present study was to examine the time course of the change in the concentrations of plasma retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene (antioxidant vitamins) and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) in patients following elective knee arthroplasty.
Patients (n=20) who underwent an elective knee arthroplasty, had venous blood samples withdrawn pre-operatively and at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h after the start of surgery for the analysis of circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde and also the lipid soluble antioxidants vitamins.
Over the study period of 0-168 h there was a significant increase in circulating C-reactive protein concentrations (peak 48 h, P<0.

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Nov
2005

Components of biological variation can be used to define objective quality specifications (imprecision, bias, and total error), to assess the usefulness of reference values [index of individuality (II)], and to evaluate significance of changes in serial results from an individual [reference change value (RCV)]. However, biological variation data on vitamins in blood are limited. The aims of the present study were to determine the intra- and interindividual biological variation of vitamins A, E, B(1), B(2), B(6), C, and K and carotenoids in plasma, whole blood, or erythrocytes from apparently healthy persons and to define quality specifications for vitamin measurements based on their biology.

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Feb
2006

The relationship between lipid soluble antioxidant vitamins, lipid peroxidation, disease stage and the systemic inflammatory response were examined in healthy subjects (n = 14), patients with benign prostate hyperplasia BPH (n = 20), localized (n = 40) and metastatic (n = 38) prostate cancer. Prostate cancer patients had higher concentrations of malondialdehyde (p < 0.05) and lower circulating concentrations of lutein (p < 0.

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Dec
2005

Low vitamin B-complex status has been associated with poorer outcome in critically-ill patients. However, these findings have been based on indirect methods. Using direct methods for assessing vitamin status, we examined the effect of B-complex vitamin supplementation by measuring plasma and red blood cell B1, B2 and B6-vitamin concentrations in critically-ill patients.

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