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Author: Elizabeth Evans (166)


Feb
2018

Despite the wide availability of effective weight loss programmes, maintenance of weight loss remains challenging. Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with binge eating and may represent one barrier to long-term intervention effectiveness in obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation difficulties and the extent of weight regain in a sample of adults who had lost, and then regained, weight, and to examine the characteristics associated with emotional difficulties.

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Feb
2018

Mating systems have broad impacts on how sexual selection and mate choice operate within a species, but studies of mating behavior in the laboratory may not reflect how these processes occur in the wild. Here, we examined the mating behavior of the neotropical butterflyin the field by releasing larvae and virgin females and observing how they mated.is considered a pupal-mating species (i.

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Jan
2018

Mixed ductal-lobular carcinomas (MDL) display both ductal and lobular morphology, and are an archetypal example of intra-tumour morphological heterogeneity. The mechanisms underlying coexistence of these different morphologic entities are poorly understood, although theories include that these components either represent 'collision' of independent tumours or evolve from a common ancestor. We performed comprehensive clinico-pathological analysis of a cohort of 82 MDLs and found: i) MDLs more frequently co-exist with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) than lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); ii) the E-cadherin-catenin complex was normal in the ductal component in 77.

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Jan
2018

UK guidelines recommend that patients with obesity in primary care receive opportunistic weight loss advice from health care professionals, but there is a lack of research into the characteristics and existing weight management practices of these patients. The aim of this study was to characterise primary care patients with obesity in England, to inform the screening, support, and referral options appropriate to this group.
We surveyed 1309 patients registered at 15 GP practices in North East England, aged ≥18 years and with objectively recorded obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m).

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Nov
2017

To examine differences by US military Veteran status and gender in associations between childhood adversity and DSM-5 lifetime alcohol and drug use disorders (AUD/DUD).
We analyzed nationally representative data from 3119 Veterans (n = 379 women; n = 2740 men) and 33,182 civilians (n = 20,066 women; n = 13,116 men) as provided by the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III). We used weighted multinomial logistic regression, tested interaction terms, and calculated predicted probabilities by Veteran status and gender, controlling for covariates.

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Jan
2018

Only 1 in 5 of the nearly 2.4 million Americans with an opioid use disorder received treatment in 2015. Fewer than half of Californians who received treatment in 2014 received opioid agonist treatment (OAT), and regulations for admission to OAT in California are more stringent than federal regulations.

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Jan
2018

CKD is steadily increasing along with obesity worldwide. Furthermore, obesity is a proinflammatory risk factor for progression of CKD and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that implementation of caloric restriction and aerobic exercise is feasible and can improve the proinflammatory metabolic milieu in patients with moderate to severe CKD through a pilot, randomized, 2×2 factorial design trial.

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Dec
2017

Prevalence of obesity and related complications such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Metabolic complications of obesity arise in part due to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) dysfunction. However, it is currently unclear why some obese individuals develop insulin resistance and T2D and others do not.

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Nov
2017

Polydrug use may challenge effective treatment for substance use disorders. We evaluate whether secondary substance use modifies the association between treatment and primary drug use among primary heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine (MA) users.
Data were obtained from prospective cohort studies on people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in California, USA.

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Nov
2017

Current trends, including an aging population; the impact of the Affordable Care Act; increased complexity and acuity of patient needs; shorter hospital stays; and higher patient expectations have resulted in a significant demand for reconfiguration of the bedside nursing model. The health care system is further complicated by a shortage of highly trained nurses, challenging financial incentive models, and inefficient traditional staffing models. These challenges have increased the urgency for designing a more efficient, cost-effective care delivery model.

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Aug
2017

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with abnormal lipid profiles and altered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size patterns. Lower levels of the larger, cardioprotective HDL particles found in CKD may play a role in the increased risk for cardiovascular disease in these patients. The current study was designed to assess the effects of short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training on the HDL particle pattern and overall lipid profiles in stage 3 CKD patients.

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Aug
2017

Television consumption influences perceptions of attractive female body size. However, cross-cultural research examining media influence on body ideals is typically confounded by differences in the availability of reliable and diverse foodstuffs. 112 participants were recruited from 3 Nicaraguan villages that differed in television consumption and nutritional status, such that the contribution of both factors could be revealed.

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Feb
2017

Yoga practice is known to improve well-being and decrease stress. However, acute yoga is understudied. This study investigated the effects of two different types of yoga on affect and salivary cortisol levels in college women.

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Dec
1969

This report is a summary of 'New Cancer Immunotherapy Agents in Development' program, which took place in association with the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), on November 9, 2016 in National Harbor, Maryland. Presenters gave brief overviews of emerging clinical and pre-clinical immune-based agents and combinations, before participating in an extended panel discussion with multidisciplinary leaders, including members of the FDA, leading academic institutions and industrial drug developers, to consider topics relevant to the future of cancer immunotherapy.

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Apr
2017

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a common reason for emergency department (ED) visits. The objective of this study was to determine if there were gender differences in adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) STI diagnosis and treatment guidelines, as documented by emergency providers.
We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients treated for urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in the EDs of three hospitals in a Pennsylvania network during a calendar year.

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Dec
1969

To examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) type on SUD persistence.
Data were provided by 1025 women and 1835 men from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender and race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic) moderate the effects of DSM-IV defined past-12 month SUD type (alcohol, drug, poly-substance) on SUD persistence at 3-year follow-up, controlling for covariates. Using gender-stratified weighted binary logistic regression, we examined predictors of SUD persistence, tested an SUD type by race/ethnicity interaction term, and calculated and conducted Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons of predicted probabilities.

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Dec
1969

This chapter describes two different methodologies used to improve the analytical performance of colorimetric paper-based biosensors. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) have been produced by a stamping process and COlaser ablation and modified, respectively, through an oxidation step and incorporation of silica nanoparticles on the paper structure. Both methods are employed in order to overcome the largest problem associated with colorimetric detection, the heterogeneity of the color distribution in the detection zones.

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Jul
2017

To examine gender differences in the associations between childhood adversity and different types of substance use disorders and whether gender moderates these relationships.
We analyzed data from 19,209 women and 13,898 men as provided by Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender moderates the associations between childhood adversity and DSM-IV defined lifetime occurrence of alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders. We used multinomial logistic regression, weighted to be representative of the US adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population, and we calculated predicted probabilities by gender, controlling for covariates.

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Jan
2017

After weight loss, most individuals regain lost weight. Interventions to support the transition from successful loss to weight loss maintenance (WLM), regardless of the method of prior weight loss, are needed. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a face-to-face behavioural intervention session to support overweight and obese individuals who have recently lost a clinically significant amount of weight in the transition to WLM; (2) to assess the single-session intervention for acceptability and feasibility prior to its use in a larger, 12-month, multi-component trial; and (3) to optimise the intervention session for future use based on participant feedback.

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Aug
2017

Modern full-field digital mammography (FFDM) appears to have increased the detection of breast microcalcification. This retrospective study aimed to assess whether this is associated with over-investigation and possible over-diagnosis of breast pathology of lesser significance.
Three 2-year periods were studied, in which different mammographic technologies were used exclusively viz.

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Jul
2017

The aim was to estimate transitions between periods in and out of treatment, incarceration, and legal supervision, for prescription opioid (PO) and heroin users.
We captured all individuals admitted for the first time for publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in California (2006 to 2010) with linked mortality and criminal justice data. We used Cox proportional hazards and competing risks models to assess the effect of primary PO use (v.

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Jan
2017

In Reply.

Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan;129(1):203
Elizabeth Evans, Miles Murphy, Ethan Balk

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May
2017

Treatment for opioid use disorders (OUD) reduces the risk of mortality and infectious disease transmission; however, opportunities to quantify the potential economic benefits of associated decreases in drug-related crime are scarce. This paper aimed to estimate the costs of crime during and after periods of engagement in publicly funded treatment for OUD to compare total costs of crime during a hypothetical 6-month period following initiation of opioid agonist treatment (OAT) versus detoxification.
Retrospective, administrative data-based cohort study with comprehensive information on drug treatment and criminal justice systems interactions.

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Mar
2017

The coincidence of parasellar aneurysms (IAs) and anterior skull base (ASB) lesions, while rare, presents a management challenge. IAs embedded within, or adjacent to, ASB lesions are at risk in the perioperative period and may have unique presentations, natural histories, and outcomes. The objective of this study was to outline management options and nuances in patients with coexisting IAs and ASB lesions.

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Mar
2017

In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire. A total of 138 adults with OUD (24 female, 114 male) with a mean age of 46.

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Jan
2017

Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction.

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Nov
2016

More information about the pattern of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the course of dementia is needed to inform patients and clinicians and to design future interventions.
To determine the persistence and incidence of BPSD and their relation to cognitive function, in individuals with dementia or in cohorts investigated for dementia onset.
A systematic literature review analysed the baseline prevalence, persistence and incidence of 11 symptoms.

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Feb
2018

To determine how care home managers negotiate the conflict between maintaining a safe environment while enabling the autonomy of residents with dementia. This is important because there is limited research with care home managers; yet, they are key agents in the implementation of national policies.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 managers from care homes offering dementia care in the Northwest of England.

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Nov
2016

A portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CD) was used to determine the inorganic ionic profiles of three pharmaceutical samples and precursors of two illicit drugs (contemporary samples of methylone and para-methoxymethamphetamine). The LODs ranged from 0.10 μmol/L to 1.

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Sep
2016

To compare the long-term risks associated with salpingo-oophorectomy with ovarian conservation at the time of benign hysterectomy.
MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to January 30, 2015.

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Aug
2016

Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders.

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Dec
1969

Lifestyle interventions delivered during the retirement transition might promote healthier ageing. We report a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a web-based platform (Living, Eating, Activity and Planning through retirement; LEAP) promoting healthy eating (based on a Mediterranean diet (MD)), physical activity (PA) and meaningful social roles.
A single blinded, two-arm RCT with individual allocation.

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Oct
2016

A complex interplay of factors is evident in the response of family caring for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of this study was to explore the interaction of these factors.
Quantitative data on health and wellbeing, and coping strategies were obtained for carers and their adult children with ID.

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Nov
2016

Internalization of a thin ideal has been posited as a key risk factor in the development of pathological eating attitudes. Cross-culturally, studies have found a preference for heavier bodies in populations with reduced access to visual media compared to Western populations. As yet, however, there has been little attempt to control for confounding variables in order to isolate the effects of media exposure from other cultural and ecological factors.

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Jan
2017

The current study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between acute and chronic blood pressure responses to aerobic exercise in pre-dialysis patients.
Pre-dialysis kidney patients attended four sessions before being randomized to the treatment (n = 25) or control group (n = 21). In session 1, resting blood pressure was recorded, and these measurements were repeated during the second visit when peak oxygen uptake (VO) was assessed.

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Apr
2016

Paraquat and diquat are among the most commonly used herbicides in the world.
Determine the magnitude, characteristics, and root causes for acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US METHODS: Illnesses associated with paraquat or diquat exposure occurring from 1998 through 2011 were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program (PISP), and the Incident Data System (IDS). Cases identified by the National Poison Data System (NPDS) were reviewed for the years 1998-2003 and 2006-2013.

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Mar
2016

Sleep disturbance in Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2016 Mar 21;170(3):654-60. Epub 2015 Dec 21.
Elizabeth Evans, David Mowat, Meredith Wilson, Stewart Einfeld
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and variable other features including agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, congenital heart defects, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and Hirschsprung disease. The current study investigated sleep disturbance in people with MWS.

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Apr
2016

To compare long-term outcomes among participants randomized to buprenorphine or methadone.
Follow-up was conducted in 2011-14 of 1080 opioid-dependent participants entering seven opioid treatment programs in the United States between 2006 and 2009 and randomized (within each program) to receive open-label buprenorphine/naloxone or methadone for up to 24 weeks; 795 participants completed in-person interviews (~74% follow-up interview rate) covering on average 4.5 years.

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Dec
2015

Semaphorin 4D is highly expressed at the invasive tumor margin and acts as a guidance molecule, restricting movement of tumoricidal immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. We recently showed that antibody neutralization of SEMA4D augmented activated monocyte and anticancer T-cell tumor penetration and that anti-SEMA4D antibody potentiated other immunomodulatory therapies in murine tumor models.

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Mar
2016

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular phenotype switching phenomenon which occurs during normal development and is proposed to promote tumour cell invasive capabilities during tumour progression. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is a histological special type of breast cancer with a peculiar aetiology - the tumour cells display an invasive growth pattern, with detached, single cells or single files of cells, and a canonical feature is the loss of E-cadherin expression. These characteristics are indicative of an EMT or at the very least that they represent some plasticity between phenotypes.

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Oct
2015

Over the past few decades, major strides have advanced the techniques for early detection and treatment of cancer. However, metastatic tumor growth still accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In fact, breast cancers are notorious for relapsing years or decades after the initial clinical treatment, and this relapse can vary according to the type of breast cancer.

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Dec
1969

Semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D or CD100) is a member of the semaphorin family of proteins and an important mediator of the movement and differentiation of multiple cell types, including those of the immune, vascular, and nervous systems. Blocking the binding of SEMA4D to its receptors can result in physiologic changes that may have implications in cancer, autoimmune, and neurological disease. To study the effects of blocking SEMA4D, we generated, in SEMA4D-deficient mice, a panel of SEMA4D-specific hybridomas that react with murine, primate, and human SEMA4D.

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Sep
2015

Effective weight loss interventions are widely available but, after weight loss, most individuals regain weight. This article describes the protocol for the NULevel trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a systematically developed, inexpensive, scalable, technology-assisted, behavioural intervention for weight loss maintenance (WLM) in obese adults after initial weight loss.
A 12-month single-centre, two-armed parallel group, participant randomised controlled superiority trial is underway, recruiting a total of 288 previously obese adults after weight loss of ≥5 % within the previous 12 months.

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Dec
2015

The aim of this study was to determine mental health service utilization patterns among women treated for substance use disorders (SUD) and identify factors associated with patterns of high mental health service use.
Data were provided by 4447 women treated for SUD in California during 2000-2002 for whom mental health services utilization records were acquired. A latent class model was fitted to women's high use of services (>6 services/year over 8 years).

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Oct
2015

Prior studies indicated opioid substitution treatment (OST) reduces mortality risk and improves the odds of accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the relative effects of these treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) are unclear. We determine the independent and joint effects of OST and HAART on mortality, by cause, within a population of HIV-positive PWID initiating HAART.
Using a linked population-level database for British Columbia, Canada, we used time-to-event analytic methods, including competing risks models, proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates, and marginal structural models, to identify the independent and joint effects of OST and HAART on all-cause as well as drug- and HIV-related mortality, controlling for covariates.

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Jul
2015

The active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), is known to be essential for spermatogenesis. Changes to RA levels within the seminiferous epithelium can alter the development of male germ cells, including blocking their differentiation completely. Excess RA has been shown to cause germ cell death in both neonatal and adult animals, yet the cells capable of degrading RA within the testis have yet to be investigated.

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Dec
1969

Good health and well-being in later life are central issues for public health. Retirement presents an opportunity to intervene to improve health and well-being, as individuals may adjust associated lifestyle behaviors. However, there is little evidence about how well-being is experienced in the context of increasingly diverse retirement transitions.

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Apr
2016

Information on the rates and predictors of polypharmacy of central nervous system medication in older people with intellectual disability is limited, despite the increased life expectancy of this group. This study examined central nervous system medication use in an older sample of people with intellectual disability.
Data regarding demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and current medications were collected as part of a larger survey completed by carers of people with intellectual disability over the age of 40 years.

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