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Author: Ellen S Mitchell (23)


Feb
2018

Current evidence on the association between body mass index (BMI) and age at menopause remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between BMI and age at menopause using data from 11 prospective studies. A total of 24,196 women who experienced menopause after recruitment was included.

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Feb
2018

Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions.
A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49-51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity).

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Jan
2018

To assess the relationship of constipation and diarrhea severity during the menopause transition (MT) with age, MT stage, reproductive biomarkers, stress-related biomarkers, and stress-related perceptions.
From 1990 to 1992, women aged 35 to 55 years were recruited from the greater Seattle area; 291 of them consented to ongoing (1990-2013) annual data collection by daily menstrual calendar, health diary, and annual health questionnaire. A subset (n = 131) provided a first morning voided urine specimen (1997-2013).

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Mar
2018

Healthy women do not always consume Recommended Daily Levels of fluid intake ad libitum. We hypothesized that 1) women lose≥1.0% BW during daily activities, 2) that mild body water loss impairs memory and executive function, 3) water intake to recommended daily levels will improve cognitive function.

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Oct
2016

The International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE) project is a global research collaboration that aims to advance understanding of women's reproductive health in relation to chronic disease risk by pooling individual participant data from several cohort and cross-sectional studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of contributing studies and to present the distribution of demographic and reproductive factors and chronic disease outcomes in InterLACE.
InterLACE is an individual-level pooled study of 20 observational studies (12 of which are longitudinal) from ten countries.

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Dec
1969

Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production.

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Sep
2011

The relationships between positive emotional style and acute salivary cortisol and cardiovascular responses to laboratory stress tasks were examined in 40 young women (mean age=28.8 years). Positive emotional style (PES) was measured by aggregating daily positive mood rating scales over one week.

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Aug
2011

The aim of this study was to examine associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses. We recruited 40 healthy females (aged 28.7 ± 6.

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Aug
2011

The ReSTAGE collaboration evaluated four menstrual markers of entry to late-stage menopausal transition. The aim of this study was to assess the additional usefulness of "persistence" in relation to a clinically accessible menstrual marker of late menopausal transition, taking age into account.
In this study, a secondary analysis of menstrual calendar data in two ReSTAGE-collaborating studies with comparatively low age at beginning of menstrual calendar observation was performed.

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Sep
2009

Malfunction of the serotonin system may contribute to memory deficits during aging. We evaluated the 5-HT(6) antagonist RO4368554 in two models of learning and memory in aged rats. Male rats (18 months) were assigned to two groups of equal cognitive performance.

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Jan
2008

5-HT6 receptors have been implicated in consolidation of visuospatial and reward-based learning tasks. Since 5-HT6 receptors may be important in modulation of sensory gating which is often affected in schizophrenic patients, we tested whether Ro 4368554, a 5-HT6 selective antagonist at a dose of 10 mg/kg, could reverse the loss of prepulse inhibition from apomorphine or scopolamine. In addition, we also tested whether Ro 4368554 altered fear conditioning using fear potentiated startle, a model for emotional learning.

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Jan
2008

Criteria for staging the menopausal transition are not established. This article evaluates five bleeding criteria for defining early transition and provides empirically based guidance regarding optimal criteria.
Prospective menstrual calendar data from four population-based cohorts: TREMIN, Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project (MWMHP), Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study (SMWHS), and Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) with annual serum FSH from MWMHP and SWAN.

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Jan
2008

Repeated exposure to cocaine produces enduring forms of drug experience-dependent behavioral plasticity, including conditioned place preference (CPP) and psychomotor sensitization, a progressive and persistent increase in cocaine's psychomotor activating effects. Although serotonin-6 receptors (5-HT6Rs) are abundantly expressed in the brain regions thought to underlie these phenomena, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), surprisingly little is known about the role of 5-HT6Rs in the rewarding and psychomotor activating effects of cocaine.
Viral-mediated gene transfer was used to selectively increase 5-HT6R expression in the NAc of rats.

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Jan
2008

To explore the association of estrogen-related polymorphisms with age at menarche, age at onset and duration of stages of the menopausal transition, and age at final menstrual period (FMP).
A total of 152 white women were genotyped for CYP17, CYP19 3-untranslated region, CYP19 TTTA7-13, HSDB1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and ESR1 polymorphisms. Analysis of variance was used to test a nonspecific model for differences among genotypes associated with each polymorphism.

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Jul
2007

A number of studies have shown that systemic 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists can improve learning and memory, but the mechanism for these observations is not known. As striatum normally expresses 5-HT(6) receptors abundantly and is important in consolidating stimulus-response learning, we used targeted gene delivery to further increase the expression of 5-HT(6) receptors in rat striatum and then examined learning. Increased 5-HT(6) expression had no effect on performance in the Morris water maze, a hippocampal-dependent learning paradigm, and did not alter the latency to approach or consume sucrose tablets.

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Sep
2006

The current criterion for onset of late menopausal transition is amenorrhea of 90 d or more. The Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop proposed alternative criteria based on a shorter period of amenorrhea. Empirical data comparing proposed criteria are not available.

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Aug
2006

The Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop proposed bleeding and hormonal criteria for the menopausal transition, but operational definitions of hormone parameters were not specified.
This paper investigates the longitudinal relationship of annual serum FSH levels with four proposed bleeding criteria for the late menopausal transition in two cohort studies. The goal is to provide empirically based guidance regarding application of hormonal criteria that may be optimal for widespread application in clinical and research settings for assessing menopausal stage.

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Aug
2006

To determine whether cortisol levels change prospectively during the menopausal transition (MT); whether these changes are associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and estrone glucuronide [E1G]), stressors, or menopause symptoms; and whether women who experienced a rise in cortisol levels during the transition had behavioral practices, stressors, vasomotor symptoms, or mood or sleep disturbances that affected hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.
One hundred sixty-nine women in the middle or late MT or early postmenopause stages provided monthly urine specimens for cortisol, FSH, and E1G, and rated symptoms and stress levels as part of a longitudinal study of the MT. Of these women, 91 completed a transition to the next MT stage: from early to middle (n = 30), middle to late (n = 39), or late to postmenopause (n = 22) and were eligible for inclusion in the analyses.

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Mar
2006

Inhibition of 5-HT(6) receptors has been shown to improve memory consolidation, thus we tested whether a novel tryptamine analog with high affinity for 5-HT(6) receptors, BGC20-761 (5-methoxy-2-phenyl-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, PMDT), can enhance long-term memory. BGC20-761 (10 mg/kg i.p.

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Dec
2005

5-HT6 receptors: a novel target for cognitive enhancement.

Pharmacol Ther 2005 Dec 7;108(3):320-33. Epub 2005 Jul 7.
Ellen S Mitchell, John F Neumaier
Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the role of serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptors in higher cognitive processes such as memory. Polymorphisms of the 5-HT6 receptor have been implicated in syndromes that affect cognition, such as schizophrenia and dementia. Manipulation of 5-HT6 receptor activity alters the transmission of several neurotransmitters important in memory: acetylcholine and glutamate, as well as dopamine, ã-aminobutyric acid (GABA), epinephrine (E), and norepinephrine (NE).

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Dec
2003

Poly-drug abuse during pregnancy is a major public health concern. The combined effects of cocaine and ethanol may be more injurious to the fetal nervous system than either drug alone. In order to identify areas of the brain vulnerable to concurrent exposure, we examined the expression of the immediate-early gene (IEG), c-fos, and cleaved caspase-3, the 'executioner' caspase in apoptosis.

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Jul
2003

Hypoxia due to uterine vasoconstriction may be an important cause of the teratogenic consequences of prenatal cocaine exposure. We used immediate-early gene and cleaved caspase-3 expression patterns to monitor fetal brain regions affected by intrauterine hypoxia and prenatal cocaine and pretreatment with the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 to determine how much of the induction observed was due to dopamine. Both cocaine binge (3 x 15 mg/kg) and perinatal asphyxia on embryonic day 22 (E22) induced c-fos in the striatum as well as in several other brain regions within 3 h after treatment.

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Feb
2002

Concurrent use of cocaine and ethanol is a common mode of abuse. Cocaine and ethanol have distinctive pharmacologies but both have been shown to cause uterine vasoconstriction and fetal hypoxia. We developed a paradigm of chronic ethanol exposure via liquid diet coupled with binge cocaine exposure on the last day of gestation.

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