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Author: Emilie Hollville (11)


Feb
2018

The globotriaosylceramide Gb3 is a glycosphingolipid expressed on a subpopulation of germinal center B lymphocytes which has been recognized as the B cell differentiation antigen CD77. Among tumoral cell types, Gb3/CD77 is strongly expressed in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells as well as other solid tumors including breast, testicular and ovarian carcinomas. One known ligand of Gb3/CD77 is Verotoxin-1 (VT-1), a Shiga toxin produced in specific E.

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Dec
2017

Caspases are cysteine proteases that play important and well-defined roles in apoptosis and inflammation. Increasing evidence point to alternative functions of caspases where restricted and localized caspase activation within neurons allows for a variety of non-apoptotic and non-inflammatory processes required for brain development and function. In this review, we highlight sublethal caspase functions in axon and dendrite pruning, neurite outgrowth and dendrite branches formation, as well as in long-term depression and synaptic plasticity.

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Feb
2016

Measuring Apoptosis by Microscopy and Flow Cytometry.

Curr Protoc Immunol 2016 Feb 2;112:14.38.1-14.38.24. Epub 2016 Feb 2.
Emilie Hollville, Seamus J Martin
Apoptosis is a mode of programmed cell death that plays an important role during development and in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Numerous physiological as well as pathological stimuli trigger apoptosis such as engagement of Fas, TRAIL, or TNF receptors, growth factor deprivation, hypoxia, or exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Apoptosis is coordinated from within by members of the caspase family of cysteine proteases that, upon activation, trigger a series of morphological changes including cell shrinkage, extensive plasma membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, DNA hydrolysis, and nuclear fragmentation.

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Nov
2014

Mitochondrial depolarization promotes Parkin- and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)-dependent polyubiquitination of multiple proteins on mitochondrial outer membranes, resulting in the removal of defective mitochondria via mitophagy. Because Parkin mutations occur in Parkinson's disease, a condition associated with the death of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, wild-type Parkin is thought to promote neuronal survival. However, here we show that wild-type Parkin greatly sensitized toward apoptosis induced by mitochondrial depolarization but not by proapoptotic stimuli that failed to activate Parkin.

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Aug
2014

Mitophagy facilitates the selective elimination of impaired or depolarized mitochondria through targeting the latter to autophagosomes. Parkin becomes localized to depolarized mitochondria in a PINK1-dependent manner and polyubiquitinates multiple mitochondrial outer membrane proteins. This permits ubiquitin-binding proteins (e.

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Jun
2013

Apoptosis is a programmed mode of cell death that is accompanied by numerous morphological as well as biochemical changes to the cellular architecture. This results not only in cell death but also in the efficient removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. Apoptotic cells display a range of common characteristics that include cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, cell detachment, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and activation of caspases.

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Mar
2012

BAX/BAK activation leading to mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization is a key commitment point in apoptosis. Chipuk et al. now identify two sphingolipids as specific cofactors for BAX/BAK activation that lower the threshold for apoptosis-associated cytochrome c release.

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Jan
2012

The emergence of skin tumors in patients treated with sorafenib or with more recent BRAF inhibitors is an intriguing and potentially serious event. We carried out a clinical, pathologic, and molecular study of skin lesions occurring in patients receiving sorafenib.
Thirty-one skin lesions from patients receiving sorafenib were characterized clinically and pathologically.

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Mar
2010

Verotoxin (VT-1) is a cytotoxin, produced by Shigella dysenteriae type 1 or by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, which binds specifically to globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). This glycosphingolipid is a B cell differentiation antigen (Gb3/CD77) strongly expressed on Burkitt's lymphoma cells. We have previously shown that, in these cells, VT-1 induces apoptosis via a caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway.

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Nov
2008

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains several carbohydrate-binding proteins, among which is the P. aeruginosa lectin I (PA-IL), which displays affinity for alpha-galactosylated glycans. Glycan arrays were screened and demonstrated stronger binding of PA-IL toward alphaGal1-4betaGal-terminating structures and weaker binding to alphaGal1-3betaGal ones in order to determine which human glycoconjugates could play a role in the carbohydrate-mediated adhesion of the bacteria.

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Jul
2007

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded leader protein, EBNA-LP, strongly activates the EBNA2-mediated transcriptional activation of cellular and viral genes and is therefore important for EBV-induced B-cell transformation. However, a truncated form of EBNA-LP is produced in cells infected with variant EBV strains lacking EBNA2 due to a genetic deletion. The function of this truncated form is unknown.

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