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Author: Eric Emerson (95)


Dec
2017

Dysphagia (feeding and swallowing disorder) is associated with serious health complications and psychosocial sequelae. This review summarizes international research relating to the prevalence of dysphagia in people with intellectual disability. Studies published from 1990 to July 2016 were identified using Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Web of Science, email requests, and cross-citations.

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Nov
2017

Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for mortality. Adults with intellectual disability are extremely inactive, but less is known about physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. This paper examines the participation by adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability in sport/exercise.

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Nov
2017

Children with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities are at greater risk for mental health problems, with socio-economic factors and adversity partly accounting for this. Fewer data are available for adolescents.
Secondary analysis was undertaken of the Next Steps annual panel study following a cohort through adolescence into adulthood containing self-report mental health data up to age 16/17.

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Nov
2017

Among working-age Australian adults with a disability, we assess the association between disability-based discrimination and both overall health and psychological distress.
Using data from the 2015 Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers we estimated the proportion of working-age women and men (15-64 years) with disability who report disability-based discrimination by socio-demographic characteristics and assessed the association between disability-based discrimination and self-reported health and psychological distress.
Nearly 14% of Australians with disability reported disability-based discrimination in the previous year.

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Nov
2017

Constipation can lead to serious health issues and death. This systematic review summarizes international research pertaining to the management of constipation in people with intellectual disability.
Studies published from 1990 to 2017 were identified using Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Web of Science, email requests and cross-citations.

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Dec
1969

People with intellectual disability are a minority group who experience poorer physical and mental health than the general population and have difficulty accessing healthcare services. There is lack of knowledge about healthcare service needs and gaps experienced by people with intellectual disability. This study aims to interrogate a large linked administrative data set containing hospital admissions, presentations to emergency departments (ED) and mortality data to provide evidence to inform the development of improved health and mental health services for this population.

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Mar
2017

Dysphagia (difficulties in eating, drinking or swallowing) is associated with serious health complications and psychosocial sequelae. This review aims to summarise the state of the evidence regarding dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities (excluding prevalence), identify gaps in the evidence base and highlight future research priorities.
Studies published from 1 January 1990 to 19 July 2016 were identified using Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Web of Science, email requests and cross citations.

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Dec
1969

Internationally, men with disabilities have higher rates of social and economic disadvantage and poorer health and wellbeing than men without disabilities. No single study has provided comprehensive, population-level information about the magnitude of such differences among adult men using a well-validated instrument to measure disability.
We analysed baseline data from Ten to Men - an Australian longitudinal study of male health.

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Jan
2017

This study aims to (1) estimate the prevalence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms, diarrhoea and fever in the previous two weeks among 3-4 year old children who are/are not at-risk of intellectual disability in 24 low- and middle-income countries and (2) to investigate possible inequities in access to treatment among affected children.
Cross-sectional survey.
Secondary analysis of Rounds 4 and 5 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 24 low- and middle-income countries (n = 99,934 children).

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Jan
2018

Poor postural care can have severe and life-threatening complications. This scoping review aims to map and summarize existing evidence regarding postural care for people with intellectual disabilities and severely impaired motor function.
Studies were identified via electronic database searches (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science) covering January 1990 to March 2016, and email requests to researcher networks.

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May
2017

Children of parents with intellectual impairment are thought to be at risk for poor social-emotional well-being. This study investigated the relationship between maternal intellectual impairment and poor child social-emotional well-being.
Secondary analysis of data from waves 2-4 of the Millennium Cohort Study (UK).

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Jan
2018

Carers of children with intellectual disability show high rates of parent-related stress and are at an increased risk for deleterious physical and mental health.
This study investigated the relationship between demographic and social characteristics and parenting stress, within two different cross-sectional samples of carers: those who care for an adolescent with an intellectual disability and carers from a population based sample. Participants were 1152 carers from the Household Income and Labour Dynamic in Australia study and 284 carers of adolescents with intellectual disabilities from the Ask study.

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Dec
1969

Reducing the prevalence of and inequities in the distribution of child obesity will require developing interventions that are sensitive to the situation of 'high risk' groups of children. Children with intellectual disability appear to be one such group. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of obesity in children with and without intellectual disability in a longitudinal representative sample of British children and identify risk factors associated with obesity at age 11.

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Sep
2016

Family and cultural inclusion are essential for the healthy development of young Australian Indigenous peoples with low cognitive ability. To date, this issue has received limited research attention. A secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 4 of Footprints in Time, Australia's Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children, was conducted to help address this research gap.

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Jan
2016

Adults with intellectual disability have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. However, little is known about the health of the 'hidden majority' of adults with primarily mild intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. The aims of the present study were: to estimate the physical health status of a population-based sample of British adults with and without mild intellectual disability while controlling for any potentially confounding effects resulting from between-group differences in gender, age, socio-economic disadvantage and neighborhood social capital.

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Feb
2016

There are no population-based estimates of the prevalence of interpersonal violence among people with disabilities in Australia. The project aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of violence for men and women according to disability status; 2) compare the risk of violence among women and men with disabilities to their same-sex non-disabled counterparts and; 3) compare the risk of violence between women and men with disabilities.
We analysed the 2012 Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey on Personal Safety of more than 17,000 adults and estimated the population-weighted prevalence of violence (physical, sexual and intimate partner violence and stalking/harassment) in the past 12 months and since the age of 15.

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Jan
2017

People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in mental health may reflect between-group differences in rates of exposure to common social determinants of poorer health.
The present authors undertook secondary analysis of confidentialized unit records collected in Wave 3 of Understanding Society.

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Jan
2017

Epilepsy is highly prevalent in people with intellectual disabilities and is associated with increased mortality and high healthcare usage. This systematic review summarizes research on service responses to people with intellectual disabilities and epilepsy.
Studies published from 1990 were identified via electronic searches using Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Web of Science, email requests to researcher networks, and cross-citations.

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Jul
2015

Epilepsy is highly prevalent in people with intellectual disabilities and mortality is increased in people with epilepsy generally. This review summarises research on the comparative risk of mortality in people with intellectual disabilities and epilepsy compared to the general population, people with intellectual disabilities without epilepsy, and people with epilepsy without intellectual disabilities.
Studies were identified via electronic searches using Medline, Cinahl and PsycINFO and cross-citations.

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Jul
2015

Epilepsy is more common in people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. However, reported prevalence rates vary widely between studies. This systematic review aimed to provide a summary of prevalence studies and estimates of prevalence based on meta-analyses.

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Nov
2015

Systematic reviews are important in evaluating evidence concerning the health of people with intellectual disabilities. This study conducts a systematic review to identify strengths and gaps in this evidence.
Electronic literature searches and email requests identified systematic reviews published in English from 2008 to 2013 on the health or health care of people with intellectual disabilities.

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Apr
2015

Children with intellectual disability are at increased risk of experiencing poor health relative to their typically developing peers. Previous research indicates that exposure to socio-economic disadvantage contributes towards this disparity but that additional factors (including parenting practices) may be involved in mediating/moderating pathways. This study examined duration of breastfeeding amongst children with and without intellectual disability by a secondary analysis of data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

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Dec
2014

There is extensive evidence from research undertaken on general population samples that people who have more extensive and closer social networks and people who report feeling connected to their local community tend to have better health. However, relatively few studies have examined the relationship between the social connectedness of people with intellectual disabilities and their health.
Secondary analysis of data from Understanding Society, a new longitudinal study focusing on the life experiences of UK citizens.

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Dec
2014

We investigated the association between exposure to environmental risks in early childhood and the prevalence and persistence of conduct difficulties (CD) in children with intellectual disability (ID) who did not have autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children. Results indicated that: (1) exposure to risk was associated with elevated prevalence of CD at age three and, for TD children and children with ID, increased risk of CD persisting to ages five and seven; (2) at all levels of risk, children with ASD were more likely to show persistent CD than other children; (3) children with ID were no more likely to show persistent CD than TD children at low levels of exposure to environmental risk.

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Oct
2014

Very few population-based studies have investigated the association between the onset of health conditions/impairments associated with disability and subsequent well-being.
To examine the association between the onset of disability and four indicators of well-being (full-time engagement in employment or education, financial hardship, social support, subjective well-being) among a nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents and young adults.
Secondary analysis of the first eight waves (2001-2008) of the survey of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia.

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Sep
2014

We examined parenting behaviors, and their association with concurrent and later child behavior problems. Children with an intellectual disability (ID) were identified from a UK birth cohort (N  =  516 at age 5). Compared to parents of children without an ID, parents of children with an ID used discipline less frequently, but reported a more negative relationship with their child.

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Nov
2014

Although polypharmacy is a medication safety concern leading to increased risk of non-adherence, adverse drug reaction and drug-drug interactions, polypharmacy and associated risk factors has rarely been investigated involving people with ID at a population level. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of polypharmacy and to evaluate the role of different factors associated with polypharmacy in a state-wide representative population of adults with ID. In a population-based survey in Victoria, Australia, 897 people with ID 18 years of age or older were selected by simple random sampling.

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Oct
2014

Health checks for people with intellectual disabilities have been recommended as one component of international health policy responses to the poorer health of people with intellectual disabilities. This review updates a previously published review summarising evidence on the impact of health checks on the health and well-being of people with intellectual disabilities. Electronic literature searches and email contacts were used to identify literature relevant to the impact of health checks for people with intellectual disabilities published from 1989 to 2013.

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Sep
2014

The wellbeing of siblings of children with disabilities.

Res Dev Disabil 2014 Sep 28;35(9):2085-92. Epub 2014 May 28.
Eric Emerson, Rebecca Giallo
(1) to estimate the extent of differences in wellbeing between siblings of children with disabilities or long-term health conditions and siblings of 'typically developing' children in a nationally representative cohort of Australian children (the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children); (2) to determine whether any between-group differences in wellbeing may be potentially attributable to between-group differences in exposure to socio-economic disadvantage. The results of our analyses were consistent with the existing literature in indicating that, in unadjusted comparisons, the siblings of children with long-term health conditions or disabilities: (1) had lower wellbeing than their peers on some, but not all, indicators of wellbeing; and (2) that where differences did exist the effect sizes were small. Our results add to the existing literature in: (1) indicating that adjusting for between-group differences in exposure to low SEP and associated adversities eliminated the statistical significance of unadjusted comparisons in the majority of instances; and (2) failing to find any evidence of deterioration over time in the wellbeing of siblings with long-term health conditions or disabilities over a two-year period from age 4/5 to age 6/7.

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Nov
2014

In the context of there being little robust U.K. data on disabled people's exposure to violent crime and hate crime, we examined self-reported rates of exposure over the preceding 12 months to violent crime, hate crime, and disablist hate crime in a newly established survey, the U.

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Mar
2014

People with intellectual disability have significantly higher age-adjusted rates of mortality and morbidity (including obesity) than their non-disabled peers. They are also significantly less likely to be physically active.
Secondary analysis of de-identified cross-sectional data from the first two waves of Understanding Society, a new longitudinal study focusing on the life experiences of UK citizens.

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Apr
2014

This study examined the emotional and behavioural functioning of siblings of children with special health care needs identified in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Of the 106 siblings identified, 15-52% had emotional and behavioural difficulties in the at-risk or clinical range on the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) subscales when aged 4-5 (wave 1), 6-7 (wave 2), 8-9 (wave 3) and 10-11 years (wave 4). After controlling for differences in socio-economic position, siblings had significantly higher difficulties on all subscales than their peers without a brother or sister with a special health care need at most time points.

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Apr
2014

In a representative population-based sample of 46,025 families caring for a young child, parental intellectual disability (identified in 588 families) was associated with increased risk of child developmental delay, child speech and language problems, child behaviour problems and frequent child accidents and injuries. Parental intellectual disability was also associated with increased risk of exposure to a wide range of environmental adversities such as poverty, poor housing and social isolation. Adjusting for between-group differences in exposure to low socio-economic position reduced the risk of adverse child outcomes by over 50% on each of the four measures of child developmental health.

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Mar
2014

People with intellectual disability have significantly higher age-adjusted rates of mortality and morbidity than their non-disabled peers. While self-rated health status is commonly used as an indicator of the health status of populations of interest, few studies have explored the self-rated health of adults with intellectual disability. We undertook secondary analysis of de-identified cross-sectional data from the first waves of two contemporary UK surveys: the Life Opportunities Survey (n=37,513) and Understanding Society (n=50,976).

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Oct
2013

This article examines two methodological issues regarding ways of obtaining and analyzing outcome data for people with intellectual disabilities: (a) self-report and proxy-report data and (b) analysis of population-based data sets. Some people with intellectual disabilities have difficulties with self-reporting due to problems of understanding and communication. However, there are serious doubts about the validity of proxy data for subjective issues.

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Oct
2013

Quality of life is a social construct that is measured by what are considered to be its most appropriate indicators. Quality of life measurement in intellectual disability reflects a variety of indicators, often grouped under life domains. Subjective and objective methods of measuring indicators each have strengths and drawbacks, but it is currently considered best to use both methods.

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Nov
2013

Multiple measures of health and wellbeing of people with intellectual disability (ID) and the general Victorian population were compared using representative population level data. The sample consisted of adults with ID (N=897) and the general Victorian population (N=34,168) living in the state of Victoria in Australia. Proxy respondents were interviewed on behalf of people with ID, while respondents from the general Victorian population were interviewed directly.

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Sep
2013

To describe the rates of anti-social behaviour (ASB) among adolescents with/without mild/moderate intellectual disability (MMID). To estimate whether any differences could be attributable to differences in exposure to extraneous risk factors.
Secondary analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England.

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Nov
2013

Intervention for behavioural and psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities often only takes place once these conditions are well established and more resistant to change. As an alternative, this paper promotes a public health prevention model and maps out opportunities for intervention at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The resulting model is partly derived from generic research into these issues and partly on specific evidence on interventions for people with intellectual disabilities; it also contains more theoretical considerations.

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Jun
2013

The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between maternal psychological well-being and behavior problems in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is bidirectional. Data were available at 9 months, 3 years, and 5 years old for 132 children with ASD, identified from a population-representative sample of UK children. Three-wave cross-lagged models examined reciprocal effects between child behavior and maternal well-being (psychological distress, physical health functioning, and life satisfaction).

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Nov
2012

The world report on disability.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2012 Nov;25(6):495-6
Eric Emerson

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Oct
2012

Human 'functioning' is about how people live on a day-to-day basis. This paper sets out the case for adopting a common language about functioning that would improve population health information and information sharing across health and community service systems.
Modern health systems recognise the importance of human functioning in addition to diagnosis and disease prevention.

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Apr
2012

To determine the extent to which the lower well-being of young Australians with disabilities could be accounted for by increased rates of exposure to adversity and reduced access to personal, economic, social and community resources.
Secondary analysis of data extracted from Waves 1 (2001) to 8 (2008) of the annual longitudinal survey of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia.
Self-reported disability was associated with significantly lower scores on all indicators of psychological well-being.

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Mar
2012

Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is being implemented in more than 90 countries. Concerns have been voiced about the adequacy of the evidence base regarding the efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of CBR. This review summarizes evidence on the efficacy of CBR for children with intellectual disabilities.

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Mar
2012

In low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries, there is a lack of well-trained therapists to provide specialist interventions for children with intellectual disabilities and their families. We sought to identify strategies deliverable by families or non-specialist workers.
After searches of appropriate scientific databases, we applied GRADE methodology to rate the quality of evidence for these interventions.

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Mar
2012

Developmental monitoring of children is an important strategy for the early detection and management of intellectual disabilities (ID) in high-income countries. This review summarizes the literature on identifying children with ID in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries.
Electronic literature database searches were conducted to identify articles in the English language published since 1990 relating to the identification of children with, or at risk of, ID in LAMI countries.

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