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Author: Ernst-Wilhelm Radue (93)


Dec
1969

Cases of higher-than-expected disease activity have been reported following fingolimod discontinuation.
The objective of this paper is to assess the risk of substantially higher-than-expected disease activity post-study drug discontinuation (SDD) at the individual patient level using data from the Phase III, placebo-controlled FREEDOMS and FREEDOMS II trials.
Baseline gadolinium-enhancing T1-lesion volumes were used to statistically model the expected level of MRI disease activity post-SDD.

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Sep
2017

To assess, using structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy (SIENA), the effect of teriflunomide, a once-daily oral immunomodulator, on brain volume loss (BVL) in patients with relapsing forms of MS enrolled in the phase 3 TEMSO study.
TEMSO MR scans were analyzed (study personnel masked to treatment allocation) using SIENA to assess brain volume changes between baseline and years 1 and 2 in patients treated with placebo or teriflunomide. Treatment group comparisons were made via rank analysis of covariance.

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Jul
2017

To assess whether a high-salt diet, as measured by urinary sodium concentration, is associated with faster conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS activity and disability.
BENEFIT was a randomized clinical trial comparing early versus delayed interferon beta-1b treatment in 465 patients with a CIS. Each patient provided a median of 14 (interquartile range = 13-16) spot urine samples throughout the 5-year follow-up.

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Sep
2017

Some gadolinium-enhancing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions remain T1-hypointense over months ("persistent black holes, BHs") and represent areas of pronounced tissue loss. A reduced conversion of enhancing lesions to persistent BHs could suggest a favorable effect of a medication on tissue repair. However, the individual tracking of enhancing lesions can be very time-consuming in large clinical trials.

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Oct
2016

In neuroradiology, highly sophisticated methods such as MRI are implemented to investigate different entities of the central nervous system and to acquire miscellaneous images where tissues display varying degrees of characteristic signal intensity or brightness. Compared to x-ray, CT, and ultrasound, MRI produces clearer images of tissues, body fluids, and fat. The basics of MRI may be unknown to neurologists; this article introduces MRI physics, techniques, and interpretation guidelines.

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Dec
1969

Practice-induced effects of specific balance training on brain structure and activity in elderly people are largely unknown.
In the present study, we investigated morphological and functional brain changes following slacking training (balancing over nylon ribbons) in a group of elderly people.
Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention (mean age: 62.

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Jul
2016

Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD25 that modulates interleukin 2 signaling. The SELECT TRILOGY of clinical studies (SELECT/SELECTION/SELECTED) evaluated the safety and efficacy of daclizumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We report the long-term safety and efficacy of daclizumab 150 mg subcutaneous every 4 weeks in patients with RRMS in the SELECTED open-label extension study.

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Apr
2017

To define values of normalized brain volume (NBV) that can be categorized as low, medium, or high, according to baseline characteristics of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients.
Expected NBV (eNBV) was calculated for each patient based on age, disease duration, sex, baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and T2-lesion volume, entering these variables into a multiple regression model run on 2342 RRMS patients (pooled FREEDOMS/FREEDOMS-II population). According to the difference between their observed NBV and their eNBV, patients were classified as having low NBV, medium NBV, or high NBV.

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May
2016

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects all areas of the brain resulting in both focal and diffuse damage. In Phase 3 clinical trials, fingolimod showed significant reductions in both focal lesions and rate of brain volume loss (BVL) in patients with relapsing-remitting MS.
To investigate if the effects of fingolimod 0.

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Jul
2016

Spinal cord (SC) atrophy is an important contributor to the development of disability in many neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the spinal cord atrophy in clinical trials and clinical practice, largely automated methods are needed due to the sheer amount of data. Moreover, using these methods in longitudinal trials requires them to deliver highly reliable measurements, enabling comparisons of multiple data sets of the same subject over time.

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Dec
1969

The mechanisms leading to disability and the long-term efficacy and safety of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are unclear. We aimed at building a prospective cohort of MS patients with standardized collection of demographic, clinical, MRI data and body fluids that can be used to develop prognostic indicators and biomarkers of disease evolution and therapeutic response. The Swiss MS Cohort (SMSC) is a prospective observational study performed across seven Swiss MS centers including patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), radiologically isolated syndrome or neuromyelitis optica.

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Feb
2016

To minimize the clinical burden associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), early control of focal and diffuse CNS disease activity is a treatment priority. A post hoc analysis was conducted to evaluate the onset of efficacy of fingolimod treatment in patients with relapsing MS. Data from patients who received fingolimod 0.

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Dec
1969

The psychosis high-risk state is accompanied by alterations in functional brain activity during working memory processing. We used binary automatic pattern-classification to discriminate between the at-risk mental state (ARMS), first episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls (HCs) based on n-back WM-induced brain activity. Linear support vector machines and leave-one-out-cross-validation were applied to fMRI data of matched ARMS, FEP and HC (19 subjects/group).

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Dec
1969

'No evidence of disease activity' (NEDA), defined as absence of magnetic resonance imaging activity (T2 and/or gadolinium-enhanced T1 lesions), relapses and disability progression ('NEDA-3'), is used as a comprehensive measure of treatment response in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS), but is weighted towards inflammatory activity. Accelerated brain volume loss (BVL) occurs in RMS and is an objective measure of disease worsening and progression.
To assess the contribution of individual components of NEDA-3 and the impact of adding BVL to NEDA-3 ('NEDA-4') METHODS: We analysed data pooled from two placebo-controlled phase 3 fingolimod trials in RMS and assessed NEDA-4 using different annual BVL mean rate thresholds (0.

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Feb
2016

Clinical evidence in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis suggests an association between MRI outcome measures and disability progression (DP). Post hoc analysis to investigate the association and potential predictive value of brain volume loss (BVL) with long-term DP in FREEDOMS. Patients were categorized into quartiles by SIENA-calculated percent brain volume change from baseline to month (M) 24.

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Nov
2015

To evaluate whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels or tobacco use were associated with conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS) or MS progression/activity in patients presenting with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).
In this prospective, longitudinal study, we measured EBV IgG antibody and cotinine (biomarker of tobacco use) levels at up to 4 time points (baseline, months 6, 12, and 24) among 468 participants with CIS enrolled in the BENEFIT (Betaferon/Betaseron in Newly Emerging Multiple Sclerosis for Initial Treatment) clinical trial. Outcomes included time to conversion to clinically definite or McDonald MS, number of relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) changes, brain and T2 lesion volume changes, and number of new active lesions over 5 years.

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Dec
2015

Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity.

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Dec
1969

Individuals with at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) often suffer from depressive and anxiety symptoms, which are clinically similar to the negative symptomatology described for psychosis. Thus, many ARMS individuals are already being treated with antidepressant medication.
To investigate clinical and structural differences between psychosis high-risk individuals with or without antidepressants.

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Dec
1969

Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages.

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Aug
2015

Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is a semi-quantitative measure that seems to correlate with the degree of myelin loss and generally tissue destruction in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to comprehensively assess the MTR of lesions and normal appearing (NA) tissue separately in the white matter (WM), the cortex, the thalamus and the basal ganglia (BG) and determine their relative contribution to disability. In this cross-sectional study 71 patients were included (59 with relapsing-remitting MS, 12 with secondary progressive MS).

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Jul
2015

To investigate the effect of different natalizumab washout (WO) periods on recurrence of MRI and clinical disease activity in patients switching from natalizumab to fingolimod.
In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (TOFINGO), patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were randomized 1:1:1 to 8-, 12-, or 16-week WO followed by fingolimod treatment over 32 weeks from last natalizumab infusion (LNI). Brain MRI was performed at baseline and weeks 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24.

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Jul
2014

In multiple sclerosis (MS), periaqueductal lesions (PAL) have been described histopathologically.
We sought to investigate the frequency and characteristics of PAL on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).
We analyzed proton density (PD)-weighted MRIs of 247 MS and 10 CIS patients.

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Apr
2015

We assessed CSF levels of the light chain subunit of neurofilaments (NfL) at baseline and after fingolimod therapy or placebo in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Changes in NfL levels were also correlated with relapse and MRI outcomes.
CSF samples were available, at baseline and 12 months after treatment initiation, from a subset of 36 patients with RRMS (fingolimod 0.

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Apr
2015

To assess long-term safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
Patients completing FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral Therapy in MS (FREEDOMS) were eligible for this dose-blinded, parallel-group extension study, continuing fingolimod 0.5 mg/day or 1.

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Apr
2015

This study assesses whether magnetization transfer (MT) imaging provides additive information to conventional MRI in brain tumors.
MT data of 26 patients with neoplastic and metastatic brain tumors were analyzed at 1.5 T.

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Feb
2015

We investigated the determinants and clinical correlations of MRI-detected brain volume loss (BVL) among patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis from the phase 3 trials of fingolimod: FREEDOMS, FREEDOMS II, and TRANSFORMS.
Post hoc analyses were conducted in the intent-to-treat populations from each trial and in a combined dataset of 3,635 patients from the trials and their extensions. The relationship between brain volume changes and demographic, clinical, and MRI parameters was studied in pairwise correlations (Pearson) and in multiple regression models.

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Dec
1969

Brain atrophy has been identified as an important contributing factor to the development of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this respect, more and more interest is focussing on the role of deep grey matter (DGM) areas. Novel data analysis pipelines are available for the automatic segmentation of DGM using three-dimensional (3D) MRI data.

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Mar
2015

Different pathological processes like demyelination and axonal loss can alter the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in brain tissue. The standard method to measure this effect is to scan the respective tissue twice, one with and one without a specific saturation pulse. A major drawback of this technique based on spoiled gradient echo (GRE) sequences relates to its long acquisition time due to the saturation pulses.

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May
2015

In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), the cerebellum is a known predilection site for atrophy. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by extensive lesions in the spinal cord and optic nerve; however, cerebellar involvement has been less studied. Secondary degeneration of the spinocerebellar tract could impact the cerebellum in NMO.

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Dec
2015

The neural mechanisms of heroin addiction are still incompletely understood, even though modern neuroimaging techniques offer insights into disease-related changes in vivo. While changes on cortical structure have been reported in heroin addiction, evidence from subcortical areas remains underrepresented. Functional imaging studies revealed that the brain reward system and particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of drug addiction.

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Dec
2014

Cognitive impairment (CI) can be demonstrated in 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, sometimes starting from the early stages of the disease. The objective of this study was a community-based investigation of FLAIR-hyperintense lesion volumes (LV) and their association with CI in patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS. The neurocognitive assessment was conducted with the brief cognitive screening instrument, MUSIC.

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Sep
2014

Previous studies have demonstrated that white matter (WM) lesions bias automated brain tissue classifications and cerebral volume measurements. However, filling WM lesions using the intensity of neighbouring normal-appearing WM has been shown to increase the accuracy of automated volume measurements in the brain. In the present study, we investigate the influence of WM lesions on cortical thickness (CTh) measures and assessed the impact of lesion filling on both cross-sectional/longitudinal and global/regional measurements of CTh in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.

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Jun
2014

Fingolimod has shown reductions in clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of fingolimod in such patients.
We did this placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 study predominantly in the USA (101 of 117 centres).

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Nov
2014

This double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding phase IIb study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ponesimod, an oral selective S1P1 receptor modulator, for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
464 patients were randomised to receive once-daily oral ponesimod 10, 20 or 40 mg, or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the cumulative number of new T1 gadolinium-enhanced (T1 Gd+) lesions per patient recorded every 4 weeks from weeks 12 to 24 after study drug initiation.

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May
2014

In the SELECT trial, disease activity was reduced in patients with multiple sclerosis who received daclizumab high-yield process (HYP) for 52 weeks. The primary aim of the SELECTION extension study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of extended treatment with daclizumab HYP.
A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, 52-week extension trial was done in 74 centres in the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, India, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and the UK between Feb 13, 2009, and Oct 3, 2012.

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Aug
2014

Deep gray matter (DGM) atrophy has been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) already at early stages of the disease and progresses throughout the disease course. We studied DGM volume and shape and their relation to disability in a large cohort of clinically well-described MS patients using new subcortical segmentation methods and shape analysis. Structural 3D magnetic resonance images were acquired at 1.

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Jul
2014

Recent evidence has revealed abnormal functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing in patients with schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, it still remains unclear whether abnormal frontoparietal connectivity during working memory processing is already evident in the psychosis high-risk state and whether the connection strengths are related to psychopathological outcomes.
Healthy controls and antipsychotic-naive individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) performed an n-back working memory task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Dec
1969

The cerebellum is known to be involved not only in motor but also cognitive and affective processes. Structural changes in the cerebellum in relation to cognitive dysfunction are an emerging topic in the field of neuro-psychiatric disorders. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) cerebellar motor and cognitive dysfunction occur in parallel, early in the onset of the disease, and the cerebellum is one of the predilection sites of atrophy.

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Feb
2014

Patients with highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are at greater risk for disease progression and may respond differently to MS therapeutics than those with less active disease. The current post hoc analysis evaluated the effects of daclizumab high-yield process (DAC HYP) vs. placebo in patients with highly active RRMS in the SELECT study.

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Dec
1969

Structure and function are closely related in the healthy human brain. In patients with chronic heroin exposure, brain imaging studies have identified long-lasting changes in gray matter (GM) volume. More recently, we showed that acute application of heroin in dependent patients results in hypoperfusion of fronto-temporal areas compared with the placebo condition.

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Mar
2014

Progenitor cells from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles are assumed to contribute to remyelination and resolution of black holes (BHs) in multiple sclerosis (MS). This process may depend on the distance between the lesion and the SVZ.
The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between lesion-to-ventricle (LV) distance and persistence of new BHs.

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Dec
1969

We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations.

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Feb
2014

In multiple sclerosis (MS) regional grey matter (GM) atrophy has been associated with disability progression.
The aim of this study was to compare regional GM volume changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with progressive and stable disability, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
We acquired baseline and 1-year follow-up 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of RRMS patients, using two 1.

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Jun
2013

Daclizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody, modulates interleukin-2 signalling by blocking the α subunit (CD25) of the interleukin-2 receptor. We assessed whether daclizumab high-yield process (HYP) would be effective when given as monotherapy for a 1 year treatment period in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 76 centres in the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, India, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, and the UK between Feb 15, 2008, and May 14, 2010.

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Sep
2013

Cortical lesions (CLs) have been reported to be a better predictor for cognitive impairment than white matter (WM) lesions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
The objectives of this article are to investigate the contribution of CLs and WM lesions to cognitive impairment in 91 patients with MS and clinically isolated syndrome, and to test potential associations of CLs and WM lesions with fatigue and depression.
Lesions were scored and segmented on 3D double inversion recovery sequences, according to their location (cortical, WM).

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Nov
2012

Natalizumab is an effective treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) that is associated with a risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Recommendations were published in 2006 to improve early diagnosis of PML using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, due to the small number of MS patients initially diagnosed with PML, the imaging criteria could only be derived from PML lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

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Feb
2013

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with distinguishing features from multiple sclerosis. Understanding of clinical presentation, immunopathology, and imaging features has changed during the last decade. The identification of NMO immunoglobulin G and aquaporin 4 as the target antigen in this disease helped to define the NMO spectrum of disorders and showed that NMO is an autoimmune channelopathy of the central nervous system.

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Dec
2012

The hippocampal formation has been studied extensively in schizophrenic psychoses and alterations in hippocampal anatomy have been consistently reported. Chronic schizophrenia seems to be associated with bilateral hippocampal volume (HV) reduction, while in patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) there are contradictory results. This is the first region of interest (ROI) based follow-up MRI study of hippocampal volume comparing ARMS individuals with and without transition to psychosis.

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Jan
2013

Neuroimaging measures hold promise for enhancing the detection of disease-related genetic variants. In this study, we use advanced multivariate regression methods to assess the predictive value of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on several brain volumetric- and lesion-related neuroimaging measures in a well-characterized cohort of 326 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). SNP selection was constrained to key epigenetic regulatory genes to further explore the emerging role of epigenetics in MS.

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Mar
2013

Several genetic markers have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility; however, uncovering the genetic aetiology of the complex phenotypic expression of MS has been more difficult so far. The most common approach in imaging genetics is based on mass-univariate linear modelling (MULM), which faces several limitations.
Here we apply a novel multivariate statistical model, sparse reduced-rank regression (sRRR), to identify possible associations of glutamate related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and multiple MRI-derived phenotypes in MS.

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