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Author: Esteban M Gorostiaga (33)


Dec
2016

Context- The muscular function restoration related to the type of physical rehabilitation followed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using autologous hamstring tendon graft in terms of strength and cross sectional area (CSA) remain controversial. Objective- To analyze the CSA and force output of quadriceps and hamstring muscles in subjects following either an Objective Criteria-Based rehabilitation (OCBR) algorithm or the usual care (UCR) for ACL rehabilitation in Spain, before and one year after undergoing an ACLR. Design- Longitudinal clinical double blinded randomized controlled trial.

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Feb
2017

This study aimed to validate the use of a single blood lactate concentration measure taken following a 12 km h(-1) running stage (BLC12) to predict and monitor fixed blood lactate concentration (FBLC) thresholds. Three complementary studies were undertaken. Study I: the relationships between BLC12 and the running speeds at FBLC of 3 mmol L(-1) (S3mM) and 4 mmol L(-1) (S4mM) measured during a multistage running field test were examined in 136 elite athletes.

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Nov
2015

The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2) and carbon dioxide (FCO2) of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.

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Oct
2015

To compare the effects of 12-week training periods (2 d·wk) involving resistance training only with the effects of 12-week training periods involving combined resistance (once weekly) and endurance (once weekly) training on strength, endurance performance, and quality of life.
Thirty-six patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomized to combined training (REG), resistance training alone (RG), or control (CG) groups. Patients were tested for maximal strength of the upper and lower extremities, power output of the lower extremities, maximal (Wmax) and submaximal exercise capacity, performance on a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and quality of life.

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Sep
2015

Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations have been observed among female athletes who have sustained anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine if biomechanical jumping differences persist among a cohort of elite female handball players with previous ACL reconstruction several years after return to top-level competition. In order to achieve this goal, a direct mechanics simplified analysis by using a single Inertial Sensor Unit (IU) was used.

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Oct
2015

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the speed associated with 90% of maximal heart rate (S90%HRmax) could predict speeds at fixed blood lactate concentrations of 3 mmol·L(-1) (S3mM) and 4 mmol·L(-1) (S4mM). Professional team-sport players of futsal (n = 10), handball (n = 16), and basketball (n = 10) performed a 4-stage discontinuous progressive running test followed, if exhaustion was not previously achieved, by an additional maximal continuous incremental running test to attain maximal heart rate (HRmax). The individual S3mM, S4mM, and S90%HRmax were determined by linear interpolation.

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Nov
2014

This study investigated, in male professional players: (a) fluctuations in rating of local-muscular (sRPEmus) and central-respiratory (sRPEres) perceived exertion measured after the completion of each training and competitive session, over a 9-week competitive period and (b) the influence of quantitative assessment of different training and competition modes on changes in physical performance. sRPEres, sRPEmus, and heart rate were measured in 21 players in 847 individual training and competitive sessions. Training load was calculated by multiplying sRPEmus or sRPEres by the duration of the training or competition sessions.

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Oct
2014

To examine whether blood lactate and ammonia concentrations can be used to estimate the functional state of the muscle contractile machinery with regard to muscle lactate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels during leg press exercise. Thirteen men (age, 34 ± 5 years; 1 repetition maximum leg press strength 199 ± 33 kg) performed either 5 sets of 10 repetitions to failure (5×10RF), or 10 sets of 5 repetitions not to failure (10×5RNF) with the same initial load (10RM) and interset rests (2 minutes) on 2 separate sessions in random order. Capillary blood samples were obtained before and during exercise and recovery.

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Oct
2014

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect on strength gains of two isoinertial resistance training (RT) programmes that only differed in actual concentric velocity: maximal (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) velocity. Twenty participants were assigned to a MaxV (n = 9) or HalfV (n = 11) group and trained 3 times per week during 6 weeks using the bench press (BP).

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Jul
2012

This investigation examined the influence of the number of repetitions per set on power output and muscle metabolism during leg press exercise. Six trained men (age 34 ± 6 yr) randomly performed either 5 sets of 10 repetitions (10REP), or 10 sets of 5 repetitions (5REP) of bilateral leg press exercise, with the same initial load and rest intervals between sets. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before the first set, and after the first and the final sets.

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Mar
2013

This study compared physical characteristics in a 2003 national elite female team (NE; n = 16; fourth in the Spanish Championship) to the same team when it reached international level in 2009 (IE; n = 14; winner of the Spanish Championship and the European Handball Cup). Body height, body mass, body fat, and fat-free mass, 1-repetition maximum bench press (1RMBP), vertical jumping height, handball throwing velocity, power-load relationship of the leg and arm extensor muscles, 5- and 15-m sprint running time, and running endurance were measured in the second competitive mesocycle of a season. Results revealed that, compared with NE, IE players presented similar values in body mass, body height, sprint running time, handball throwing velocity, and jumping, but higher values (p < 0.

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Apr
2012

The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in peak power output, blood lactate concentrations and surface electromyographic activity (sEMG) of the agonist [vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM)] and the antagonist [biceps femoris (BF)] muscles at two angular positions intervals (90-67° and 23-0° of knee flexion), during a set of 10 repetitions leading to failure of bilateral leg press exercise. Fatiguing exercise resulted in increased blood lactate concentrations, the agonist mean rectified voltage (MRV) at 90-67° of flexion, the antagonist average MRV at 23-0° of flexion and the spectral parameter proposed by Dimitrov (FI(nsm5)) (P < 0.01-0.

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Oct
2010

Information about anaerobic energy production and mechanical efficiency that occurs over time during short-lasting maximal exercise is scarce and controversial. Bilateral leg press is an interesting muscle contraction model to estimate anaerobic energy production and mechanical efficiency during maximal exercise because it largely differs from the models used until now. This study examined the changes in muscle metabolite concentration and power output production during the first and the second half of a set of 10 repetitions to failure (10RM) of bilateral leg press exercise.

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Feb
2011

this study examined the effects of heavy resistance training on the relationships between power loss and surface EMG (sEMG) indices and blood metabolite concentrations on dynamic exercise-induced fatigue with the same relative load as in pretraining.
twelve trained subjects performed five sets consisting of 10 repetitions in the leg press, with 2 min of rest between sets before and after a strength training period. sEMG variables (the mean average voltage, the median spectral frequency, and the Dimitrov spectral index of muscle fatigue) from vastus medialis and lateralis muscles and metabolic responses (i.

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Jun
2010

The present study examined the effects of twice weekly total body strength training (ST), endurance cycling (ET), and combined ST and ET (2+2 times a week) (SET) training on the load carrying walking test performance on the treadmill (TM) and changes in neuromuscular and endurance performance during a 21-week training period in aging men. Forty healthy men (54.8+/-8.

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Apr
2010

This study described the effects of 6 typical high-intensity intermittent running training sessions of varying distances (60-300 m) and intensities (80-105% of the individual best 400-m record time) on blood ammonia and lactate concentration changes and on vertical jumping height, in twelve 400-m elite male runners. At the end of the training sessions, similar patterns of extremely high blood lactate (14-23 mmol.L) and ammonia levels (50-100 mumol.

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Mar
2010

Increased circulating adiponectin and insulin sensitivity are usually observed after body fat loss induced by a weight-loss diet. Progressive resistance training (PRT) without a concomitant weight-loss diet significantly decreases visceral fat, thus improving insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the effects of combined 16-week PRT and weight-loss diet on circulating adiponectin and insulin sensitivity index.

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Nov
2009

This study examined the effects of heavy resistance training on physiological acute exercise-induced fatigue (5 x 10 RM leg press) changes after two loading protocols with the same relative intensity (%) (5 x 10 RM(Rel)) and the same absolute load (kg) (5 x 10 RM(Abs)) as in pretraining in men (n = 12). Exercise-induced neuromuscular (maximal strength and muscle power output), acute cytokine and hormonal adaptations (i.e.

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Jul
2009

This study compared anthropometric (body height, body mass, percent body fat, fat-free body mass) and physical fitness characteristics (vertical jump height, power-load curve of the leg, 5 and 15 m sprint running time and blood lactate concentrations ([La](b)) at submaximal running velocities) among 15 elite male indoor soccer (IS) and 25 elite male outdoor soccer (OS) players. IS players had similar values in body height, body mass, fat-free body mass and endurance running than OS players. However, the IS group showed higher (P < 0.

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Feb
2008

This investigation compared the effects of a twice-weekly whole-body supervised progressive resistance training program in older men with type 2 diabetes with those in healthy older men. Twenty sedentary older men participated in a 16-week progressive resistance training study. They were assigned either to a control group (n=11) or to a type 2 diabetes group (n=9).

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Feb
2008

Sixteen elite female handball players were studied to examine the effects of an entire season on anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness, and throwing velocity.
One-repetition-maximum bench press (1RMBP), jumping explosive strength, power-load relationship of the leg and arm extensor muscles, 5- and 15-m sprint running time, endurance running, and handball throwing velocity were assessed in four periods. Individual volumes and intensities of training and competition were quantified for 11 activities.

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Aug
2007

This study examined the impact of 4 weeks of either complete cessation of training (DTR) or a tapering period (TAP; short-term reduction of the strength training volume, while the intensity is kept high), subsequent to 16 weeks of periodized heavy resistance training (PRT) on strength/power gains and the underlying physiologic changes in basal circulating anabolic/catabolic hormones in strength-trained athletes. Forty-six physically active men were matched and randomly assigned to a TAP (n = 11), DTR (n = 14), or control group (C; n = 21), subsequent to a 16-week PRT program. Muscular and power testing and blood draws to determine basal hormonal concentrations were conducted before the initiation of training (T0), after 16 weeks of training (T1), and after 4 weeks of either DTR or TAP (T2).

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Feb
2006

Fifteen elite male handball players were studied to examine the effects of an entire season of play on physical fitness and throwing velocity.
One repetition maximal bench press (1RMBP), jumping explosive strength, power-load relationship of the leg and arm extensor muscles, 5- and 15-m sprint running time, endurance running, and handball throwing velocity (standing and three-step running throw) were assessed on four times (T1, T2, T3, and T4), during a 45-wk season. Individual volumes and intensities of training and competition were quantified for 11 activities.

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Feb
2006

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 3 volumes of heavy resistance, average relative training intensity (expressed as a percentage of 1 repetition maximum that represented the absolute kilograms lifted divided by the number of repetitions performed) programs on maximal strength (1RM) in Snatch (Sn), Clean & Jerk (C&J), and Squat (Sq). Twenty-nine experienced (>3 years), trained junior weightlifters were randomly assigned into 1 of 3 groups: low-intensity group (LIG; n = 12), moderate-intensity group (MIG; n = 9), and high-intensity group (HIG; n = 8). All subjects trained for 10 weeks, 4-5 days a week, in a periodized routine using the same exercises and training volume (expressed as total number of repetitions performed at intensities equal to or greater than 60% of 1RM), but different programmed total repetitions at intensities of >90-100% of 1RM for the entire 10-week period: LIG (46 repetitions), MIG (93 repetitions), and HIG (184 repetitions).

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May
2006

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of 11 wk of resistance training to failure vs. nonfailure, followed by an identical 5-wk peaking period of maximal strength and power training for both groups as well as to examine the underlying physiological changes in basal circulating anabolic and catabolic hormones. Forty-two physically active men were matched and then randomly assigned to either a training to failure (RF; n = 14), nonfailure (NRF; n = 15), or control groups (C; n = 13).

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Aug
2005

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 3 resistance training volumes on maximal strength in the snatch (Sn), clean & jerk (C&J), and squat (Sq) exercises during a 10-week training period. Fifty-one experienced (>3 years), trained junior lifters were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a low-volume group (LVG, n = 16), a moderate-volume group (MVG, n = 17), and a high-volume group (HVG, n = 18). All subjects trained 4-5 days a week with a periodized routine using the same exercises and relative intensities but a different total number of sets and repetitions at each relative load: LVG (1,923 repetitions), MVG (2,481 repetitions), and HVG (3,030 repetitions).

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Mar
2005

To evaluate the influence of a twice-weekly progressive resistance training (PRT) program, without a concomitant weight loss diet, on abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity in older men with type 2 diabetes.
Nine older men (aged 66.6 +/- 3.

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May
2005

The effects of a 16-week training period (2 days per week) of resistance training alone (upper- and lower-body extremity exercises) (S), endurance training alone (cycling exercise) (E), or combined resistance (once weekly) and endurance (once weekly) training (SE) on muscle mass, maximal strength (1RM) and power of the leg and arm extensor muscles, maximal workload (W(max)) and submaximal blood lactate accumulation by using an incremental cycling test were examined in middle-aged men [S, n = 11, 43 (2) years; E, n = 10, 42 (2) years; SE, n = 10, 41 (3) years]. During the early phase of training (from week 0 to week 8), the increase 1RM leg strength was similar in both S (22%) and SE (24%) groups, while the increase at week 16 in S (45%) was larger (P < 0.05) than that recorded in SE (37%).

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May
2004

Maximal strength, power, muscle cross-sectional area, maximal and submaximal cycling endurance characteristics and serum hormone concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and cortisol were examined in three groups of men: weightlifters (n = 11), amateur road cyclists (n = 18) and age-matched controls (n = 12). Weightlifters showed 45-55% higher power values than road cyclists and controls, whereas the differences in maximal strength and muscle mass were only 15% and 20%, respectively. These differences were maintained when average power output was expressed relative to body mass or relative to muscle cross-sectional area.

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Mar
2004

To compare the effects of the 16-wk training period (2 d.wk(-1)) of resistance training alone (S), endurance training alone (E), or combined resistance (once weekly) and endurance (once weekly) training (SE) on muscle mass, maximal strength and power of the leg and arm extensor muscles, and maximal workload (Wmax) by using a incremental cycling test in older men.
Thirty-one healthy men (65-74 yr) were divided into three treatment groups to train 2x wk(-1) for 16 wk: S (N = 10), E (N = 11), or SE (N = 10; 1x wk(-1) S + 1x wk(-1) E).

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Feb
2003

Effects of a 16-week progressive strength-training program on blood lactate accumulation (LA), maximal workload (W(max)) attained during progressive cycling exercise, maximum half-squat (1RM(HS)), muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris muscle group (CSA(QF)), and serum hormone concentrations were examined in 11 middle-aged (46 year old [M46]) and 11 older (64 year old [M64]) men. During the 16 weeks of training, significant increases were observed in 1RM(HS) in M46 and M64 (41-45%; p < 0.001).

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Jul
2002

Maximal concentric one repetition maximum half-squat (1RM(HS)), bench-press (1RM(BP)), power-load curves during concentric actions with loads ranging from 30% to 100% of 1RM(HS) and 1RM(BP)were examined in 70 male subjects divided into five groups: weightlifters (WL, n=11), handball players (HP, n=19), amateur road cyclists (RC, n=18), middle-distance runners (MDR, n=10) and age-matched control subjects (C, n=12). The 1RM(HS)values in WL, HP and RC were 50%, 29% and 28% greater, respectively, ( P<0.001-0.

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Feb
2002

To determine the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation (20 g x d(-1) during 5 d) on maximal strength, muscle power production during repetitive high-power-output exercise bouts (MRPB), repeated running sprints, and endurance in handball players.
Nineteen trained male handball players were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either creatine (N = 9) or placebo (N = 10) group. Before and after supplementation, subjects performed one-repetition maximum half-squat (1RM(HS) and bench press (1RM(BP)), 2 sets of MRPB consisting of one set of 10 continuous repetitions (R10) followed by 1 set until exhaustion (R(max)), with exactly 2-min rest periods between each set, during bench-press and half-squat protocols with a resistance equal to 60 and 70% of the subjects' 1RM, respectively.

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